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  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: October 2009

SECTION IV - Specialist Managed Pain

REFERENCES

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5. Holte K, Kehlet H. Postoperative ileus: progress towards effective management. Drugs. 2002;62:2603–2615.
6. Behm BW, Stollman NH. Postoperative Ileus: etiologies and interventions. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003;1:71–80.
7. Bauer AJ, Schwartz NT, Moore BA, Turler A, Kalff JC. Ileus in critical illness: mechanisms and management. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2002;8:152–157.
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9. Bauer AJ, Boeckxstaens GE. Mechanisms of postoperative ileus. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2004;16(suppl 2):54–60.
10. Cali RL, Meade PG, Swanson MS. Freeman C. Effect of morphine and incision length in bowel function after colectomy. Dis Colon Rectum. 2000;43:163–168.
11. Abraham NS, Young JM, Solomon MJ. Meta-analysis of short-term outcomes After laparoscopic resection for colorectal cancer. Br J Surg. 2004;91:1111–1124.
12. Ogilvy AJ, Smith G. The gastrointestinal tracts after anesthesia. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1995;10(suppl):35–42.
13. Moraca RJ, Sheldon DG, Thirlby RC. The role of epidural anesthesia and analgesia in surgical practice. Ann Surg. 2003;238:663–673.
14. Steinbrook RA. Epidural anesthesia and gastrointestinal motility. Anesth Analg. 1998;86:837–844.
15. Liu S, Carpenter RL, Neal JM. Epidural anesthesia and analgesia: their role in postoperative outcome. Anesthesiology. 1995;82:1474–1506.
16. Ryan P, Schweitzer SA, Woods RJ. Effect of epidural and general anaesthesia compared with general anaesthesia alone in large bowel anastomoses: a prospective study. Eur J Surg. 1992;158:45–49.
17. Holte K, Kehlet H. Postoperative ileus: a preventable event. Br J Surg. 2000;87:1480–1493.
18. Baig MK, Wexner SD. Postoperative ileus: a review. Dis Colon Rectum. 2004;47:516–526.
19. Soybel DI, Zinner MJ. Ileus and the macrophage. Ann Surg. 2003;237:316–318.
20. Ferraz AA, Cowles VE, Condon RE, et al. Nonopioid analgesics shorten the duration of postoperative ileus. Am Surg. 1995;61:1079–1083.
21. Grass JA, Sakima NT, Valley M, et al. Assessment of ketorolac as an adjuvant to fentanyl patient-controlled epidural analgesia after radical retropubic prostatectomy. Anesthesiology 1993;78:642–648.
22. Sinatra RS, Boice J, Loeys TL, et al: Evaluation of perioperative rofecoxib treatment on pain control and clinical outcome in patients recovering from gynecologic abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005;31;134–142.
23. Azodo IA, Ehrenpreis ED. Alvimopan (Adolor/GlaxoSmithKline). Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2002;3:1496–1501.
24. Schmidt WK. Alvimopan (ADL 8-2698) is a novel peripheral opioid antagonist. Am J Surg. 2001;182(suppl 5A):27S–38S.
25. Taguchi A, Sharma A, Saleem RM, et al. Selective postoperative inhibition of gastrointestinal opioid receptors. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:935–940.
26. Wolff BG, Michelassi F, Gerkin TM, et al. Alvimopan Postoperative Ileus Study Group. Alvimopan, a novel, peripherally acting mu opioid antagonist: results of a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial of major abdominal surgery and postoperative ileus. Ann Surg. 2004;240:728–735.
27. Delaney CP, Weese JL, Hyman NH, et al. Alvimopan Postoperative Study Group. Phase III trial of alvimopan, a novel, peripherally acting, mu opioid antagonist, for postoperative ileus after major abdominal surgery. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:1114–1125.

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2. Johnston CC, Gagnon AJ, Fullerton L, et al. One-week survey of pain intensity on admission to and discharge from the emergency department: a pilot study. J Emerg Med. 1998;16:377–382.
3. Tanabe P. Buschmann M. A prospective study of ED pain management practices and the patient's perspective. J Emerg Nurs. 1999;25:171–177.
4. Paice J, Cohen F. Validity of a verbally administered numeric rating scale to measure cancer pain intensity. Cancer Nurs. 1997;20:88–93.
