1. , , , et al. Oxygen therapy in hemorrhagic shock. Circ Shock 1991; 33: 183–91.
2. , , , et al. Timing of femur fracture fixation: effect on outcome in patients with thoracic and head injuries. J Trauma 2002; 52: 299–307.
3. , . Damage control surgery and intensive care. Injury 2004; 35: 713–22.
4. , , , et al. Supranormal trauma resuscitation causes more cases of abdominal compartment syndrome. Arch Surg 2003; 138: 637–42.
5. , , , et al. Hypothermic coagulopathy in trauma: effect of varying levels of hypothermia on enzyme speed, platelet function, and fibrinolytic activity. J Trauma 1998; 44: 846–54.
6. , , , et al. The effects of mild perioperative hypothermia on blood loss and transfusion requirement. Anesthesiology 2008; 108: 71–7.
7. , , , et al. Perioperative maintenance of normothermia reduces the incidence of morbid cardiac events: a randomised clinical trial. JAMA 1997: 227: 1127–43.
8. , , , et al. Postoperative hypothermia and patient outcomes after major elective non-cardiac surgery. Anaesthesia 2013; 68: 605–11.
9. , , , et al. Active warming, not passive heat retention, maintains normothermia during combined epidural–general anesthesia for hip and knee arthroplasty. J Clin Anesth 1997; 9: 482–6.
10. , , , et al. Respiratory muscle contribution to lactic acidosis in low cardiac output. Am Rev Resp Dis 1982: 126: 648–52.
11. , , , et al. Anaesthesia in hemodynamically compromised emergency patients: does ketamine represent the best choice of induction agent?Anaesthesia 2009; 64: 532–9.
12. , . A prospective evaluation of “ketofol” (ketamine/propofol combination) for procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 2007; 49: 23–30.
13. , . Recall of surgery for major trauma. Anesthesiology 1984; 61: 6–9.
14. , . Influence of anesthetic agent on survival following hemorrhage. Anesthesiology 1976; 45: 516–21.
15. , , , et al. Ketamine-based total intravenous anesthesia versus isoflurane anesthesia in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma 2008; 65: 901–8.
16. . Influence of ketamine anesthesia on cardiac output and tissue perfusion in rats subjected to hemorrhage. Anesthesiology 1981; 55: 297–304.
17. , , , et al. The influence of hemorrhagic shock on propofol: a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis. Anesthesiology 2003; 99: 409–20.
18. , , , et al. The influence of hemorrhagic shock on etomidate: a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis. Anesth Analg 2003; 96: 1360–8.
19. , , , et al. Influence of hemorrhagic shock on remifentanil: a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis. Anesthesiology 2001; 94: 322–32.
20. , , , et al. Ketamine anaesthesia in a patient with septic shock. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1992; 36: 483–5.
21. , , , et al. Comparison of halothane, isoflurane, alfentanil and ketamine in experimental septic shock. Anesth Analg 1990; 70: 608–17.
22. , , , et al. Ketamine isomers suppress superantigen-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in human whole blood. Can J Anaesth 2001; 48: 819–23.
23. , , , et al. Low-dose ketamine affects immune responses in humans during the early postoperative period. Br J Anaesth 2007; 99: 522–7.
24. , , , et al. Effects of propofol on hemodynamic and inflammatory responses to endotoxemia in rats. Crit Care Med 2000; 28: 1101–6.
25. , , , et al. Propofol improves endothelial dysfunction and attenuates vascular superoxide production in septic rats. Crit Care Med 2006; 34: 453–60.
26. , , , et al. Sevoflurane pretreatment inhibits endotoxin-induced shock in rats. Anesth Analg 2005; 101: 1152–6.
27. , , , et al. Etomidate versus ketamine for rapid sequence intubation in acutely ill patients: a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2009; 374: 293–300.
28. , , , et al. Rapid sequence induction in the emergency department: induction drug and outcome of patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Emerg Med J 2009; 26: 576–9.
29. , , . Induction drug and outcome of patients admitted to the intensive care unit after emergency laparotomy. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2010; 27: 481–5.
