Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-v9xhf Total loading time: 0.777 Render date: 2022-05-22T02:45:08.929Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

8 - Pluricentricity and Codification in World English

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 September 2021

Danae Perez
Affiliation:
University of Zurich
Marianne Hundt
Affiliation:
University of Zurich
Johannes Kabatek
Affiliation:
University of Zurich
Daniel Schreier
Affiliation:
University of Zurich
Get access

Summary

This chapter examines the relationship between English as a pluricentric language with multiple varieties and the instruments of codification that stabilize the variation within their individual lexica. It compares the different types of dictionaries published for settler Englishes (Australian, New Zealand, Canadian, US) with those published for indigenized Englishes (South Africa, India, Singapore, the Philippines), finding that the former have several types of dictionaries (historical and contemporary, with partial or comprehensive coverage of the lexicon), whereas the indigenized varieties have few with limited coverage of the varietal lexicon. Other codificatory instruments, e.g. style manuals, are found with settler varieties but not indigenized ones. The range of such instruments for settler varieties thus correlates with their advanced stage of evolution (beyond endonormativity). The research shows that only those dictionaries which are produced by regionally based lexicographers are indicators of endonormativity. Dictionaries compiled by foreign/international publishers are associated with varieties that have yet to attain their endonormativity.

Type
Chapter
Information
English and Spanish
World Languages in Interaction
, pp. 139 - 162
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Algeo, J. 2006 British or American English? A Handbook of Word and Grammar Patterns. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
American Dictionary of the English Language 1828 ed. Webster., N. New York: S Converse.Google Scholar
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 1969 ed. Morris., W. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
Anderwald, L. 2016 Language between Description and Prescription: Verbs and Verb Categories in Nineteenth Century Grammars. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ansaldo, Umberto 2004 The evolution of Singapore English. In Lim, L. ed. Singapore English: A Grammatical Description. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 127149.Google Scholar
Anvil-Macquarie Dictionary of Philippine English for High School 2000 ed. Bautista, M. L. and Butler., S. Manilla: Anvil Press.Google Scholar
Auer, P. 2014 Enregistering pluricentric German. In da Silva ed. 2014: 19–48.Google Scholar
Australian Concise Oxford 1997 ed. Moore., B. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Australian National Dictionary on Historical Principles 1988 ed. Ramson., W. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Bautista, L. ed. 2011 Studies in Philippine English. Manila: Anvil Press.Google Scholar
Bernstein, T. 1966 The Careful Writer. New York: Atheneum.Google Scholar
Bolton, K. and Butler, S. 2004 Dictionaries and the stratification of vocabulary: Towards a new lexicography for Philippine English. World Englishes 23,1: 91112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cameron, D. 1995 Verbal Hygiene. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Canadian Oxford Dictionary 1998 ed. Barber, K.. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Clyne, M. ed. 1992 Pluricentric Languages: Differing Norms in Different Countries. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Collins Australian Dictionary 2007 ed. Krebs, B. and Wajnryb., R. Glasgow: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
Collins Gage Canadian Paperback Dictionary 2006 Toronto: Thomson/Nelson.Google Scholar
Crawford, W. 2009 The mandative subjunctive. In Rohdenburg, G. and Schlüter, J. eds. One Language, Two Grammars. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 257276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cummin, A. 1997 English language-in-education policies in Canada. In Eggington and Wren 1997: 91–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Da Silva, A. S. ed. 2014 Pluricentricity: Language Variation and Sociocognitive Dimensions. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
Dictionary of American English on Historical Principles 1936–44 ed. Craigie, W. and Hulbert, J. R.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Dictionary of Austral English 1898 ed. Morris., E. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Dictionary of Canadian English on Historical Principles 1967 ed. Avis., W. Toronto: W. J. Gage.Google Scholar
