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  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: October 2009

17 - Regional Anesthesia

from SECTION II - Clinical Analgesia


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3. Reuben SS, Buvanendran A. Preventing the development of chronic pain after orthopaedic surgery with preventive multimodal analgesic techniques. J Bone Joint Surg, 2007;89:1343–1358.
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12. Reuben SS, Ekman EF. The effect of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition on analgesia and spinal fusion. J Bone Joint Surg. 2005;87: 536–542.
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15. Seib RK, Paul JE. Preoperative gabapentin for postoperative analgesia: a meta-analysis. Can J Anaesth. 2006;53:461–469.
16. Reuben SS, Buvanendran A, Kroin JS, Raghunathan K. The analgesic efficacy of celecoxib, pregabalin, and their combination for spinal fusion surgery. Anesth Analg. 2006;103:1271–1277.
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18. Miric A, Lombardi P, Sculco TP. Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis: a comprehensive approach for total hip and total knee arthroplasty patient populations. Am J Orthoped 2000;29:269–274.
19. Fitzgerald RH, Jr, Spiro TE, Trowbridge AA, et al. Prevention of venous thromboembolic disease following primary total knee arthroplasty. A randomized, multicenter, open-label, parallel-group comparison of enoxaparin and warfarin. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001;83-A:900–906.
20. Stern SH, Wixson RL, O’Connor D. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of enoxaparin and warfarin for prevention of deep vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2000;15:153–158.
21. Hirsh J, Raschke R. Heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest. 2004;126:188S–203S.
22. Vandermeulen E. Guidelines on anticoagulants and the use of LR anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg. 2001;52:425–429.
23. Dolenska S. Neuroaxial blocks and LMWH thromboprophylaxis. Hospital Med. 1998;59:940–943.
24. Horlocker TT, Wedel DJ, Benzon H, et al. Regional anesthesia in the anticoagulated patient: defining the risks (the second ASRA Consensus Conference on Neuraxial Anesthesia and Anticoagulation). Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2003;28:172–197.
25. Weinberg G. Lipid infusion resuscitation for local anesthetic toxicity: proof of clinical efficacy. Anesthesiology. 2006;105:7–8.
26. Weinberg G. Lipid rescue resuscitation from local anaesthetic cardiac toxicity. Toxicol Rev. 2006;25:139–145.
27. Martin G, Lineberger CK, MacLeod DB, El-Moalem HE, Breslin DS, Hardman D, D’Ercole F. A new teaching model for resident training in regional anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2002;95:1423–1427.
28. De Andres J, Sala-Blanch X. Peripheral nerve stimulation in the practice of brachial plexus anesthesia: a review. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2001;26:478–483.
29. Neal JM, Hebl JR, Gerancher JC, et al. Brachial plexus anesthesia: essentials of our current understanding. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2002;27:402–428.
30. Gray A. Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia: current state of the art. Anesthesiology. 2006;104:368–373. [review]
31. Hadzic A. Textbook of Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management. 1st ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2007.
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33. Clemente C. Anatomy: A Regional Atlas of the Human Body. 5th ed. New York, NY: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.
34. Meier G, Buettner J. Peripheral Regional Anesthesia: An Atlas of Anatomy and Techniques. Stuttgart: Thieme Medical Publishers; 2007.
35. Partridge B, Katz J, Benirschke K. Functional anatomy of the brachial plexus sheath: implications for anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 1987;66:743–747.
36. Winnie AP, Ramamurthy S, Durrani Z, Radonjic R. Interscalene cervical plexus block: a single-injection technic. Anesth Analg. 1975;54:370–375.
37. Bishop JY, Sprague M, Gelber J, Krol M, Rosenblatt MA, Gladstone J, Flatow EL. Interscalene regional anesthesia for shoulder surgery. J Bone Joint Surg. 2005;87:974–979.
38. Ritchie ED, Tong D, Chung F, Norris AM, Miniaci A, Vairavanathan SD. Suprascapular nerve block for postoperative pain relief in arthroscopic shoulder surgery: a new modality? Anesth Analg. 1997;84:1306–1312. [see comment]
39. Moiniche S, Mikkelsen S, Wetterslev J, Dahl JB. A systematic review of intra-articular local anesthesia for postoperative pain relief after arthroscopic knee surgery. Reg Anesth Pain Med 1999;24:430–437.
40. Singelyn FJ, Lhotel L, Fabre B. Pain relief after arthroscopic shoulder surgery: a comparison of intraarticular analgesia, suprascapular nerve block, and interscalene brachial plexus block. Anesth Analg. 2004;99:589–592.
41. Urmey WF, Talts KH, Sharrock NE. One hundred percent incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paresis associated with interscalene brachial plexus anesthesia as diagnosed by ultrasonography. Anesth Analg. 1991;72:498–503.