5. Farrar JT, Cleary J, Rauck R, et al. Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate: randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial for treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90:611.
6. Breyer JE, Knott CB. Construct validity estimation for the African-American and Hispanic versions of the Oucher Scale. J Pediatr Nurs. 1998;13:20–31.
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8. Shannon MM, Ryan MA, D’Agostino N, et al. Assessment of pain in advanced cancer patients. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1995;10:274–278.
9. Ramer L, Richardson JL, Zichi Cohen M, et al. Multimeasure pain assessment in an ethnically diverse group of patients with cancer. J Trans Nurs. 1999;10:94–101.
10. Todd KH. Pain assessment instruments for use in the emergency department. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2005;23(2):285–295.
11. Stahmer SA, Shofer FS, Marino A, Shepherd S, Abbuhl S. Do quantitative changes in pain intensity correlate with pain relief and satisfaction. Acad Emerg Med. 1998;5:851–857.
12. Todd KH, Ducharme J, Choiniere M, et al. Pain in the emergency department: results of the Pain and Emergency Medicine Initiative (PEMI) multicenter study. J Pain. 2007;8(6):460–466.
13. Gureje O, Von Korff M, Simon GE, et al. Persistent pain and well-being: a World Health Organization study in primary care. JAMA. 1998;280:147–151.
14. Anderson FA Jr, Spencer FA. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism. Circulation. 2003;107(23 suppl 1):I9–I16.
15. Furrow BR. Pain management and provider liability: no more excuses. J Law Med Ethics. 2001;29:28–51.
16. Wilson JE, Pendleton JM. Oligoanalgesia in the emergency department. Am J Emerg Med. 1989;7:620–623.
17. Stalnikowicz R, Mahamid R, Kaspi S, et al. Undertreatment of acute pain in the emergency department: a challenge. Int J Qual Health Care. 2005;17(2):173–176.
18. Pines JM, Perron AD. Oligoanalgesia in ED patients with isolated extremity injury without documented fracture. Am J Emerg Med. 2005;23(4):580.
19. Neighbor ML, Honner M, Kohn MD. Factors affecting emergency department opioid administration to severely injured patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2004;11(12):1290–1296.
20.Fosnocht DE, Swanson ER, Barton ED. Changing attitudes about pain and pain control in emergency medicine. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2005;23(2):297–306.
21. Rupp T, Delaney KA. Inadequate analgesia in emergency medicine. Ann Emerg Med. 2004;43(4):494–503.
22. Jones JS, Johnson K, McNinch M. Age as a risk factor for inadequate emergency department analgesia. Am J Emerg Med. 1996;14(2):157–160.
23. Friedland LR, Kulick RM. Emergency department analgesic use in pediatric trauma victims with fractures. Ann Emerg Med. 1994;23(2):203–207.
24. Selbst SM. Managing pain in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1989;5(1):56–63.
25. Todd KH, Samaroo N, Hoffman JR. Ethnicity as a risk factor for inadequate emergency department analgesia. JAMA. 1993;269(12):1537–1539.
26. Todd, KH, Deaton C, D’Adamo AP, et al. Ethnicity and analgesic practice. Ann Emerg Med. 2000;35(1):11–16.
27. Miner J, Biros MH, Trainor A, et al. Patient and physician perceptions as risk factors for oligoanalgesia: a prospective observational study of the relief of pain in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13(2):140–146.
28. Pfefferbaum B, Adams J, Aceves J. The influence of culture on pain in Anglo and Hispanic children with cancer. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1990;29(4):642–647.
29. Greenwald, HP. Interethnic differences in pain perception. Pain. 1991;44(2):157–163.
30. Tait RC, Chibnall JT. Physician judgments of chronic pain patients. Soc Sci Med. 1997;45(8):1199–1205.
31. Cooper-Patrick L, Gallo JJ, Gonzales JJ, et al. Race, gender, and partnership in the patient-physician relationship. JAMA. 1999;282(6):583–589.
32. Tamayo-Sarver JH, Dawson NV, Hinze SW, et al. The effect of race/ethnicity and desirable social characteristics on physicians’ decisions to prescribe opioid analgesics. Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10(11):1239–1248.
