Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: May 2013

25 - Latent inhibition

from Section 5 - Learning and memory
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse
  • Online ISBN: 9781139541022
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *


Abel, T. and Kandel, E. (1998) Positive and negative regulatory mechanisms that mediate long-term memory storage. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 26: 360–378.
Abel, T., Nguyen, P.V., Barad, M., Deuel, T.A., Kandel, E.R., and Bourtchouladze, R. (1997) Genetic demonstration of a role for PKA in the late phase of LTP and in hippocampus-based long-term memory. Cell 88: 615–626.
Ackil, J.K., Carman, H.M., Bakner, L., and Riccio, D.C. (1992) Reinstatement of latent inhibition following a reminder treatment in a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Behav Neural Biol 58: 232–235.
Aguado, L., San Antonio, A., Perez, L., del Valle, R., and Gomez, J. (1994) Effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine on flavor memory: conditioned aversion, latent inhibition, and habituation of neophobia. Behav Neural Biol 61: 271–281.
Amieva, H., Phillips, L.H., Della, S.S., and Henry, J.D. (2004) Inhibitory functioning in Alzheimer's disease. Brain 127: 949–964.
Archer, T., Mohammed, A.K., and Jarbe, T.U. (1983) Latent inhibition following systemic DSP4: effects due to presence and absence of contextual cues in taste-aversion learning. Behav Neural Biol 38: 287–306.
Baarendse, P.J.J., van Grootheest, G., Jansen, R.F., Pieneman, A.W., Ögren, S.O., Verhage, M., et al. (2008) Differential involvement of the dorsal hippocampus in passive avoidance in C57bl/6J and DBA/2J mice. Hippocampus 18: 11–19.
Bakner, L., Strohen, K., Nordeen, M., and Riccio, D.C. (1991) Postconditioning recovery from the latent inhibition effect in conditioned taste aversion. Physiol and Behav 50: 1269–1272.
Bakshi, V.P. and Geyer, M.A. (1998) Multiple limbic regions mediate the disruption of prepulse inhibition produced in rats by the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist dizocilpine. J Neurosci 18: 8394–8401.
Baron-Cohen, S. and Belmonte, M.K. (2005) Autism: a window onto the development of the social and the analytic brain. Annu Rev Neurosci 28: 109–126.
Baruch, I., Hemsley, D.R., and Gray, J.A. (1988) Differential performance of acute and chronic schizophrenics in a latent inhibition task. J Nerv Ment Dis 176: 598–606.
Baudry, M. and Lynch, G. (2001) Remembrance of arguments past: how well is the glutamate receptor hypothesis of LTP holding up after 20 years? Neurobiol Learn Mem 76: 284–297.
Baxter, M.G., Holland, P.C., and Gallagher, M. (1997) Disruption of decrements in conditioned stimulus processing by selective removal of hippocampal cholinergic input. J Neurosci 17: 5230–5236.
Berman, D.E., Hazvi, S., Neduva, V., and Dudai, Y. (2000) The role of identified neurotransmitter systems in the response of insular cortex to unfamiliar taste: activation of ERK1–2 and formation of a memory trace. J Neurosci 20: 7017–7023.
Blum, S., Moore, A.N., Adams, F., and Dash, P.K. (1999) A mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in the CA1/CA2 subfield of the dorsal hippocampus is essential for long-term spatial memory. J Neurosci 19: 3535–3544.
Bouton, M.E. (1993) Context, time, and memory retrieval in the interference paradigms of Pavlovian learning. Psychol Bull 114: 80–99.
Bouton, M.E. (2004) Context and behavioral processes in extinction. Learn Mem 11: 485–494.
Caldarone, B.J., Duman, C.H., and Picciotto, M.R. (2000) Fear conditioning and latent inhibition in mice lacking the high affinity subclass of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain. Neuropharm 39: 2779–2784.
Chetkovich, D.M., Gray, R., Johnston, D., and Sweatt, J.D. (1991) N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation increases cAMP levels and voltage-gated Ca2+ channel activity in area CA1 of hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 6467–6471.
Chiba, A.A., Bucci, D.J., Holland, P.C., and Gallagher, M. (1995) Basal forebrain cholinergic lesions disrupt increments but not decrements in conditioned stimulus processing. J Neurosci 15: 7315–7322.
