Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 21
  • Print publication year: 2012
  • Online publication date: December 2012

Chapter Seven - The importance of habitat heterogeneity at multiple scales for birds in European agricultural landscapes


Farmland throughout the world is frequently likened to a mosaic or patchwork and this heterogeneity is widely recognised as strongly influencing the abundance and diversity of species that these landscapes support. Globally, modern intensive agriculture has greatly reduced this ‘patchiness’ at a range of spatial and temporal scales. This change has been particularly well documented in temperate Europe (Benton et al., 2003; Báldi et al., 2005; Roschewitz et al., 2005; Wretenberg et al., 2006; Stoate et al., 2009). The fine-grained, diverse habitat mosaic, typical of much ‘traditional agriculture’, has become increasingly uniform under modern agricultural management. This reduction in habitat complexity has been linked, at least in part, to declines in farmland biodiversity, including plants and invertebrates (Smart et al., 2000; Sotherton and Self, 2000; Oliver et al., 2010), mammals (Smith et al., 2005) and birds (Donald et al., 2001a; Benton et al., 2003; Wilson et al., 2005).

In general, the more habitat elements a farmed landscape contains, the wider the range of resources on offer and the higher the diversity and abundance of organisms supported. This may be due, in part, simply to the increased likelihood of a given farmed landscape containing a key habitat type (Heikkinen et al., 2004). However, many species require a diversity of resources to complete their life cycle. At its most basic, birds require two essential resources: a suitable nest site and sufficient food throughout the year. These basic nesting and foraging requirements often vary within and between seasons. Bird-rich farmland should provide safe foraging habitats, offering abundant and accessible food in relatively close proximity to suitable cover for nesting and/or protection from predators or harsh weather. The extent to which farmland birds require a diverse landscape matrix, containing both density, number of chicks per nest and annual productivity compared to semi-natural and cultivated habitat components, is illustrated by many examples in the following sections.

Albrecht, M.Schmid, B.Obrist, M. K. 2010 Effects of ecological compensation meadows on arthropod diversity in adjacent intensively managed grasslandBiol. Conserv. 143 642
Anderson, G. Q. A.Gruar, D. J.Wilkinson, N.Field, R. H. 2002 Tree Sparrow chick diet and productivity in an expanding colonyAspects Appl. Biol. 67 35
Arlettaz, R.Krähenbühl, M.Almasi, B.Roulin, A.Schaub, M. 2010 Wildflower areas within revitalized agricultural matrices boost small mammal populations but not breeding Barn OwlsJ. Ornithol. 151 553
Arlettaz, R.Maurer, M. L.Mosimann-Kampe, P. 2012 New vineyard cultivation practices create patchy ground vegetation, favouring WoodlarksJ. Ornithol. 153 229
Arlettaz, R.Reichlin, T.Schaad, M.Schaub, M. 2010 Impact of weather and climate variation on Hoopoe reproductive ecology and population growthJ. Ornithol. 151 889
Arlettaz, R.Schaub, M.Fournier, J. 2010 From publications to public actions: when conservation biologists bridge the gap between research and implementationBioScience 60 835
Aschwanden, J.Birrer, S.Jenni, L. 2005 Are ecological compensation areas attractive hunting sites for common kestrels () and long-eared owls ()J. Ornithol. 146 279
Atauri, J. Lucio, J. V. 2001 The role of landscape structure in species richness distribution of birds, amphibians, reptiles and lepidopterans in Mediterranean landscapesLandscape Ecol. 16 147