Dictionary of Contemporary American Usage 1957 ed. Evans, B. and Evans, C.. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
Dictionary of Indian English 2017 ed. Carls, U., Lucko, P., Lothar, P. and Polzenhagen, H.. Leipzig: Leipziger Universitäts Verlag.Google Scholar
Dictionary of New Zealand Words and Phrases 1994 ed. Orsman, E. and Orsman., H. Auckland: New House Publishers.Google Scholar
Dictionary of New Zealand English on Historical Principles 1997 ed. Orsman., H. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English 1988 ed. Pratt., T. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
Dictionary of South African English 1978 ed. Bransford., J. Cape Town: Cape Town University Press.Google Scholar
Dictionary of South African English on Historical Principles 1996 ed Silva., P. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Dictionary of South African Indian English 2010 ed. Mesthrie., R. Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press.Google Scholar
Eggington, W. and Wren, H. 1997. Language Policy – Dominant English: Pluralist Challenges. Amsterdam: John Benjamins and Language Australia.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, B. and Evans, C. 1957 Dictionary of Contemporary American Usage New York: Random House.Google Scholar
Fee, M. and McAlpine, J. 1997 Guide to Canadian English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Fowler, H. G. 1926 Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Fries, C. 1940 American English Grammar. New York: D. Appleton Century.Google Scholar
Gage Canadian Dictionary 1983 ed. Drysdale., P. Toronto: Gage Publishing.Google Scholar
Garner, B. 1998 Modern American Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Garner’s Modern American Usage 2003, 2009, 2016 online. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Geerts, G. 1992 Is Dutch a pluricentric language? In Clyne 1992: 71–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goh, R. 2013 Uncertain locale: The dialectics of space and the cultural politics of English in Singapore, in Wee, Goh, and Lim 2013: 125–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Granville, S., Hanks, H., Mphahlele, M., Reed, Y., Watson, P., and Ramani, E. 1998 English with or without g(u)ilt: A position paper on language in education policy for South Africa. Language and Education 12,4: 253272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haugen, E. 1972 [1966] Language, dialect, nation. In Pride, J. and Holmes, J. eds. Sociolinguistics. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 99111.Google Scholar
Heinemann New Zealand Dictionary 1979 ed. Orsman, H. W.. Auckland: Heinemann Educational.Google Scholar
Heugh, K. 2002 Recovering multilingualism: Recent language policy developments. In Mesthrie 2002: 449–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoffmann, S., Hundt, M., and Mukherjee, J. 2011 Indian English – an emerging epicentre? A pilot study of light verbs in web-derived corpora of South Asian Englishes. Anglia 129, 3–4: 258280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howell, J. B. 1983 Style Manuals of the English-Speaking World. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press.Google Scholar
Hudson, N. 1993 Modern Australian Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hundt, M. 1998 New Zealand English Grammar: Fact or Fiction? Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kachru, B. 1989 World Englishes and applied linguistics. Studies in Linguistic Sciences 19,1: 127152.Google Scholar
Kristiansen, G. 2014 Introduction: Pluricentricity, language internal variations and cognitive linguistics. In da Silva, 2014: 1–16.Google Scholar
Kruger, H. 2009 Language in education policy, publishing, and the translation of children’s books in South Africa. Perspectives in Translatology 17,1: 105136.Google Scholar
Kruger, H. and van Rooy, B. 2017 Editorial practice and the progressive in Black South African English. World Englishes 36,1: 2041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lambert, J. 2012 Towards a new lexicography for Indian English. English World-Wide 33,3: 292320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leimgruber, J., Siemund, P. and Terassa, L. 2018 Singaporean students’ language repertoires and attitudes revisited. World Englishes 37, 2: 282306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leitner, G. 1992 English as a pluricentric language. In Clyne 1992: 179–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lexicon of South African Indian English 1992 ed. Mesthrie, R.. Leeds: Peepal Tree Press.Google Scholar