33. Bartfield JM, Salluzzo RF, Raccio-Robak N, et al. Physician and patient factors influencing the treatment of low back pain. Pain. 1997;73(2):209–211.
34. Todd KH, Sloan EP, Chen C, et al. Survey of pain etiology, management, and satisfaction in two urban emergency departments. Can J Emerg Med. 2002;4(4):252–256.
35. Zohar Z, Eitan A, Halperin P, et al. Pain relief in major trauma patients: an Israeli perspective. J Trauma. 2001;51(4):767–772.
36. Kelly AM. A process approach to improving pain management in the emergency department: development and evaluation. J Accid Emerg Med. 2000;17(3):185–187.
37. Fry C, Aholt D. Local anesthesia prior to the insertion of peripherally inserted central catheters. J Infus Nurs. 2001;24(6):404–408.
38. Attard AR, Corlett MJ, Kidner NJ, et al. Safety of early pain relief for acute abdominal pain. BMJ. 1992;305:1020–1021.
39. Pace S, Burke TF. Intravenous morphine for early pain relief in patients with acute abdominal pain. Acad Emerg Med. 1996;3:1086–1092.
40. Vermeulen B, Morablia A, Unger PF, et al. Acute appendicitis: influence of early pain relief on the accuracy of clinical and US findings in the decision to operate: a randomized trial. Radiology. 1999;210:639–643.
41. Mahadevan M, Graff L. Prospective randomized study of analgesic use for ED patients with right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Am J Emerg Med. 2000;18:753–756.
42. Kim MK, Strait RT, Sato TT, et al. A randomized clinical trial of analgesia in children with acute abdominal pain. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9:281–287.
43. Thomas SH, Silen W, Cheema F, et al. Effects of morphine analgesia on diagnostic accuracy in emergency department patients with abdominal pain: a prospective randomized trial. J Am Coll Surg. 2003;196:18–31.
44. Gallagher EJ, Esses D, Lee C, Lahn M, Bijur PE. Randomized clinical trial of morphine in acute abdominal pain. Ann Emerg Med. 2006;48:150–160.
45. Safdar B, Degutis LC, Landry K, Vedere SR, Moscovitz, HC, D’Onofrio G. Intravenous morphine plus ketorolac is superior to either drug alone for treatment of acute renal colic. Ann Emerg Med. 2006;48:173–181.
46. Hewitt DJ, Todd KH, Xiang J, Jordan DM, Rosenthan NR for the CAPSS-216 Study Investigators. Tramadol/acetaminophen or hydrocodone/acetaminophen for the treatment of ankle sprain: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;49(4):468–480.
47. Bijur PE, Kenny MK, Gallagher EJ. Intravenous morphine at 0.1 mg/kg is not effective for controlling severe acute pain in the majority of patients. Ann Emerg Med. 2005;46(4):362–367.
48. Hershey LA. Meperidine and central neurotoxicity. Ann Intern Med. 1983;98(4):548–549.
49. Melzer-Lange MD, Walk-Kelly MD, Lea CM, et al. Patient-controlled analgesia for sickle cell pain crisis in a pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2004;20(1):2–4.
50. Evans E, Turley N, Robinson N, et al. Randomised controlled trial of patient controlled analgesia compared with nurse delivered analgesia in an emergency department. Emerg Med J. 2005;22(1):25–29.
51. Fulda GJ, Giberson F, Fagraeus L. A prospective randomized trial of nebulized morphine compared with patient-controlled analgesia morphine in the management of acute thoracic pain. J Trauma. 2005;59(2):383–388.
52. Ballas SK, Viscusi ER, Epstein KR. Management of acute chest wall sickle cell pain with nebulized morphine. Am J Hematol. 2004;76(2):190–191.
53. Bartfield JM, Flint RD, McErlean M, et al. Nebulized fentanyl for relief of abdominal pain. Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10(3):215–218.
54. Miner JR, Bachman A, Kosman L, et al. Assessment of the onset and persistence of amnesia during procedural sedation with propofol. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;12(6):491–496.
55. Miner JR, Heegaard W, Plummer D. End-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring during procedural sedation. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9(4):275–280.
56. Bassett KE, Anderson J, Pribble CG, et al. Propofol for procedural sedation in children in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2003;42(6):773–782.