Clark, A.J., Feldon, J., and Rawlins, J.N. (1992) Aspiration lesions of rat ventral hippocampus disinhibit responding in conditioned suppression or extinction, but spare latent inhibition and the partial reinforcement extinction effect. Neurosci 48: 821–829.
Clark, L. and Goodwin, G.M. (2004) State- and trait-related deficits in sustained attention in bipolar disorder. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 254: 61–68.
Conti, L.H., Palmer, A.A., Vanella, J.J., and Printz, M.P. (2001) Latent inhibition and conditioning in rat strains which show differential prepulse inhibition. Behav Genet 31: 325–333.
Coutureau, E., Blundell, P.J., and Killcross, S. (2001) Basolateral amygdala lesions disrupt latent inhibitionin rats. Brain Res Bull 56: 49–53.
Coutureau, E., Galani, R., Gosselin, O., Majchrzak, M., and Di Scala, G. (1999) Entorhinal but not hippocampal or subicular lesions disrupt latent inhibition in rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem 72: 143–157.
Coutureau, E., Lena, I., Dauge, V., and Di, S.G. (2002) The entorhinal cortex-nucleus accumbens pathway and latent inhibition: a behavioral and neurochemical study in rats. Behav Neurosci 116: 95–104.
Crowell, C.R. and Anderson, D.C. (1972) Variations in intensity, interstimulus interval, and interval between preconditioning CS exposures and conditioning with rats. J Comp Physiol Psychol 79: 291–298.
Davis, J.A. and Gould, T.J. (2005) Rolipram attenuates MK-801-induced deficits in latent inhibition. Behav Neurosci 119: 595–602.
Davis, S., Vanhoutte, P., Pages, C., Caboche, J., and Laroche, S. (2000) The MAPK/ERK cascade targets both Elk-1 and cAMP response element-binding protein to control long-term potentiation-dependent gene expression in the dentate gyrus in vivo. J Neurosci 20: 4563–4572.
de Bruin, N., Mahieu, M., Patel, T., Willems, R., Lesage, A., and Megens, A. (2006) Performance of F2 B6x129 hybrid mice in the Morris water maze, latent inhibition and prepulse inhibition paradigms: comparison with C57Bl/6J and 129sv inbred mice. Behav Brain Res 172: 122–134.
Dougherty, K.D., Salat, D., and Walsh, T.J. (1996) Intraseptal injection of the cholinergic immunotoxin 192-IgG saporin fails to disrupt latent inhibition in a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Brain Res 736: 260–269.
Eichenbaum, H. (1999) The hippocampus and mechanisms of declarative memory. Behav Brain Res 103: 123–133.
Ellenbroek, B.A., Geyer, M.A., and Cools, A.R. (1995) The behavior of APO-SUS rats in animal models with construct validity for schizophrenia. J Neurosci 15: 7604–7611.
Ellison, G. (1995) The N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists phencyclidine, ketamine and dizocilpine as both behavioral and anatomical models of the dementias. Brain Res Rev 20: 250–267.
Evrard, A., Laporte, A.M., Chastanet, M., Hen, R., Hamon, M., and Adrien, J. (1999) 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors control the firing of serotoninergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus of the mouse: studies in 5-HT1B knock-out mice. Eur J Neurosci 11: 3823–3831.
Feldon, J. and Weiner, I. (1991) The latent inhibition model of schizophrenic attention disorder. Haloperidol and sulpiride enhance rats’ ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli. Biol Psychiatry 29: 635–646.
Gaisler-Salomon, I. and Weiner, I. (2003) Systemic administration of MK-801 produces an abnormally persistent latent inhibition which is reversed by clozapine but not haloperidol. Psychopharm 166: 333–342.
Gal, G., Schiller, D., and Weiner, I. (2005) Latent inhibition is disrupted by nucleus accumbens shell lesion but is abnormally persistent following entire nucleus accumbens lesion: The neural site controlling the expression and disruption of the stimulus preexposure effect. Behav Brain Res 162: 246–255.
Gallo, M., Bielavska, E., Roldan, G., and Bures, J. (1998) Tetrodotoxin inactivation of the gustatory cortex disrupts the effect of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist ketamine on latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion in rats. Neurosci Lett 240: 61–64.
Gallo, M. and Candido, A. (1995) Dorsal hippocampal lesions impair blocking but not latent inhibition of taste aversion learning in rats. Behav Neurosci 109: 413–425.
