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  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: October 2009

SECTION III - Acute Pain Management in Special Patient Populations

REFERENCES

1. Practice guidelines for acute pain management in the perioperative setting. A report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Pain Management, Acute Pain Section. Anesthesiology.1995;1071–1081.
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3. Acute pain management: operative or medical procedures and trauma. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Clinical practice guidelines number. US Department of Health and Human Service, Publication #92–0032. Rockville, MD: AHCPR Publications, 1992.
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12. Rawal N. Organization, function, and implementation of acute pain service. Anesthesiol Clin North Am. 2005;23(1):211–225.
13. Neal JM, Kopacz DJ, Liguori GA, Beckman JD, Margett MJ. The training and careers of regional anesthesia fellows: 1983–2002. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005;30(3):226–232.
14. Smith MP, Sprung J, Zura A, Mascha E, Tetzlaff JE. A survey of exposure to regional anesthesia techniques in American anesthesia residency training programs. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 1999;24(1):11–16.
15. Oldman M, McCartney CJ, Leung A, et al. A survey or orthopedic surgeon's attitudes and knowledge regarding regional anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2004;5:1486–1490.
16. Armstrong KP, Cherry RA. Brachial plexus anesthesia compared to general anesthesia when a block room is available. Can J Anaesth. 2004;51(1):41–44.
17. Gerancher JC, Viscusi ER, Ligouri GA, et al. Development of a standardized peripheral nerve block procedure note form. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005;30(1):67–71.
18. Kelly FJ, Kelly HM. What They Really Teach You at the Harvard Business School. New York, NY: Warner Books; 1986: 137.
19. Liu SS, Wu CL. The effect of analgesic technique on postoperative patient outcomes including analgesia: a systemic review. Anesth Analg. 2007;105(3):789–808.
20. Shapiro A, Zohar E, Kantor M, Memrod J, Fredman B. Establishing a nurse-based, anesthesiologist supervised inpatient acute pain service: experience of 4,617 patients. J Clin Anesth. 2004;16(6):415–420.
21. Sartain JB, Barry JJ. The impact of an acute pain service on postoperative pain management. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1999;27(4):375–380.
22. Tighe SO, Bie JA, Nelson RA, Skues MA. The acute pain service: effective or expensive care? Anaesthesia 1998;53(4): 397–403
23. Luscombe FE, Wallace L, Williams J, Griffiths DP. A district general hospital pain management programme: first year experiences and outcomes. Anaesthesia. 1995;50(2):114–117.
24. Werner M, Selholm L, Rotbell-Nielsen P, et al. Does an acute pain service improve postoperative outcome? Anesth Analg. 2002;95:1361–1372.
25. Layzell M. Pain management: setting up a nurse-led femoral nerve block service. Br J Nurs. 2007;16(12):702–705.
26. Viscusi ER, Reynolds L, Tait S, Melson T, Atkinson LE. An iotophoretic fentanyl patient-activated analgesic delivery system for postoperative pain: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Anesth Analg. 2006;102(10):188–194.
27. Stone MB, Price DD, Wang R. Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block for the treatment of upper extremity fractures, dislocations, and abscesses in the ED. Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25(4):472–475.