Atkinson, P. W.Fuller, R. J.Vickery, J. A. 2002 Large-scale patterns of summer and winter bird distribution in relation to farmland type in England and WalesEcography 25 466
Atkinson, P. W.Fuller, R. J.Vickery, J. A. 2005 Influence of agricultural management, sward structure and food resources on grassland field use by birds in lowland EnglandJ. Appl. Ecol. 42 932
Avilés, J. M.Costillo, E. 1998 Selection of breeding habitats by the Roller () in farming areas of the southwest of the Iberian PeninsulaVogelwarte 39 242
Avilés, J. M.Sánchez, J. M.Parejo, D. 2000 Nest-site selection and breeding success in the Roller () in the southwest of the Iberian peninsulaJ. Ornithol. 141 345
Baines, D. 1990 The roles of predation, food and agricultural practice in determining the breeding success of the lapwing () on upland grasslandsJ. Anim. Ecol. 59 915
Báldi, A.Batáry, P.Erdős, S. 2005 Effects of grazing intensity on bird assemblages and populations of Hungarian grasslandsAgr. Ecosyst. Environ. 108 251
Barbaro, L.Couzi, L.Bretagnolle, V.Nezan, J.Vetillard, F. 2008 Multi-scale habitat selection and foraging ecology of the eurasian hoopoe () in pine plantationsBiodivers. Conserv. 17 1073
Batáry, P.Báldi, A.Erdős, S. 2007 Grassland versus non grassland bird abundance and diversity in managed grasslands: local, landscape and regional scale effectsBiodivers. Conserv. 16 871
Batáry, P.Báldi, A.Kleijn, D.Tscharntke, T. 2011 Landscape-moderated biodiversity effects of agri-environmental management: a meta-analysisProc. R. Soc. B 278 1894
Batáry, P.Fischer, J.Báldi, A.Crist, T. O.Tscharntke, T. 2011 Does habitat heterogeneity increase farmland biodiversityFront. Ecol. Environ. 9 152
Batáry, P.Matthiesen, T.Tscharntke, T. 2010 Landscape-moderated importance of hedges in conserving farmland bird diversity of organic vs. conventional croplands and grasslandsBiol. Conserv. 143 2020
Benton, T. G.Vickery, J. A.Wilson, J. D. 2003 Farmland biodiversity: is habitat heterogeneity the keyTrends Ecol. Evol. 18 182
Berg, Å. 2002 Composition and diversity of bird communities in Swedish farmland-forest mosaic landscapesBird Study 49 153
Berg, Å.Jonsson, M.Lindberg, T.Källebrink, K. G. 2002 Population dynamics and reproduction of Northern Lapwings in a meadow restoration area in central SwedenIbis 144 E131
Birrer, S.Spiess, M.Herzog, F. 2007 The Swiss agri-environment scheme promotes farmland birds: but only moderatelyJ. Ornithol. 148 S295
Bradbury, R. B.Bradter, U. 2004 Habitat associations of Yellow Wagtails on lowland wet grasslandIbis 146 241
Bradbury, R. B.Kirby, W. B. 2006 Farmland birds and resource protection in the UK: Cross-cutting solutions for multi-functional farmingBiol. Conserv. 129 530
Bradbury, R. B.Stoate, C. 2000 The ecology of Yellowhammers on lowland farmlandEcology and Conservation of Lowland Farmland BirdsAebischer, N. J.Evans, A. D.Grice, P. V.Vickery, J. A.165TringBOU
Brambilla, M.Casale, F.Bergero, V. 2009 GIS-models work well, but are not enough: Habitat preferences of at multiple lee levels and conservation implicationsBiol. Conserv. 142 2033
Brambilla, M.Casale, F.Bergero, V. 2010 Glorious past, uncertain present, bad future? Assessing effects of land-use changes on habitat suitability for a threatened farmland bird speciesBiol. Conserv. 143 2770
Brambilla, M.Guidali, F.Negri, I. 2008 The importance of an agricultural mosaic for Cirl Buntings in ItalyIbis 150 628
Brambilla, M.Guidali, F.Negri, I. 2009 Breeding-season habitat associations of the declining Corn Bunting – a potential indicator of the overall bunting richnessOrnis Fennica 86 41
Brambilla, M.Rubolini, D.Guidali, F. 2007 Between land abandonment and agricultural intensification: habitat preferences of Red-backed Shrikes in low-intensity farming conditionsBird Study 54 160