Gould, T.J., Collins, A.C., and Wehner, J.M. (2001) Nicotine enhances latent inhibition and ameliorates ethanol-induced deficits in latent inhibition. Nicotine Tob Res 3: 17–24.
Gould, T.J. and Lewis, M.C. (2005) Coantagonism of glutamate receptors and nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptors disrupts fear conditioning and latent inhibition of fear conditioning. Learn Mem 12: 389–398.
Gould, T.J. and Wehner, J.M. (1999) Genetic influences on latent inhibition in mice. Behav Neurosci 113: 1291–1296.
Gray, N.S., Pilowsky, L.S., Gray, J.A., and Kerwin, R.W. (1995) Latent inhibition in drug naive schizophrenics: relationship to duration of illness and dopamine D2 binding using SPET. Schizophr Res 17: 95–107.
Hall, G. and Channell, S. (1985) Differential effects of contextual change on latent inhibition and on the habituation of an orienting response. J Exper Psychol Anim Behav Process 11: 470–481.
Hall, G. and Minor, H. (1985) A search for context-stimulus associations in latent inhibition. Q J Exp Psychol B 36: 145–169.
Han, J.S., Gallagher, M., and Holland, P. (1995) Hippocampal lesions disrupt decrements but not increments in conditioned stimulus processing. J Neurosci 15: 7323–7329.
Hitchcock, J.M., Lister, S., Fischer, T.R., and Wettstein, J.G. (1997) Disruption of latent inhibition in the rat by the 5-HT2 agonist DOI: effects of MDL 100,907, clozapine, risperidone and haloperidol. Behav Brain Res 88: 43–49.
Holland, P.C. and Gallagher, M. (1993) Amygdala central nucleus lesions disrupt increments, but not decrements, in conditioned stimulus processing. Behav Neurosci 107: 246–253.
Holt, W. and Maren, S. (1999) Muscimol inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus impairs contextual retrieval of fear memory. J Neurosci 19: 9054–9062.
Honey, R.C. and Good, M. (1993) Selective hippocampal lesions abolish the contextual specificity of latent inhibition and conditioning. Behav Neurosci 107: 23–33.
Joel, D., Weiner, I., and Feldon, J. (1997) Electrolytic lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex in rats disrupt performance on an analog of the Wisconsin card sorting test, but do not disrupt latent inhibition: implications for animal models of schizophrenia. Behav Brain Res 85: 187–201.
Joseph, M.H., Peters, S.L., and Gray, J.A. (1993) Nicotine blocks latent inhibition in rats – evidence for a critical role of increased functional-activity of dopamine in the mesollimbic system at conditioning rather than preexposure. Psychopharm 110: 187–192.
Kalat, J.W. and Rozin, P. (1973) “Learned safety” as a mechanism in long-delay taste-aversion learning in rats. J Comp Physiol Psychol 83: 198–207.
Kaplan, O., Dar, R., Rosenthal, L., Hermesh, H., Fux, M., and Lubow, R.E. (2006) Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients display enhanced latent inhibition on a visual search task. Behav Res Ther 44: 1137–1145.
Kasprow, W.J., Catterson, D., Schachtman, T.R., and Miller, R.R. (1984) Attenuation of latent inhibition by post-acquisition reminder. Q J Exp Psychol B 36: 53–63.
Kaye, H. and Pearce, J.M. (1987) Hippocampal lesions attenuate latent inhibition of CS and a neutral stimulus. Psychobiol 15: 293–299.
Killcross, A.S., Stanhope, K.J., Dourish, C.T., and Piras, G. (1997) WAY100635 and latent inhibition in the rat: selective effects at preexposure. Behav Brain Res 88: 51–57.
Kline, L., Decena, E., Hitzemann, R., and McCaughran, J., Jr. (1998) Acoustic startle, prepulse inhibition, locomotion, and latent inhibition in the neuroleptic-responsive (NR) and neuroleptic-nonresponsive (NNR) lines of mice. Psychopharm 139: 322–331.
Lacroix, L., Broersen, L.M., Weiner, I., and Feldon, J. (1998) The effects of excitotoxic lesion of the medial prefrontal cortex on latent inhibition, prepulse inhibition, food hoarding, elevated plus maze, active avoidance and locomotor activity in the rat. Neuroscience 84: 431–442.