57. Frazee BW, Park RS, Lowery D, et al. Propofol for deep procedural sedation in the ED. Am J Emerg Med. 2005;23(2):190–195.
58. Miner JR, Biros MH, Seigel T, et al. The utility of the bispectral index in procedural sedation with propofol in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;12(3):190–196.
59. Miner JR, Biros MH, Heegaard W, et al. Bispectral electroencephalographic analysis of patients undergoing procedural sedation in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10(6):638–643.
60. Green SM. Fasting is a consideration – not a necessity – for emergency department procedural sedation and analgesia. Ann Emerg Med. 2003;42(5):647–650.
61. Agrawal D, Manzi SF, Bupta R, et al. Preprocedural fasting state and adverse events in children undergoing procedural sedation and analgesia in a pediatric emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2003;42(5):636–646.
62. American College of Emergency Physicians. Procedural sedation in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2005;46(1):103–104.
63. Green SM, Denmark TK, Cline J, et al. Ketamine sedation for pediatric critical care procedures. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2001;17(4):244–248.
64.Miner JR, Martel ML, Meyer M, et al. Procedural sedation of critically ill patients in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;12(2):124–128.
65. Hart LS, Berns SD, Houck CS, et al. The value of end-tidal CO2 monitoring when comparing three methods of conscious sedation for children undergoing painful procedures in the emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1997;13(3):189–193.
66. Bennett J, Peterson T, Burleson V. Capnography and ventilatory assessment during ambulatory dentoalveolar surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1997;55(9):921–925; discussion 925–926.
67. Levine DA, Platt SL. Novel monitoring techniques for use with procedural sedation. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2005;17(3):351–354.
68. Chudnofsky CR, Weber JE, Colone PD, et al. A combination of midazolam and ketamine for procedural sedation and analgesia in adult emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7(3):228–235.
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72. Kennedy RM, Porter FL, Miller JP, et al. Comparison of fentanyl/midazolam with ketamine/midazolam for pediatric orthopedic emergencies. Pediatrics. 1998;102(4 Pt 1):956–963.
73. Green SM, Sherwin TS. Incidence and severity of recovery agitation after ketamine sedation in young adults. Am J Emerg Med. 2005;23(2):142–144.
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77. Kienstra AJ, Ward MA, Sasan F, et al. Etomidate versus pentobarbital for sedation of children for head and neck CT imaging. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2004;20(8):499–506.
78. Karian VE, Burrows PE, Zurakowski D, et al. Sedation for pediatric radiological procedures: analysis of potential causes of sedation failure and paradoxical reactions. Pediatr Radiol. 1999;29(11):869–873.
79. Miner JR, Biros M, Krieg S, et al. Randomized clinical trial of propofol versus methohexital for procedural sedation during fracture and dislocation reduction in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10(9):931–937.
80. Zink BJ, Darfler K, Salluzzo RF, et al. The efficacy and safety of methohexital in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 1991;20(12):1293–1298.
81. Bono JV, Rella JG, Zink BJ, et al. Methohexital for orthopaedic procedures in the emergency department. Orthop Rev. 1993;22(7):833–838.
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REFERENCES

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14. Pasero C, McCaffery M. No self report means no pain intensity. Am J Nurs. 2005;105(10):50–53.
15. Herr K, Coyne P, McCaffery M, et al. Pain assessment in the nonverbal patient: position statement with clinical recommendations. Pain Manag Nurs. 2006;7(2):44–52.
16. Gelinas C, Fillion L, Puntillo KA, Viens C, Fortier M. Validation of critical-care pain observation tool. Am J Crit Care. 2006;15:420–427.
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19. Weinger MB. Dangers of postoperative opioids. APSF Newslett. 2006–2007;21(4):63–68.
20. Pasero C. Electronic mail communication with the American Pain Society Nursing Special Interest Group email list service subscribers, March 1 through April 10, 2006.
21. Pasero C, McCaffery M. Monitoring opioid-induced sedation. Am J Nurs. 2002;102(2):67–68.
22. Pasero C, Eksterowicz N, Primeau M, Cowley C. Registered nurse management and monitoring of analgesia by catheter techniques. Pain Manag. Nurs. 2007;8(2):49–55.
23. Manworren RCB. A call to action to protect range orders. Am J Nurs. 2007;106(7):30–33.
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