Bretagnolle, V.Villers, A.Denonfoux, L. 2011 Rapid recovery of a depleted population of Little Bustards following provision of alfalfa through an agri-environment schemeIbis 153 4
Brickle, N. W.Harper, D. G. C.Aebischer, N. J.Cockayne, S. H. 2000 Effects of agricultural intensification on the breeding success of corn buntings J. Appl. Ecol. 37 742
Britschgi, A.Spaar, R.Arlettaz, R. 2006 Impact of grassland farming intensification on the breeding ecology of an indicator insectivorous passerine, the Whinchat : lessons for overall Alpine meadowland managementBiol. Conserv. 130 193
Brotons, L.Wolff, A.Paulus, G.Martin, J. L. 2005 Effect of adjacent agricultural habitat on the distribution of passerines in natural grasslandsBiol. Conserv. 124 407
Browne, S. J.Aebischer, N. J.Yfantis, G.Marchant, J. H. 2004 Habitat availability and use by Turtle Doves between 1965 and 1995: an analysis of Common Birds Census dataBird Study 51 1
Buckingham, D. L. 2001 Within-field habitat selection by wintering skylarks in southwest EnglandThe Ecology and Conservation of SkylarksDonald, P. F.Vickery, J. A.149SandyRSPB
Buckingham, D. L.Atkinson, P. W.Rook, A. J. 2004 Testing solutions in grass-dominated landscapes: a review of current researchIbis 146 163
Buckingham, D. L.Peach, W. J.Fox, D. S. 2006 Effects of agricultural management on the use of lowland grassland by foraging birdsAgr. Ecosyst. Environ. 112 21
Butler, S. J.Vickery, J. A.Norris, K. 2007 Farmland biodiversity and the footprint of agricultureScience 315 381
Chamberlain, D.Gough, S.Anderson, G. 2009 Bird use of cultivated fallow Lapwing plots within English agri-environment schemesBird Study 56 289
Chamberlain, D. E.Vickery, J. A.Gough, S. 2000 Spatial and temporal distribution of breeding Skylarks in relation to crop type in periods of population increase and decreaseArdea 88 61
Chamberlain, D. E.Wilson, A. M.Browne, S. J.Vickery, J. A. 1999 Effects of habitat type and management on the abundance of skylarks in the breeding seasonJ. Appl. Ecol. 36 856
Concepcion, E. D.Diaz, M.Baquero, R. A. 2008 Effects of landscape complexity on the ecologial effectiveness of agri-environment schemesLandscape Ecol. 23 135
Cooke, I. R.Queenborough, S. A.Mattison, E. H. A. 2009 Integrating socio-economics and ecology: a taxonomy of quantitative methods and a review of their use in agro-ecologyJ. Appl. Ecol. 46 269
Coudrain, V.Arlettaz, R.Schaub, M. 2010 Food or nesting place? Identifying factors limiting Wryneck populationsJ. Ornithol. 151 867
Delgado, A.Moreira, F. 2000 Bird assemblages of an Iberian cereal steppeAgr. Ecosyst. Environ. 78 65
Devereux, C. L.McKeever, C. U.Benton, T. G.Whittingham, M J. 2004 The effect of sward height and drainage on Common Starlings and Northern Lapwings foraging in grassland habitatsIbis 146 115
Donald, P. F.Evans, A. D. 2006 Habitat connectivity and matrix restoration: the wider implications of agri-environment schemesJ. Appl. Ecol. 43 209
Donald, P. F.Evans, A. D.Buckingham, D. L.Muirhead, L. B.Wilson, J. D. 2001 Factors affecting the territory distribution of Skylarks breeding on lowland farmlandBird Study 48 271
Donald, P. F.Green, R. E.Heath, M. F. 2001 Agricultural intensification and the collapse of Europe’s farmland bird populationsProc. R. Soc. B 268 25
Douglas, D. J. T.Vickery, J. A.Benton, T. G. 2009 Improving the value of field margins as foraging habitat for farmland birdsJ. Appl. Ecol. 46 353
Drechsler, M.Wätzold, F.Johst, K.Bergmann, H.Settele, J. 2007 A model-based approach for designing cost-effective compensation payments for conservation of endangered species in real landscapesBiol. Conserv. 140 174
Erdös, S.Báldi, A.Batáry, P. 2009 Nest site selection and breeding ecology of Sky Larks in Hungarian farmlandBird Study 56 259