Lacroix, L., Spinelli, S., White, W., and Feldon, J. (2000) The effects of ibotenic acid lesions of the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex on latent inhibition, prepulse inhibition and amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion. Neurosci 97: 459–468.
Lewis, M.C., Davis, J.A., and Gould, T.J. (2004) Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase disrupts latent inhibition of cued fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice. Behav Neurosci 118: 1444–1449.
Lewis, M.C. and Gould, T.J. (2004) Latent inhibition of cued fear conditioning: an NMDA receptor-dependent process that can be established in the presence of anisomycin. Eur J Neurosci 20: 818–826.
Lewis, M.C. and Gould, T.J. (2007a) Reversible inactivation of the entorhinal cortex disrupts the establishment and expression of latent inhibition of cued fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice. Hippocampus 17: 462–470.
Lewis, M.C. and Gould, T.J. (2007b) Signal transduction mechanisms within the entorhinal cortex that support latent inhibition of cued fear conditioning. Neurobiol Learn Mem 88: 359–368.
Lipina, T., Labrie, V., Weiner, I., and Roder, J. (2005) Modulators of the glycine site on NMDA receptors, D-serine and ALX 5407, display similar beneficial effects to clozapine in mouse models of schizophrenia. Psychopharm 179: 54–67.
Lisman, J. (2003) Long-term potentiation: outstanding questions and attempted synthesis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358: 829–842.
Logue, S.F., Paylor R., and Wehner J.M. (1997) Hippocampal lesions cause learning deficits in inbred mice in the Morris water maze and conditioned-fear task. Behav Neurosci 111: 104–113.
Lorden, J.F., Rickert, E.J., and Berry, D.W. (1983) Forebrain monoamines and associative learning: I. Latent inhibition and conditioned inhibition. Behav Brain Res 9: 181–199.
Loskutova, L.V. (2001) The effects of a serotoninergic substrate of the nucleus accumbens on latent inhibition. Neurosci Behav Physiol 31: 15–20.
Loskutova, L.V., Luk'yanenko, F.Y., and Il'yuchenok, R.Y. (1990) Interaction of serotonin- and dopaminergic systems of the brain in mechanisms of latent inhibition in rats. Neurosci Behav Physiol 20: 500–505.
Lovibond, P.F., Preston, G.C., and Mackintosh, N.J. (1984) Context specificity of conditioning, extinction, and latent inhibition. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 10: 360–375.
Lubow, R.E. (1973) Latent inhibition. Psychol Bull 79: 398–407.
Lubow, R.E. (1989) Latent Inhibition and Conditional Attention Theory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Lubow, R.E. and Gewirtz, J.C. (1995) Latent inhibition in humans: data, theory, and implications for schizophrenia. Psychol Bull 117: 87–103.
Lubow, R.E. and Josman, Z.E. (1993) Latent inhibition deficits in hyperactive children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 34: 959–973.
Lubow, R.E. and Kaplan, O. (2005) The visual search analogue of latent inhibition: implications for theories of irrelevant stimulus processing in normal and schizophrenic groups. Psychon Bull Rev 12: 224–243.
Lubow, R.E. and Moore, A. (1959) Latent inhibition: the effect of nonreinforced pre-exposure to the conditional stimulus. J Comp Physiol Psychol 52: 415–419.
Lynch, G. and Baudry, M. (1984) The biochemistry of memory: a new and specific hypothesis. Science 224: 1057–1063.
McDonald, L.M., Moran, P.M., Vythelingum, G.N., Joseph, M.H., Stephenson, J.D., and Gray, J.A. (2003) Enhancement of latent inhibition by two 5-HT2A receptor antagonists only when given at both pre-exposure and conditioning. Psychopharm 169: 321–331.
Mcintosh, S.M. and Tarpy, R.M. (1977) Retention of latent inhibition in a taste-aversion paradigm. Bull Psychon Soc 9: 411–412.
Meyer, U., Chang, D.L., Feldon, J., and Yee, B.K. (2004) Expression of the CS- and US-pre-exposure effects in the conditioned taste aversion paradigm and their abolition following systemic amphetamine treatment in C57BL6/J mice. Neuropsychopharm 29: 2140–2148.
Muller, J. and Roberts, J.E. (2005) Memory and attention in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review. J Anxiety Disord 19: 1–28.