30. , , , et al. Inotropic effects of propofol, thiopental, midazolam, etomidate, and ketamine on isolated human atrial muscle. Anesthesiology 1996; 84: 397–403.
31. , , , et al. Activation of alpha 2B-adrenoceptors mediates the cardiovascular effects of etomidate. Anesthesiology 2003: 99; 889–95.
32. , . Pro: etomidate is the ideal induction agent for a cardiac anesthetic. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2013; 1: 180–3.
33. , , . Prehospital rapid sequence induction by emergency physicians: is it safe?Emerg Med J 2001; 18: 20–4.
34. , , . Duration of adrenal inhibition following a single dose of etomidate in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 2008; 34: 714–19.
35. , , , et al. One single dose of etomidate negatively influences adrenocortical performance for at least 24 h in children with meningococcal sepsis. Intensive Care Med 2008; 34: 163–8.
36. , . Etomidate for emergency anaesthesia; mad, bad and dangerous to know?Anaesthesia 2005; 60: 737–40.
37. . ICU physicians should abandon the use of etomidate!Intensive Care Med 2005; 31: 325–6.
38. , , , et al. Etomidate versus etomidate and hydrocortisone for anaesthesia induction in abdominal surgical interventions. Anaesthetist 1988; 37: 576–82.
39. , , , et al. The effects of etomidate on adrenal responsiveness and mortality in patients with septic shock. Intensive Care Med 2009; 35: 1868–76.
40. , . Effect of induction agent on vasopressor and steroid use, and outcome in patients with septic shock. Crit Care 2007; 11: R56.
41. , , , et al. Corticosteroid after etomidate in critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial. Crit Care Med 2012; 40: 29–35.
42. , , , et al. Outcomes of etomidate in severe sepsis and septic shock. Chest 2010; 138: 1327–32.
43. , , , et al. Etomidate use in severe sepsis and septic shock patients does not contribute to mortality. Intern Emerg Med 2011; 6: 253–7.
44. , , . Does etomidate increase vasopressor requirements in patients needing mechanical ventilation?Can J Hosp Pharm 2012; 65: 272–6.
45. , , . Etomidate is associated with mortality and adrenal insufficiency in sepsis: a meta-analysis. Crit Care Med 2012; 40: 2945–53.
46. , , , et al. Single-dose etomidate is not associated with increased mortality in ICU patients with sepsis: analysis of a large electronic ICU database. Crit Care Med 2013; 41: 774–83.
47. , , , et al. A comparative evaluation of the neurotoxic properties of ketamine and nitrous oxide. Brain Res. 2001; 895: 264–7.
48. , , , et al. Nitrous oxide-induced increased homocysteine concentrations are associated with increased postoperative myocardial ischemia in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Anesth Analg 2000; 91: 1073–9.
49. , , , et al. Effect of nitrous oxide on plasma homocysteine and folate in patients undergoing major surgery. Br J Anaesth 2008; 100: 780–6.
50. , , , et al. Effect of nitrous oxide anesthesia on plasma homocysteine and endothelial function. Anesthesiology 2008; 109: 657–63.
51. , , , et al. Inflammatory response to nitrous oxide in the central nervous system. Brain Res 2008; 1246: 88–95.
52. , , , et al. Avoidance of nitrous oxide for patients undergoing major surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Anesthesiology 2007; 107: 221–31.
53. , , , et al. Nitrous oxide and long-term morbidity and mortality in the ENIGMA trial. Anesth Analg 2011; 112: 387–93.
54. , . Monitoring operative risk in the elderly. JAMA 1980; 297: 845–50.
55. , , , et al. Systolic pressure variation as a guide to fluid therapy in patients with sepsis-induced hypotension. Anesthesiology 1998; 89: 1313–21.
56. , , , et al. Automated pulse pressure and stroke volume variations from radial artery: evaluation during major abdominal surgery. Br J Anaesth 2009; 103: 678–84.
57. , , , et al. Evaluation of stroke volume variation obtained by arterial pulse contour analysis to predict fluid responsiveness intraoperatively. Br J Anaesth 2009; 103: 346–51.