42. al-Kaisy AA, Chan VW, Perlas A. Respiratory effects of low-dose bupivacaine interscalene block. Br J Anaesth. 1999;82:217–220.
43. Ward ME. The interscalene approach to the brachial plexus. Anaesthesia. 1974;29:147–157.
44. Mulroy MF. Regional anesthetic techniques. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 1994;32:81–98.
45. Bashein G, Haschke RH, Ready LB. Electrical nerve location: numerical and electrophoretic comparison of insulated vs uninsulated needles. Anesth Analg. 1984;63:919–924.
46. Silverstein WB, Saiyed MU, Brown AR. Interscalene block with a nerve stimulator: a deltoid motor response is a satisfactory endpoint for successful block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2000;25:356–359. [see comment]
47. Birnbaum J, Kip M, Spies CD, et al. The effect of stimulating versus nonstimulating catheters for continuous interscalene plexus blocks in short-term pain management. J Clin Anesth. 2007;19:434–439.
48. Casati A, Baciarello M, Di Cianni S, et al. Effects of ultrasound guidance on the minimum effective anaesthetic volume required to block the femoral nerve. Br J Anaesth. 2007;98:823–827.
49. Bryan NA, Swenson JD, Greis PE, Burks RT. Indwelling interscalene catheter use in an outpatient setting for shoulder surgery: technique, efficacy, and complications. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2007;16:388–395.
50. Eledjam JJ, Cuvillon P, Capdevila X, et al. French study g: Postoperative analgesia by femoral nerve block with ropivacaine 0.2% after major knee surgery: continuous versus patient-controlled techniques. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2002;27:604–611.
51. Singelyn FJ, Vanderelst PE, Gouverneur JM. Extended femoral nerve sheath block after total hip arthroplasty: continuous versus patient-controlled techniques. Anesth Analg. 2001;92:455–459. [see comment]
52. Winnie AP, Collins VJ. The subclavian perivascular technique of brachial plexus anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 1964;25:353–363.
53. Franco CD, Vieira ZE. 1,001 subclavian perivascular brachial plexus blocks: success with a nerve stimulator. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2000;25:41–46.
54. Brown DL, Cahill DR, Bridenbaugh LD. Supraclavicular nerve block: anatomic analysis of a method to prevent pneumothorax. Anesth Analg. 1993;76:530–534.
55. Neal JM, Moore JM, Kopacz DJ, Liu SS, Kramer DJ, Plorde JJ. Quantitative analysis of respiratory, motor, and sensory function after supraclavicular block. Anesth Analg. 1998;86:1239–1244.
56. Chan VW, Perlas A, Rawson R, Odukoya O. Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Anesth Analg. 2003;97:1514–1517.
57. Beach ML, Sites BD, Gallagher JD. Use of a nerve stimulator does not improve the efficacy of ultrasound-guided supraclavicular nerve blocks. J Clin Anesth. 2006;18:580–584.
58. Williams SR, Chouinard P, Arcand G, Harris P, Ruel M, Boudreault D, Girard F. Ultrasound guidance speeds execution and improves the quality of supraclavicular block. Anesth Analg. 2003;97:1518–1523.
59. Burnham PJ. Regional block of the great nerves of the upper arm. Anesthesiology. 1958;19:281–284.
60. Klaastad O, Smedby O, Thompson GE, et al. Distribution of local anesthetic in axillary brachial plexus block: a clinical and magnetic resonance imaging study. Anesthesiology. 2002;96:1315–1324.
61. Koscielniak-Nelson Z, Hesselbjerg L, Fejlberg V. Comparison of transarterial and multiple nerve stimulation techniques for an initial axillary block by 45 ml of mepivcaine 1% with adrenaline. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1998;42:570–575.
62. Koscielniak-Nielsen Z, Stens-Pedersen H, Lippert K. Readiness for surgery after axillary block: single or multiple injection techniques. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1997;14:164–171.
63. Sia S, Lepri A, Ponzecchi P. Axillary brachial plexus block using peripheral nerve stimulator: a comparison between double and triple injection techniques. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2001;26:499–503.
64. Sia S, Lepri A, Campolo M, et al. A comparison between axillary and midhumeral approaches. Anesth Analg. 2002;95:1075–1079.
65. Handoll H, Koscielniak-Nelson Z. Single, double, or multiple injection techniques for axillary brachial plexus block for hand, wrist, or forearm surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006; Jan 25(1):CD003842.
66. Schwemmer U, Markus C, Greim C, Brederlau J, Roewer N. Ultrasound-guided anaesthesia of the axillary brachial plexus: efficacy of multiple injection approach. Ultraschall Med. 2005;26:114–119.
67. Baranowski A, Pither C. A comparison of three methods of axillary brachial plexus anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 1990;45:362–365.