Murphy, C.A., Pezze, M., Feldon, J., and Heidbreder, C. (2000) Differential involvement of dopamine in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens in the expression of latent inhibition to an aversively conditioned stimulus. Neurosci 97: 469–477.
Nicholson, D.A. and Freeman, J.H., Jr. (2002) Medial dorsal thalamic lesions impair blocking and latent inhibition of the conditioned eyeblink response in rats. Behav Neurosci 116: 276–285.
Oswald, C.J., Yee, B.K., Rawlins, J.N., Bannerman, D.B., Good, M., and Honey, R.C. (2002) The influence of selective lesions to components of the hippocampal system on the orientating response, habituation and latent inhibition. Eur J Neurosci 15: 1983–1990.
Pantelis, C., Harvey, C.A., Plant, G., Fossey, E., Maruff, P., Stuart, G.W., et al. (2004) Relationship of behavioural and symptomatic syndromes in schizophrenia to spatial working memory and attentional set-shifting ability. Psychol Med 34: 693–703.
Paylor, R., Baskall-Baldini, L., Yuva, L., and Wehner, J.M. (1996) Developmental differences in place-learning performance between C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice parallel the ontogeny of hippocampal protein kinase C. Behav Neurosci 110: 1415–1425.
Paylor, R., Tracy, R., Wehner, J.M., and Rudy, J.W. (1994) DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mice differ in contextual fear but not auditory fear conditioning. Behav Neurosci 108: 810–817.
Perkinton, M.S., Sihra, T.S., and Williams, R.J. (1999) Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors induce phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade in neurons. J Neurosci 19: 5861–5874.
Pouzet, B., Zhang, W.N., Weiner, I., Feldon, J., and Yee, B.K. (2004) Latent inhibition is spared by n-methyl–aspartate (nmda)-induced ventral hippocampal lesions, but is attenuated following local activation of the ventral hippocampus by intracerebral nmda infusion. Neurosci 124: 183–194.
Quinlan, E.M. and Halpain, S. (1996) Emergence of activity-dependent, bidirectional control of microtubule-associated protein MAP2 phosphorylation during postnatal development. J Neurosci 16: 7627–7637.
Rescorla, R.A. (1971) Summation and retardation tests of latent inhibition. J Comp Physiol Psychol 75: 77–81.
Restivo, L., Passino, E., Middei, S., and Ammassari-Teule, M. (2002) The strain-specific involvement of nucleus accumbens in latent inhibition might depend on differences in processing configural- and cue-based information between C57BL/6 and DBA mice. Brain Res Bull 57: 35–39.
Riedel, G., Platt, B., and Micheau, J. (2003) Glutamate receptor function in learning and memory. Behav Brain Res 140: 1–47.
Roberson, E.D., English, J.D., Adams, J.P., Selcher, J.C., Kondratick, C., and Sweatt, J.D. (1999) The mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade couples PKA and PKC to cAMP response element binding protein phosphorylation in area CA1 of hippocampus. J Neurosci 19: 4337–4348.
Rochford, J., Sen, A.P., and Quirion, R. (1996a) Effect of nicotine and nicotinic receptor agonists on latent inhibition in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 277: 1267–1275.
Rochford, J., Sen, A.P., Rousse, I., and Welner, S.A. (1996b) The effect of quisqualic acid-induced lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis on latent inhibition. Brain Res Bull 41: 313–317.
Rossi-Arnaud, C., Fagioli, S., and Ammassari-Teule, M. (1991) Spatial learning in two inbred strains of mice: genotype-dependent effect of amygdaloid and hippocampal lesions. Behav Brain Res 45: 9–16.
Rudy, J.W. and Sutherland, R.J. (1995) Configural association theory and the hippocampal formation: an appraisal and reconfiguration. Hippocampus 5: 375–389.
Ruob, C., Weiner, I., and Feldon, J. (1998) Haloperidol-induced potentiation of latent inhibition: interaction with parameters of conditioning. Behav Pharm 9: 245–253.
Russig, H., Kovacevic, A., Murphy, C.A., and Feldon, J. (2003) Haloperidol and clozapine antagonise amphetamine-induced disruption of latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion. Psychopharm 170: 263–270.
Schafe, G.E., Atkins, C.M., Swank, M.W., Bauer, E.P., Sweatt, J.D., and Ledoux, J.E. (2000) Activation of ERK/MAP kinase in the amygdala is required for memory consolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning. J Neurosci 20: 8177–8187.