58. , , , et al. Assessment of the clinical effectiveness of pulmonary artery catheters in management of patients in intensive care (PAC-Man): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005; 366: 472–7.
59. . Practice guidelines for pulmonary artery catheterization: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Pulmonary Artery Catheterization. Anesthesiology 2003; 99: 988–1014.
60. , , . Perioperative hemodynamic monitoring with transesophageal Doppler technology. Anesth Analg 2009; 109: 340–53.
61. , , , et al. Assessment of fluid-responsiveness parameters for off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: a comparison among LiDCO, transesophageal echochardiography, and pulmonary artery catheter. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2008; 22: 243–8.
62. , , , et al. Impact of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography during noncardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2006; 20: 768–71.
63. , , , et al. Accreditation in transoesophageal echocardiography in the UK: the initial experience. Br J Anaesth 2012; 109: 487–90.
64. , , , et al. The impact of intra-operative transoesophageal echocardiography on cardiac surgical practice. Anaesthesia 2009; 64: 947–52.
65. , , , et al. Pulmonary artery catheterization in critically ill patients: a prospective analysis of outcome changes associated with catheter-prompted changes in therapy. Crit Care Med 1994; 22: 573–9.
66. . Practice guidelines for perioperative transesophageal echocardiography. An updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists Task Force on Transesophageal Echocardiography. Anesthesiology 2010; 112: 1084–96.
67. . Boldt: the great pretender. BMJ 2013; 346: f1738.
68. , , , et al. Effects of fluid resuscitation with synthetic colloids or crystalloids alone on shock reversal, fluid balance, and patient outcomes in patients with severe sepsis: a prospective sequential analysis. Crit Care Med 2012; 40: 2543–51.
69. , , , et al. Hydroxyethyl starch or saline for fluid resuscitation in intensive care. N Engl J Med 2012; 367: 1901–11.
70. , , , et al. Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 versus Ringer’s acetate in severe sepsis. N Engl J Med 2012; 367: 124–34.
71. , , , et al. Association of hydroxyethyl starch administration with mortality and acute kidney injury in critically ill patients requiring volume resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2013; 309: 678–88.
72. , , , et al. Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.38–0.45 versus crystalloid or albumin in patients with sepsis: systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. BMJ 2013; 346: f839.
73. , , . Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 2: CD000567.
74. , , , et al. Safety of modern starches used during surgery. Anesth Analg 2013; 113: 35–48.
75. , . Hydroxyethyl starch: here today, gone tomorrow. Br J Anaesth 2013; 111: 321–4.
76. , , , et al. The effects of balanced versus saline-based hetastarch and crystalloid solutions on acid-base and electrolyte status and gastric mucosal perfusion in elderly surgical patients. Anesth Analg 2001; 93: 811–16.
77. , , , et al. Normal saline versus lactated Ringer’s solution for intraoperative fluid management in patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: an outcome study. Anesth Analg 2001; 93: 817–22.
78. , , , et al. Hyperchloremia after noncardiac surgery is independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality: a propensity-matched cohort study. Anesth Analg 2013; 117: 412–21.
79. , , , et al. Association between a chloride-liberal vs chloride-restrictive intravenous fluid administration strategy and kidney injury in critically ill adults. JAMA 2012; 308: 1566–72.
80. IV, . Should “normal” saline be our usual choice in normal surgical patients?Anesth Analg 2013; 117: 290–1.
81. , . Perioperative plasma volume expansion reduces the incidence of gut mucosal hypoperfusion during cardiac surgery. Arch Surg 1995: 130: 423–9.
82. , , , et al. Goal-directed intraoperative fluid administration reduces length of hospital stay after major surgery. Anesthesiology 2002; 97: 820–6.
83. , , , et al. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1368–77.
84. , , , et al. Changes in central venous saturation after major surgery, and association with outcome. Crit Care 2005; 9: R694–9.
85. , , , et al. Immediate versus delayed fluid resuscitation for hypotensive patients with penetrating torso injuries. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 1105–9.