Evans, A. 1997 The importance of mixed farming for seed-eating birds in the UKFarming and Birds in Europe: The Common Agricultural Policy and its Implications for Bird ConservationPain, D. J.Pienkowski, M. W.331San DiegoAcademic Press
Evans, K. L. 2004 The potential for interactions between predation and habitat change to cause population declines of farmland birdsIbis 146 1
Evans, K. L.Bradbury, R. B.Wilson, J. D. 2003 Selection of hedgerows by Swallows foraging on farmland: the influence of local habitat and weatherBird Study 50 8
Fahrig, L.Baudry, K.Brotons, L. 2010 Functional landscape heterogeneity and animal biodiversity in agricultural landscapesEcol. Lett. 14 101
Field, R. H.Anderson, G. Q. A. 2004 Habitat use by breeding Tree Sparrows Ibis 146 60
Fischer, J.Jenny, M.Jenni, L. 2009 Suitability of patches and in-field strips for Sky Larks in a small-parcelled mixed farming areaBird Study 56 34
Franco, A. M. A.Catry, I.Sutherland, W. J.Palmeirim, J. M. 2004 Do different habitat preference survey methods produce the same conservation recommendations for lesser kestrelsAnim. Conserv. 7 291
Fuller, R. J.Chamberlain, D. E.Burton, N. H. K.Gough, S. J. 2001 Distributions of birds in lowland agricultural landscapes of England and Wales: how distinctive are bird communities of hedgerows and woodlandAgr. Ecosyst. Environ. 84 79
Fuller, R. JTrevelyan, R. J.Hudson, R. W. 1997 Landscape composition models for breeding bird populations in lowland English farmland over a 20 year periodEcography 20 295
Galbraith, H. 1988 Effects of agriculture on the breeding ecology of lapwings J. Appl. Ecol. 25 487
Gillings, S.Fuller, R. J.Sutherland, W. J. 2005 Diurnal studies do not predict nocturnal habitat choice and site selection of European Golden-Plovers () and Northern Lapwings ()Auk 122 1249
Gilroy, J. J.Anderson, G. Q. A.Grice, P. V. 2009 Foraging habitat selection, diet and nestling condition in Yellow Wagtails breeding on arable farmlandBird Study 56 221
Gilroy, J. J.Anderson, G. Q. A.Grice, P. V.Vickery, J. A.Sutherland, W. J. 2010 Mid-season shifts in the habitat associations of Yellow Wagtails breeding in arable farmlandIbis 152 90
Goławski, A.Dombrowski, A. 2002 Habitat use of Yellowhammers , Ortolan Buntings , and Corn Buntings in farmland of east-central PolandOrnis Fennica 79 164
Green, R. E. 1984 The feeding ecology and survival of partridge chicks ( and ) on arable farmland in East AngliaJ. Appl. Ecol. 21 817
Green, R. E.Tyler, G. A.Bowden, C. G. R. 2000 Habitat selection, ranging behaviour and diet of the Stone Curlew ( in southern EnglandJ. Zool. 250 161
Heikkinen, R. K.Luoto, M.Virkkala, R.Rainio, K. 2004 Effects of habitat cover, landscape structure and spatial variables on the abundance of birds in an agricultural–forest mosaicJ. Appl. Ecol. 41 824
Henderson, I. G.Cooper, J.Fuller, R. J.Vickery, J. 2000 The relative abundance of birds on set-aside and neighbouring fields in summerJ. Appl. Ecol. 37 335
Henderson, I. G.Critchley, N. R.Cooper, J.Fowbert, J. A. 2001 Breeding season responses of Skylarks to vegetation structure in set-aside (fallow arable land)Ibis 143 317
Henderson, I. G.Evans, A. D. 2000 Responses of farmland birds to set-aside and its managementEcology and Conservation of Lowland Farmland BirdsAebischer, N. J.Evans, A. D.Grice, P. V.Vickery, J. A.69TringBOU
Henderson, I. G.Vickery, J. A.Fuller, R. J. 2000 Summer bird abundance and distribution on set-aside fields on intensive arable farms in EnglandEcography 23 50
Hinsley, S. A.Bellamy, P. E. 2000 The influence of hedge structure, management and landscape context on the value of hedgerows to birds: a reviewJ. Environ. Manage. 60 33