REFERENCES

1. Rathmell JP, Wu CL, Sinatra RS, et al. Acute post-surgical pain management: a critical appraisal of current practice. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2006;31:1–42.
2. Apfelbaum JL, Chen C, Mehta SS, et al. Postoperative pain experience: results from a national survey suggest postoperative pain continues to be undermanaged. Anesth Analg. 2003;97:534–540.
3. McGrath B, Elgendy H, Chung F, et al. Thirty percent of patients have moderate to severe pain 24 hr after ambulatory surgery: a survey of 5,703 patients. Can J Anesth. 2004;51:886–891.
4. Kopacz DJ, Neal JM. Regional anesthesia and pain medicine: residency training – the year 2000. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2002;27:9–14.
5. Hadzic A, Vloka JD, Kuroda MM, et al. The practice of peripheral nerve blocks in the United States: a national survey. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 1998;23:241–246.
6. Abouleish AE, Prough DS, Whitten CW, et al. Comparing clinical productivity of anesthesiology groups. Anesthesiology. 2002;97:608–615.
7. Oldman M, McCartney CJL, Leung A, et al. A survey of orthopedic surgeons’ attitudes and knowledge regarding regional anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2004;98:1486–1490.
8. Gaba DM, Howard SK, Jump B. Production pressure in the work environment. California anesthesiologists’ attitudes and experiences. Anesthesiology. 1994;81:488–500.
9. Matthey PW, Finegan BA, Finucane BT. The public's fears about and perceptions of regional anesthesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2004;29:96–101.
10. Rupp T, Delaney KA: Inadequate analgesia in emergency medicine. Ann Emerg Med. 2004;43:494–503.
11. Foss NB, Kristensen BB, Bundgaard M, et al. Fascia iliaca compartment blockade for acute pain control in hip fracture patients. Anesthesiology.2007;773–778.
12. Guay J. The benefits of adding epidural analgesia to general anesthesia: a metaanalysis. J Anesth. 2006;20:335–340.
13. Ballantyne JC, Carr DB, de Ferranti S, et al. The comparative effects of postoperative analgesic therapies on pulmonary outcome: cumulative meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Anesth Analg. 1998;86:598–612.
14. Stadler M, Schlander M, Braeckman M, et al. A cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analysis of an acute pain service. J Clin Anesth. 2004;16:159–167.
15. Armstrong KPJ, Cherry RA. Brachial plexus anesthesia compared to general anesthesia when a block room is available. Can J Anesth. 2004;51:41–44.
16. Weinber GL. Lipid infusion resuscitation for local anesthetic toxicity; proof of clinical efficacy. Anesthesiology. 2006;105:7–8.
17. Rosenblatt MA, Abel M, Fischer GW, Itzkovitch CJ, Eisenkraft JB. Sucessful use of a 20% lipid emulsion to resuscitate a patient after a presumed bupivacaine-related cardiac arrest. Anesthesiology. 2006;105:217–218.
18. Litz RJ, Popp M, Stehr SN, Koch T. Successful resuscitation of a patient with roivacaine-induced asystole after axillary plexus block using lipid infusion. Anaesthesia. 2006;61:800–801.
19.Practice guidelines for acute pain management in the perioperative setting: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Acute Pain Management. Anesthesiology. 2004;100:1573–1581.
20. Schug SA, Manopas A. Update on the role of non-opioids for postoperative pain treatment. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthiol. 2007;21:15–30.
21. Lennon RL, Horlocker TT. Mayo Clinic Analgesic Pathway: Peripheral Nerve Blockade for Major Orthopedic Surgery. London, UK: Taylor & Francis; 2006.
22. Kehlet H, Wilkinson RC, Fischer HBJ, et al. PROSPECT: evidence-based, procedure-specific postoperative pain management. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthiol. 2007;21:149–159.
23. Liu SS, Richman JM, Thirlby RC, et al. Efficacy of continuous wound catheters delivering local anesthetic for postoperative analgesia: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Am Coll Surg. 2006;203:914–932.
24. Gupta A, Bodin L, Holmstrom B, et al. A systematic review of the peripheral analgesic effects of intraarticular morphine. Anesth Analg. 2001;93:761–770.
25. Grass JA: Patient-controlled analgesia. Anesth Analg. 2005;101:S44–S61.
26. Macintyre PE. Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia: one size does not fit all. Anesthesiology Clin N Am. 2005;23:109–123.