68. Goldberg M, Greff C, Larijani G, Norris M. A comparison of three methods of axillary approach to the brachial plexus blockade for upper extremity surgery. Anesthesiology 1987;66:814–816.
69. Winnie AP, Radonjic R, Akkineni SR, et al. Factors influencing distribution of local anesthetic injected into the brachial plexus sheath. Anesth Analg. 1979;58:225–234.
70. Winnie AP. Plexus Anesthesia: Perivascular Techniques of Brachial Plexus Block. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders; 1990.
71. Tuominen M, Pitkanen M, Nummien M, Rosenberg P. Quality of axillary brachial plexus block: comparison of success rate using perivascular and nerve stimulator techniques. Anaesthesia. 1987;42:20–22.
72. Retzl G, Kapral S, Greher M, et al. Ultrasonographic findings of the axillary part of the brachial plexus. Anesthes Analg. 2001;92:1271–1275.
73. Sites B, Beach M, Spence B, et al. Ultrasound guidance improves the success rate of perivascular axillary plexus block. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2006;50:678–684.
74. Casati A, Danelli G, Baciarello M, et al. A prospective, randomized comparison between ultrasound and nerve stimulation guidance for multiple injection axillary brachial plexus block. Anesthesiology. 2007;106:922–926.
75. Lavoie J, Martin R, Tetrault JP, et al. Axillary plexus block using a peripheral nerve stimulator: single or multiple injections. Can J Anaesth. 1992;39:583–586.
76. Koscielniak-Nelson Z, Nielsen P, Nielsen S, Gardi T, Hermann C. Comparison of transarterial and multiple nerve stimulation techniques for axillary block using a high dose of mepivacaine with adrenaline. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1999;43:398–404.
77. Vester-Andersen T, Broby-Johansen U, Bro-Rasmussen F. Perivascular axillary block VI: the distribution of gelatine solutions injected into the axillary neurovascular sheath of cadavers. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1986;30:18–22.
78. Dilger J, Wells R. The use of peripheral nerve blocks at the elbow for carpal tunnel release. J Clin Anesth. 2005;17:621–623.
79. Delaunay L, Chelly J. Blocks at the wrist provide effective anesthesia for carpal tunnel release. Can J Anaesth. 2001;48:656–660.
80. Gebhard RE, Al-Samsam T, Greger J, et al. Distal nerve blocks at the wrist for outpatient carpal tunnel surgery offer intraoperative cardiovascular stability and reduce discharge time. Anesth Analg. 2002;95:351–355.
81. Macaire P, Choquet O, Jochum D, Travers V, Capdevila X. Nerve blocks at the wrist for carpal tunnel release revisited: the use of sensory nerve and motor nerve stimulation techniques. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005;30:536–540.
82. Vloka JD, Hadzic A, April E, Thys DM. The division of the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa: anatomical implications for popliteal nerve blockade. Anesth Analg. 2001;92:215–217.
83. Winnie AP, Ramamurthy S., Durrani Z, Radonjic R. Plexus blocks for lower extremity surgery. Anesthesiol Rev. 1974;1:1–621.
84. Chayen D, Nathan H, Chayen M. The psoas compartment block. Anesthesiology. 1976;45:95–99.
85. Parkinson SK, Mueller JB, Little WL, Bailey SL. Extent of blockade with various approaches to the lumbar plexus. Anesth Analg. 1989;68:243–248. [see comment]
86. Winnie AP, Ramamurthy S, Durrani Z. The inguinal paravascular technic of lumbar plexus anesthesia: the “3-in-1 block.” Anesth Analg. 1973;52:989–996.
87. Ritter JW. Femoral nerve “sheath” for inguinal paravascular lumbar plexus block is not found in human cadavers. J Clin Anesth. 1995;7:470–473.
88. Jankowski CJ, Hebl JR, Stuart MJ, et al. A comparison of psoas compartment block and spinal and general anesthesia for outpatient knee arthroscopy. Anesth Analg. 97:1003–1009.
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90. Luber MJ, Greengrass R, Vail TP. Patient satisfaction and effectiveness of lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block for total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2001;16:17–21.
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92. Watson MW, Mitra D, McLintock TC, Grant SA: Continuous versus single-injection lumbar plexus blocks: comparison of the effects on morphine use and early recovery after total knee arthroplasty. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005;30:541–547.
93. Bagry H, Asenjo JF, Bracco D, Carli, F. Effect of a continous peripheral nerve block on the inflammatory response in knee arthroplasty. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008;33:17–23.
94. de Visme V, Picart F, Le Jouan R, Legrand A, Savry C, Morin V. Combined lumbar and sacral plexus block compared with plain bupivacaine spinal anesthesia for hip fractures in the elderly. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2000;25:158–162.