Hoste-Danylow, A.Romanowski, J.Zmihorski, M. 2010 Effects of management on invertebrates and birds in extensively used grassland in PolandAgr. Ecosyst. Environ. 139 129
Jenny, M. 1990 Territorialität und Brutbiologie der Feldlerche in einer intensiv genutzten AgrarlandschaftJ. Ornithol. 131 241
Jenny, M.Weibel, U.Lugrin, B. 2002 Rebhuhn: Schlussbericht 1991–2000BernBUWAL
Jobin, B.Choinière, L.Bélanger, L. 2001 Bird use of three types of field margins in relation to intensive agriculture in Québec, CanadaAgr. Ecosyst. Environ. 84 131
Joyce, K. A.Holland, J. M.Doncaster, C. P. 1999 Influences of hedgerow intersections and gaps on the movement of carabid beetlesB. Entomol. Res. 89 523
Macdonald, D. W.Johnson, P. J. 1995 The relationship between bird distribution and the botanical and structural characteristics of hedgesJ. Appl. Ecol. 32 492
Martinez, N.Jenni, L.Wyss, E.Zbinden, N. 2010 Habitat structure versus food abundance: the importance of sparse vegetation for the common redstart J. Ornithol. 151 297
Maudsley, M. J. 2000 A review of the ecology and conservation of hedgerow invertebrates in BritainJ. Environ. Manage. 60 65
Menz, M. H. M.Brotons, L.Arlettaz, R. 2009 Habitat selection by Ortolan Buntings in post-fire succession in Catalonia: implications for the conservation of farmland populationsIbis 151 752
Menz, M. H. M.Mosimann-Kampe, P.Arlettaz, R. 2009 Foraging habitat selection in the last Ortolan Bunting population in Switzerland: final lessons before extinctionArdea 97 323
Mermod, M.Reichlin, T. S.Arlettaz, R.Schaub, M. 2009 The importance of ant-rich habitats for the persistence of the Wryneck on farmlandIbis 151 731
Moorcroft, D.Bradbury, R. B.Wilson, J. D. 1997 The diet of nestling Linnets before and after agricultural intensificationBiodiversity and Conservation in AgricultureKirkwood, R. C.923FarnhamBritish Crop Protection Council
Moorcroft, D.Whittingham, M. J.Bradbury, R. B.Wilson, J. D. 2002 The selection of stubble fields by wintering granivorous birds reflects vegetation cover and food abundanceJ. Appl. Ecol. 39 535
Morales, M. B.García, J. T.Arroyo, B. 2005 Can landscape composition changes predict spatial and annual variation of little bustard male abundanceAnim. Conserv. 8 167
Moreira, F.Beja, P.Morgado, R. 2005 Effects of field management and landscape context on grassland wintering birds in Southern PortugalAgr. Ecosyst. Environ. 109 59
Moreira, F.Morgado, R.Arthur, S. 2004 Great bustard habitat selection in relation to agricultural use in southern PortugalWildlife Biol. 10 251
Morris, A. J.Bradbury, R. B.Wilson, J. D. 2002 Determinants of patch selection by yellowhammers foraging in cereal cropsAspects Appl. Biol. 67 43
Morris, A. J.Gilroy, J. 2008 Close to the edge: predation risks for two declining farmland passerinesIbis 150 168
Morris, A. J.Holland, J. M.Smith, B.Jones, N. E. 2004 Sustainable Arable Farming For an Improved Environment (SAFFIE): managing winter wheat sward structure for Skylarks Ibis 146 155
Odderskær, P.Prang, A.Poulsen, J. G.Andersen, P. N.Elmegaard, N. 1997 Skylark () utilisation of micro-habitats in spring barley fieldsAgr. Ecosyst. Environ. 62 21
OFAG 2010 Rapport agricole 2010: résuméBerneOffice Fédéral de l’Agriculture; Département Fédéral de l’Economie
Oliver, T.Roy, D. BHill, J. K.Brereton, T.Thomas, C. D. 2010 Heterogeneous landscapes promote population stabilityEcol. Lett. 13 473
Panek, M. 1997 The effect of agricultural landscape structure on food resources and survival of grey partridge chicks in PolandJ. Appl. Ecol. 34 787
Panek, M.Kamieniarz, R. 1998 Agricultural landscape structure and density of grey partridge () populations in PolandGibier Faune Sauvage 15 309