27. Power I. Fentanyl HCl iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS): clinical application of iontophoretic technology in the management of acute postoperative pain. Br J Anaesth. 2007;98:4–11.
28. Rathmell JP, Lair TR, Nauman B: The role of intrathecal drugs in the treatment of acute pain. Anesth Analg. 2005;101:S30–S43.
29. Holt DV, Viscusi ER, Wordell CJ. Extended-duration agents for perioperative pain management. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2007;11:33–37.
30. Klein SM, Evans H, Nielsen KC, et al. Peripheral nerve block techniques for ambulatory surgery. Anesth Analg. 2005;101:1663–1676.
31. Mulroy MF, Larkin KL, Batra MS, et al. Femoral nerve block with 0.25% or 0.5% bupivacaine improves postoperative analgesia following outpatient arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament repair. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2001;26:24–29.
32. Murphy DB, McCartney CJL, Chan VWS. Novel analgesic adjuncts for brachial plexus block: a systematic review. Anesth Analg. 2000;90:1122–1128.
33. Auroy Y, Benhamou D, Bargues L, et al. Major complications of regional anesthesia in France: the SOS Regional Anesthesia Hotline Service. Anesthesiology. 2002;97:1274–1280.
34. Salinas FV, Liu SS, Mulroy MF. The effect of single-injection femoral nerve block versus continuous femoral nerve block after total knee arthroplasty on hospital length of stay and long-term functional recovery within an established clinical pathway. Anesth Analg. 2006;102:1234–1239.
35. Richman JM, Wu CL. Epidural analgesia for postoperative pain. Anesthesiol Clin N Am. 2005;23:125–140.
36. Nishimori M, Ballantyne JC, Low JHS. Epidural pain relief versus systemic opioid-based pain relief for abdominal aortic surgery (Cochrane Reviews). The Cochrane Library:Issue 3, 2006.
37. Boezaart AP. Perineural infusions of local anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 2006;104:872–880.
38. Richman JM, Liu SS, Courpas G, et al. Does continuous peripheral nerve block provide superior pain control to opioids? A meta-analysis. Anesth Analg. 2006;102:248–257.
39. Capdevila X, Pirat P, Bringuier S, et al. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks in hospital wards after orthopedic surgery. A multicenter prospective analysis of the quality of postoperative analgesia and complications in 1,416 patients. Anesthesiology. 2005;103:1035–1045.
40. Ilfeld BM, Enneking FK. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks at home: a review. Anesth Analg. 2005;100:1822–1833.
41. Hargett MJ, Beckman JD, Liguori GA, et al. Guidelines for regional anesthesia fellowship training. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005;30:218–225.
42. Marhofer P, Chan VWS. Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia: current concepts and future trends. Anesth Analg. 2007;104:1265–1269.
43. Hayek SM, Ritchey RM, Sessler D, et al. Continuous femoral nerve analgesia after unilateral total knee arthroplasty: stimulating versus nonstimulating catheters. Anesth Analg. 2006;103:1565–1570.
44. White PF, Kehlet H, Neal JM, et al. The role of the anesthesiologist in fast-track surgery: from multimodal analgesia to perioperative medical care. Anesth Analg. 2007;104:1380–1396.
45. Gerancher JC, Viscusi ER, Liguori GA, et al. Development of a standardized peripheral nerve block procedure note form. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005;30:67–71.
46. Viscusi ER, Gerancher JC, Weller R, et al. Not documented? Not done! A proposed procedure note for neuraxial blockade. American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 30th Annual Spring Meeting and Workshops Abstract 68, April 21–24, 2005.
47. Coley KC, Williams BA, DaPos SV, et al. Retrospective evaluation of unanticipated admissions and readmissions after same day surgery and associated costs. J Clin Anesth. 2002;14:349–353.
48. Rawal N. Organization, function, and implementation of acute pain service. Anesthesiology Clin N Am. 2005;23:211–225.
49. Vila H, Smith RA, Augustyniak MJ, et al. The efficacy and safety of pain management before and after implementation of hospital-wide pain management standards: is patient safety compromised by treatment based solely on numerical pain ratings? Anesth Analg. 2005;101:474–480.
50.Committee on Performance and Outcomes Measurement (CPOM), Committee on Quality Management and Departmental Administration (QMDA): Quality Management Template, http://www.asahq.org/quality/qmtemplate013105.pdf. 2004.
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