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96. Stevens RD, Van Gessel E, Flory N, Fournier R, Gamulin Z. Lumbar plexus block reduces pain and blood loss associated with total hip arthroplasty. Anesthesiology. 2000;93:115–121.
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99. Buckenmaier CC, 3rd, Xenos JS, Nilsen SM. Lumbar plexus block with perineural catheter and sciatic nerve block for total hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2002;17:499–502.
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112. Seeberger MD, Urwyler A. Paravascular lumbar plexus block: block extension after femoral nerve stimulation and injection of 20 vs. 40 ml mepivacaine 10 mg/ml. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1995;39:769–773.
113. Marhofer P, Schrogendorfer K, Koinig H, Kapral S, Weinstabl C, Mayer N. Ultrasonographic guidance improves sensory block and onset time of three-in-one blocks. Anesth Analg. 1997;85:854–857. [see comment]
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123. Edkin BS, McCarty EC, Spindler KP, Flanagan JF. Analgesia with femoral nerve block for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Clin Orthopaed Relat Res. 1999:289–295.
124. Peng P, Claxton A, Chung F, Chan V, Miniaci A, Krishnathas A: Femoral nerve block and ketorolac in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Can J Anaesth. 1999;46:919–924.
125. Williams BA, Kentor ML, Vogt MT, et al. Femoral-sciatic nerve blocks for complex outpatient knee surgery are associated with less postoperative pain before same-day discharge: a review of 1,200 consecutive cases from the period 1996–1999. Anesthesiology. 2003;98:1206–1213.
126. Lynch J, Trojan S, Arhelger S, Krings-Ernst I. Intermittent femoral nerve blockade for anterior cruciate ligament repair. Use of a catheter technique in 208 patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg. 1991;42:207–212.
127. Schwarz SK, Franciosi LG, Ries CR, et al. Addition of femoral 3-in-1 blockade to intra-articular ropivacaine 0.2% does not reduce analgesic requirements following arthroscopic knee surgery. Can J Anaesth. 1999;46:741–747.
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129. Mansour NY, Bennetts FE. An observational study of combined continuous lumbar plexus and single-shot sciatic nerve blocks for post-knee surgery analgesia. Reg Anesth. 1996;21:287–291.
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131. Williams BA, Kentor ML, Vogt MT, et al. Economics of nerve block pain management after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: potential hospital cost savings via associated postanesthesia care unit bypass and same-day discharge. Anesthesiology. 2004;100:697–706.
132. Ng HP, Cheong KF, Lim A, Lim J, Puhaindran ME. Intraoperative single-shot “3-in-1” femoral nerve block with ropivacaine 0.25%, ropivacaine 0.5% or bupivacaine 0.25% provides comparable 48-hr analgesia after unilateral total knee replacement. Can J Anaesth. 2001;48:1102–1108.
133. Edwards ND, Wright EM. Continuous low-dose 3-in-1 nerve blockade for postoperative pain relief after total knee replacement. Anesth Analg. 1992;75:265–267.
134. Singelyn FJ, Deyaert M, Joris D, Pendeville E, Gouverneur JM. Effects of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with morphine, continuous epidural analgesia, and continuous three-in-one block on postoperative pain and knee rehabilitation after unilateral total knee arthroplasty. Anesth Analg. 1998;87:88–92.
135. Capdevila X, Barthelet Y, Biboulet P, Ryckwaert Y, Rubenovitch J, d’Athis F. Effects of perioperative analgesic technique on the surgical outcome and duration of rehabilitation after major knee surgery. Anesthesiology. 1999;91:8–15.
136. Serpell MG, Millar FA, Thomson MF. Comparison of lumbar plexus block versus conventional opioid analgesia after total knee replacement. Anaesthesia. 1991;46:275–277.
137. Tarkkila P, Tuominen M, Huhtala J, Lindgren L. Comparison of intrathecal morphine and continuous femoral 3-in-1 block for pain after major knee surgery under spinal anaesthesia. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1998;15:6–9.
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139. Hirst GC, Lang SA, Dust WN, Cassidy JD, Yip RW. Femoral nerve block: single injection versus continuous infusion for total knee arthroplasty. Reg Anesth. 1996;21:292–297.
140. Cook P, Stevens J, Gaudron C. Comparing the effects of femoral nerve block versus femoral and sciatic nerve block on pain and opiate consumption after total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2003;18:583–586.
141. Weber A, Fournier R, Van Gessel E, Gamulin Z. Sciatic nerve block and the improvement of femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee replacement. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2002;19:834–836.
142. Ben-David B, Schmalenberger K, Chelly JE. Analgesia after total knee arthroplasty: is continuous sciatic blockade needed in addition to continuous femoral blockade? Anesth Analg. 98:747–749.
143. Chelly JE, Greger J, Gebhard R, et al. Continuous femoral blocks improve recovery and outcome of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2001;16:436–445.
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