Parish, T.Lakhani, K. H.Sparks, T. H. 1994 Modelling the relationship between bird population variables and hedgerow and other field margin attributes. I. Species richness of winter, summer and breeding birdsJ. Appl. Ecol. 31 764
Parish, T.Lakhani, K. H.Sparks, T. H. 1995 Modelling the relationship between bird population variables and hedgerow, and other field margin attributes. II. Abundance of individual species and of groups of similar speciesJ. Appl. Ecol. 32 362
Peach, W. J.Lovett, L. J.Wotton, S. R.Jeffs, C. 2001 Countryside stewardship delivers cirl buntings () in Devon, UKBiol. Conserv. 101 361
Perkins, A. J.Whittingham, M. J.Bradbury, R. B. 2000 Habitat characteristics affecting use of lowland agricultural grassland by birds in winterBiol. Conserv. 95 279
Petersen, B. S. 1998 The distribution of Danish farmland birds in relation to habitat characteristicsOrnis Fennica 75 105
Pickett, S. R. A.Siriwardena, G. M. 2011 The relationship between multi-scale habitat heterogeneity and farmland bird abundanceEcography 34 955
Pinto, M.Rocha, P.Moreira, F. 2005 Long-term trends in great bustard () populations in Portugal suggest concentration in single high quality areaBiol. Conserv. 124 415
Preiss, E.Martin, J. L.Debussche, M. 1997 Rural depopulation and recent landscape changes in a Mediterranean region: Consequences to the breeding avifaunaLandscape Ecol. 12 51
Rand, T. A.Tylianakis, J. M.Tscharntke, T. 2006 Spillover edge effects: the dispersal of agriculturally subsidized insect natural enemies into adjacent natural habitatsEcol. Lett. 9 603
Rands, M. R. W. 1985 Pesticide use on cereals and the survival of grey partridge chicks: a field experimentJ. Appl. Ecol. 22 49
Rands, M. R. W. 1986 Effect of hedgerow characteristics on partridge breeding densitiesJ. Appl. Ecol. 23 479
Rands, M. R. W.Sotherton, N. W. 1987 The management of field margins for the conservation of gamebirdsField MarginsWay, J. M.Greig-Smith, P. W.95LondonBritish Crop Protection Council
Reif, J.Vorisek, P.Stastny, K.Bejcek, V.Peter, J. 2008 Agricultural intensification and farmland birds: new insights from a Central European countryIbis 150 596
Revaz, E.Schaub, M.Arlettaz, R. 2008 Foraging ecology and reproductive biology of the Stonechat : comparison between a revitalized, intensively cultivated and a historical, traditionally cultivated agro-ecosystemJ. Ornithol. 149 301
Robinson, R. A.Wilson, J. D.Crick, H. Q. P. 2001 The importance of arable habitat for farmland birds in grassland landscapesJ. Appl. Ecol. 38 1059
Roschewitz, I.Thies, C.Tscharntke, T. 2005 Are landscape complexity and farm specialisation related to land-use intensity of annual crop fieldsAgr. Ecosyst. Environ. 105 87
Roskaft, E.Moksnes, A.Stokke, B. G.Moskat, C.Honza, M. 2002 The spatial habitat structure of host populations explains the pattern of rejection behaviour in hosts and parasitic adaptations in cuckoosBehav. Ecol. 13 163
Salamolard, M.Moreau, C. 1999 Habitat selection by Little Bustard in a cultivated area of FranceBird Study 46 25
Sánchez-Zapata, J. A.Calvo, J. F. 1999 Raptor distribution in relation to landscape composition in semi-arid Mediterranean habitatsJ. Appl. Ecol. 36 254
Schaub, M. 1996 Jagdverhalten und Zeitbudget von Rotkopfwürgern () in der NordwestschweizJ. Ornithol. 137 213
Schaub, M.Martinez, N.Tagmann-Ioset, A. 2010 Patches of bare ground as a staple commodity for declining insectivorous farmland birdsPLoS ONE 5 e13115
Schläpfer, A. 1988 Populationsökologie der Feldlerche in der intensiv genutzten AgrarlandschaftOrnithol. Beob. 85 309
Schön, M. 1999 Zur Bedeutung von Kleinstrukturen im Ackerland: Bevorzugt die Feldlerche () Störstellen mit KümmerwuchsJ. Ornithol. 140 87
Sheldon, R. 2002 Lapwings in Britain – a new approach to their conservationBrit. Wildlife 14 109