Schauz, C. and Koch, M. (1999) Lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis do not impair prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition of fear-potentiated startle in the rat. Brain Res 815: 98–105.
Schauz, C. and Koch, M. (2000) Blockade of NMDA receptors in the amygdala prevents latent inhibition of fear-conditioning. Learn Mem 7: 393–399.
Schiller, D. and Weiner, I. (2004) Lesions to the basolateral amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex but not to the medial prefrontal cortex produce an abnormally persistent latent inhibition in rats. Neurosci 128: 15–25.
Schiller, D. and Weiner, I. (2005) Basolateral amygdala lesions in the rat produce an abnormally persistent latent inhibition with weak preexposure but not with context shift. Behav Brain Res 163: 115–121.
Schiller, D., Zuckerman, L., and Weiner, I. (2006) Abnormally persistent latent inhibition induced by lesions to the nucleus accumbens core, basolateral amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex is reversed by clozapine but not by haloperidol. J Psychiatric Res 40: 167–177.
Schmajuk, N.A., Lam, Y.W., and Christiansen, B.A. (1994) Latent inhibition of the rat eyeblink response: effect of hippocampal aspiration lesions. Physiol Behav 55: 597–601.
Schnur, P. and Lubow, R.E. (1976) Latent inhibition: the effects of ITI and CS intensity during preexposure. Learn Motiv 7: 540–550.
Seillier, A., Dieu, Y., Herbeaux, K., Di Scala, G., Will, B., and Majchrzak, M. (2007) Evidence for a critical role of entorhinal cortex at pre-exposure for latent inhibition disruption in rats. Hippocampus 17: 220–226.
Selcher, J.C., Atkins, C.M., Trzaskos, J.M., Paylor, R., and Sweatt, J.D. (1999) A necessity for MAP kinase activation in mammalian spatial learning. Learn Mem 6: 478–490.
Selcher, J.C., Weeber, E.J., Varga, A.W., Sweatt, J.D., and Swank, M. (2002) Protein kinase signal transduction cascades in mammalian associative conditioning. Neuroscientist 8: 122–131.
Shohamy, D., Allen, M.T., and Gluck, M.A. (2000) Dissociating entorhinal and hippocampal involvement in latent inhibition. Behav Neurosci 114: 867–874.
Solomon, P.R., Kiney, C.A., and Scott, D.R. (1978) Disruption of latent inhibition following systemic administration of parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA). Physiol Behav 20: 265–271.
Solomon, P.R. and Moore, J.W. (1975) Latent inhibition and stimulus generalization of the classically conditioned nictitating membrane response in rabbits (Orcytolagus cuniculus) following dorsal hippocampal ablation. J Comp Physiol Psychol 89: 1192–1203.
Solomon, P.R., Nichols, G.L., Kiernan, J.M., III, Kamer, R.S., and Kaplan, L.J. (1980) Differential effects of lesions in medial and dorsal raphe of the rat: latent inhibition and septohippocampal serotonin levels. J Comp Physiol Psychol 94: 145–154.
Solomon, P.R. and Staton, D.M. (1982) Differential effects of microinjections of d-amphetamine into the nucleus accumbens or the caudate putamen on the rat's ability to ignore an irrelevant stimulus. Biol Psychiatry 17: 743–756.
Swartzentruber, D. and Bouton, M.E. (1986) Contextual control of negative transfer produced by prior CS-US pairings. Learn Motiv 17: 366–385.
Swerdlow, N.R., Hartston, H.J., and Hartman, P.L. (1999) Enhanced visual latent inhibition in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 45: 482–488.
Swerdlow, N.R., Stephany, N., Wasserman, L.C., Talledo, J., Sharp, R., and Auerbach, P.P. (2003) Dopamine agonists disrupt visual latent inhibition in normal males using a within-subject paradigm. Psychopharm 169: 314–320.
Szapiro, G., Vianna, M.R., McGaugh, J.L., Medina, J.H., and Izquierdo, I. (2003) The role of NMDA glutamate receptors, PKA, MAPK, and CAMKII in the hippocampus in extinction of conditioned fear. Hippocampus 13: 53–58.
Tai, C.T., Cassaday, H., Feldon, J., and Rawlins, J.N.P. (1995) Both electrolytic and excitotoxic lesions of nucleus accumbens disrupt latent inhibition of learning in rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem 64: 36–48.