Sheldon, R.Bolton, M.Gillings, S.Wilson, A. 2004 Conservation management of Lapwing on lowland arable farmland in the UKIbis 146 41
Sheldon, R. D.Chaney, K.Tyler, G. A. 2005 Factors affecting nest-site choice by Northern Lapwing within arable fields: the importance of crop structureWader Study Group Bull. 108 47
Sierro, A.Arlettaz, R. 2003 L’avifaune du vignoble en Valais central: évaluation de la diversité à l’aide de transectsNos Oiseaux 50 89
Sierro, A.Frey Iseli, M.Graf, R. 2009 Banalisation de l’avifaune du paysage agricole sur trois surfaces témoins du Valais (1988–2006)Nos Oiseaux 56 129
Siriwardena, G. M.Calbrade, N. A.Vickery, J. A.Sutherland, W. J. 2006 The effect of the spatial distribution of winter seed food resources on their use by farmland birdsJ. Appl. Ecol. 43 628
Siriwardena, G. M.Crick, H. Q. P.Baillie, S. R.Wilson, J. D. 2000 Agricultural land-use and the spatial distribution of granivorous lowland farmland birdsEcography 23 702
Siriwardena, G. M.Stevens, D. K.Anderson, G. Q. A. 2007 The effect of supplementary winter seed food on breeding populations of farmland birds: evidence from two large-scale experimentsJ. Appl. Ecol. 44 920
Smart, S. M.Firbank, L. G.Bunce, R. G. H.Watkins, J. W. 2000 Quantifying changes in abundance of food plants for butterfly larvae and farmland birdsJ. Appl. Ecol. 37 398
Smith, R. K.Vaughan Jennings, N.Harris, S. 2005 A quantitative analysis of the abundance and demography of European hares in relation to habitat type, intensity of agriculture and climateMammal Rev. 35 1
Snow, B. K.Snow, D. W. 1988 Birds and BerriesCaltonPoyser
Söderström, B.Pärt, T. 2000 Influence of landscape scale on farmland birds breeding in semi-natural pasturesConserv. Biol. 14 522
Sotherton, N. W.Self, M. J. 2000 Changes in plant and arthropod biodiversity on lowland farmland: an overviewEcology and Conservation of Lowland Farmland BirdsAebischer, N. J.Evans, A. D.Grice, P. V.Vickery, J. A.26TringBOU
Stoate, C.Báldi, A.Beja, P.Boatman, N. D. 2009 Ecological impacts of early 21st century agricultural change in Europe – a reviewJ. Environ. Manage. 91 22
Stoate, C.Moreby, S. J.Szczur, J. 1998 Breeding ecology of farmland Yellowhammers Bird Study 45 109
Tagmann-Ioset, A.Schaub, M.Reichlin, T. S.Weisshaupt, N.Arlettaz, R. 2012 Bare ground as a crucial habitat feature for a rare terrestrially foraging farmland bird of central EuropeActa Oecol. 39 25
Tallowin, J. R. B.Smith, R. E. N.Goodyear, J.Vickery, J. A. 2005 Spatial and structural uniformity of lowland agricultural grassland in England: a context for low biodiversityGrass Forage Sci. 60 225
Toepfer, S.Stubbe, M. 2001 Territory density of the Skylark () in relation to field vegetation in central GermanyJ. Ornithol. 142 184
Tome, R.Valkama, J. 2001 Seasonal variation in the abundance and habitat use of Barn Owls on lowland farmlandOrnis Fennica 78 109
Tscharntke, T.Klein, A. M.Kruess, A.Steffan-Dewenter, I.Thies, C. 2005 Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity – ecosystem service managementEcol. Lett. 8 857
Valkama, J.Korpimäki, E.Tolonen, P. 1995 Habitat utilization, diet and reproductive success in the Kestrel in a temporally and spatially heterogeneous environmentOrnis Fennica 72 49
Vargas, J. M.Guerrero, J. C.Farfán, M. A.Barbosa, A. M.Real, R. 2006 Land use and environmental factors affecting red-legged partridge () hunting yields in southern SpainEur. J. Wildlife Res. 52 188
Vepsäläinen, V.Pakkala, T.Piha, M.Tiainen, J. 2005 Population crash of the ortolan bunting in agricultural landscapes of southern FinlandAnn. Zool. Fenn. 42 91
Verhulst, J.Báldi, A.Kleijn, D. 2004 Relationship between land-use intensity and species richness and abundance of birds in HungaryAgr. Ecosyst. Environ. 104 465
Vickery, J.Carter, N.Fuller, R. J. 2002 The potential value of managed cereal field margins as foraging habitats for farmland birds in the UKAgr. Ecosyst. Environ. 89 41
Vickery, J. A.Feber, R. E.Fuller, R. J. 2009 Arable field margins managed for biodiversity conservation: a review of food resource provision for farmland birdsAgr. Ecosyst. Environ. 133 1
Vickery, J. A.Tallowin, J. R.Feber, R. E. 2001 The management of lowland neutral grasslands in Britain: effects of agricultural practices on birds and their food resourcesJ. Appl. Ecol. 38 647
Wakeham-Dawson, A.Aebischer, N. J. 1998 Factors determining winter densities of birds on Environmentally Sensitive Area arable reversion grassland in southern England, with special reference to skylarks ()Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 70 189
Weibel, U.Jenny, M.Zbinden, N.Edwards, P. J. 2001 Territory size of skylarks on arable farmland in Switzerland in relation to habitat quality and managementThe Ecology and Conservation of SkylarksDonald, P. F.Vickery, J. A.177SandyRSPB
Weisshaupt, N.Arlettaz, R.Reichlin, T. S.Tagmann-Ioset, A.Schaub, M. 2011 Habitat selection by foraging wrynecks during the breeding season: identifying the optimal habitat profileBird Study 58 111
Whittingham, M. J.Devereux, C. L.Evans, A. D.Bradbury, R. B. 2006 Altering perceived predation risk and food availability: management prescriptions to benefit farmland birds on stubble fieldsJ. Appl. Ecol. 43 640
Whittingham, M. J.Markland, H. M. 2002 The influence of substrate on the functional response of an avian granivore and its implications for farmland bird conservationOecologia 130 637
Wiens, J. A. 1989 Spatial scaling in ecologyFunct. Ecol. 3 385
Wilson, A. M.Vickery, J. A.Browne, S. J. 2001 Numbers and distribution of Northern Lapwings breeding in England and Wales in 1998Bird Study 48 2
Wilson, J. D.Evans, J.Browne, S. J.King, J. R. 1997 Territory distribution and breeding success of skylarks on organic and intensive farmland in southern EnglandJ. Appl. Ecol. 34 1462
Wilson, J. D.Evans, A. D.Grice, P. V. 2009 Bird Conservation and AgricultureCambridgeCambridge University Press
Wilson, J. D.Taylor, R.Muirhead, L. B. 1996 Field use by farmland birds in winter: an analysis of field type preferences using resampling methodsBird Study 43 320
Wilson, J. D.Whittingham, M. J.Bradbury, R. B. 2005 The management of crop structure: a general approach to reversing the impacts of agricultural intensification on birdsIbis 147 453
Winqvist, C.Bengtsson, J.Aavik, T. 2011 Mixed effects of organic farming and landscape complexity on farmland biodiversity and biological control potential across EuropeJ. Appl. Ecol. 48 570
Wirtitsch, M.Hoi, H.Valera, F.Kristin, A. 2001 Habitat composition and use in the lesser grey shrike Folia Zool. 50 137
Wolff, A.Dieuleveut, T.Martin, J. L.Bretagnolle, V. 2002 Landscape context and little bustard abundance in a fragmented steppe: implications for reserve management in mosaic landscapesBiol. Conserv. 107 211
Wolff, A.Paul, J. P.Martin, J. L.Bretagnolle, V. 2001 The benefits of extensive agriculture to birds: the case of the little bustardJ. Appl. Ecol. 38 963
Woodhouse, S. P.Good, J. E. G.Lovett, A. A.Fuller, R. J.Dolman, P. M. 2005 Effects of land-use and agricultural management on birds of marginal farmland: a case study in the Llŷn peninsula, WalesAgr. Ecosyst. Environ. 107 331
Wotton, S. R.Rylands, K.Grice, P.Smallshire, D.Gregory, R. 2004 The status of the Cirl Bunting in the United Kingdom and Channel Islands in 2003Brit. Birds 97 376
Wretenberg, J.Lindström, Å.Svensson, S.Thierfelder, T.Pärt, T. 2006 Population trends of farmland birds in Sweden and England: similar trends but different patterns of agricultural intensificationJ. Appl. Ecol. 43 1110