Talk, A., Stoll, E., and Gabriel, M. (2005) Cingulate cortical coding of context-dependent latent inhibition. Behav Neurosci 119: 1524–1532.
Thornton, J.C., Dawe, S., Lee, C., Capstick, C., Corr, P.J., Cotter, P., et al. (1996) Effects of nicotine and amphetamine on latent inhibition in human subjects. Psychopharm 127: 164–173.
Traverso, L.M., Ruiz, G., and De la Casa, L.G. (2003) Latent inhibition disruption by MK-801 in a conditioned taste-aversion paradigm. Neurobiol Learn Mem 80: 140–146.
Trimble, K.M., Bell, R., and King, D.J. (1997) Enhancement of latent inhibition in the rat by the atypical antipsychotic agent remoxipride. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 56: 809–816.
Tsaltas, E., Preston, G.C., Rawlins, J.N., Winocur, G., and Gray, J.A. (1984) Dorsal bundle lesions do not affect latent inhibition of conditioned suppression. Psychopharm 84: 549–555.
Tyson, P.J., Laws, K.R., Roberts, K.H., and Mortimer, A.M. (2004) Stability of set-shifting and planning abilities in patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 129: 229–239.
Vaitl, D. and Lipp, O.V. (1997) Latent inhibition and autonomic responses: a psychophysiological approach. Behav Brain Res 88: 85–93.
Vossler, M.R., Yao, H., York, R.D., Pan, M.G., Rim, C.S., and Stork, P.J. (1997) cAMP activates MAP kinase and Elk-1 through a B-Raf- and Rap1-dependent pathway. Cell 89: 73–82.
Waltereit, R. (2003) Signaling from cAMP/PKA to MAPK and synaptic plasticity. Mol Neurobiol 27: 99–106.
Walz, R., Rockenbach, I.C., Amaral, O.B., Quevedo, J., and Roesler, R. (1999) MAPK and memory. Trends Neurosci 22: 495.
Warburton, E.C., Joseph, M.H., Feldon, J., Weiner, I., and Gray, J.A. (1994) Antagonism of amphetamine-induced disruption of latent inhibition in rats by haloperidol and ondansetron – implications for a possible antipsychotic action of ondansetron. Psychopharm 114: 657–664.
Weiner, I. (1990) Neural substrates of latent inhibition: the switching model. Psychol Bull 108: 442–461.
Weiner, I. (2003) The “two-headed” latent inhibition model of schizophrenia: modeling positive and negative symptoms and their treatment. Psychopharm 169: 257–297.
Weiner, I. and Feldon, J. (1992) Phencyclidine does not disrupt latent inhibition in rats: implications for animal models of schizophrenia. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 42: 625–631.
Weiner, I., Shadach, E., Tarrasch, R., Kidron, R., and Feldon, J. (1996a) The latent inhibition model of schizophrenia: further validation using the atypical neuroleptic, clozapine. Biol Psychiatry 40: 834–843.
Weiner, I., Tarrasch, R., and Feldon, J. (1996b) Basolateral amygdala lesions do not disrupt latent inhibition. Behav Brain Res 72: 73–81.
Weiss, I.C., Domeney, A.M., Moreau, J.L., Russig, H., and Feldon J. (2001) Dissociation between the effects of pre-weaning and/or post-weaning social isolation on prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition in adult Sprague–Dawley rats. Behav Brain Res 121: 207–218.
Willcutt, E.G., Doyle, A.E., Nigg, J.T., Faraone, S.V., and Pennington, B.F. (2005) Validity of the executive function theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review. Biol Psychiatry 57: 1336–1346.
Wright, D.C., Skala, K.D., and Peuser, K.A. (1986) Latent inhibition from context-dependent retrieval of conflicting information. Bull Psychon Soc 24: 152–154.
Wright, I.K., Garratt, J.C., and Marsden, C.A. (1990) Effects of a selective 5-HT2 agonist, DOI, on 5-HT neuronal firing in the dorsal raphe nucleus and 5-HT release and metabolism in the frontal cortex. Br J Pharmacol 99: 221–222.
Yee, B.K., Feldon, J., and Rawlins, J.N. (1997) Cytotoxic lesions of the retrohippocampal region attenuate latent inhibition but spare the partial reinforcement extinction effect. Exp Brain Res 115: 247–256.