Lim, L. ed. 2004 Singapore English: A Grammatical Description. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lim, L. 2012 Standards of English in South-East Asia. In Hickey, R. ed. Standards of English: Codified Varieties around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Linnegar, J. 2009 Engleish, Our Engleish: Common Errors in South African English and How to Solve Them. Cape Town: NB Publishers, Pharoas DictionariesGoogle Scholar
Lorente, B. 2013 The grip of English and Philippine language policy. In Wee, Goh, and Lim 2013: 187–204.Google Scholar
Macmillan Indian Dictionary 2006 ed. Butler., S. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Macquarie Dictionary 1981 ed. Delbridge, A.. Sydney: Macquarie Library.Google Scholar
Macquarie Dictionary of English for the Fiji Islands 2006 ed Geraghty, P., Mugler, F., and Tent, J.. Sydney: Macquarie Library.Google Scholar
Mair, C. 2013 World system of Englishes. English World-Wide 34,3: 253278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mesthrie, R. ed. 2002 Language in South Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mesthrie, R. 2013 Where does a new English dictionary stop? On the making of a dictionary of South African Indian English. English Today 29,1: 3643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muhr, R. ed 2013 [2012] Exploring Linguistic Standards in Non-dominant Varieties of English: Introduction. Bern: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
Murray-Smith, S. 1987 Right Words. Ringwood: Penguin, Viking.Google Scholar
Nelson Gage Canadian Paperback Dictionary 2011 Toronto: Nelson Gage.Google Scholar
New Zealand Oxford Dictionary 2005 ed. Deverson, T. and Kennedy., G. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nunberg, G. 1990 From criticism to reference. International Journal of Lexicography 3,2: 111132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Övergaard, G. 1995 The Mandative Subjunctive in American and British English in the 20th Century. Studia Linguistica Upsaliensia 94. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.Google Scholar
Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary 1996 (5th ed. with Indian Supplement). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Peters, P. 1995 Cambridge Australian English Style Guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Peters, P. 2004 Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peters, P. 2006 English usage, prescription and description. In Aarts, B. and McMahon, A. eds. Handbook of English Linguistics. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 759780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peters, P. 2007a Cambridge Guide to Australian English Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peters, P. 2007b Australian English as a regional epicenter. In Hoffman, T. and Siebers, L. eds. World Englishes: Problems, Properties, Prospects. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 107124.Google Scholar
Peters, P. 2012 Varieties of English: Standard British English. In Bergs, A. and Brinton, L. eds. Historical Linguistics of English. HSK 34:1. Berlin: de Gruyter, 18791899.Google Scholar
Peters, P. 2014 Usage Guides and usage trends in Australian and British English. Australian Journal of Linguistics 34,4: 581598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peters, P., Collins, P., and Smith, A. eds 2009 Comparative Studies of Australian and New Zealand English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peters, P. and Young, W. 1997 The lexicography of English usage. Journal of English Linguistics 25,4: 315331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Random House Dictionary of the English Language 1966 ed. Stein., J. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
Random House Websters Dictionary 2001 4th ed. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
Reagan, T. G. 2002 Language policy and planning. In Mesthrie, R. ed. Language in South Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 419433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rohdenburg, G. and Schlüter, J., eds. 2009 One Language, Two Grammars. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sammadar, S. 2007 Political agenda of education: A study of colonialist and nationalist ideas. Educational Studies 42,2: 189194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schneider, E.W. 2007 Postcolonial English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schneider, E.W. 2014 Global diffusion, regional attraction, local roots? Sociocognitive perspectives on the pluricentricity of English. In da Silva 2014: 191–226.Google Scholar
Siemund, P., Schulz, M., and Schweinberger, M. 2014 Studying the linguistic ecology of Singapore: A comparison of college and university students. World Englishes 33,3: 340362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strevens, P. 1980 Teaching English as an International Language: From Practice to Principle. Oxford: Pergamon PressGoogle Scholar
Tan, S. I. 2016 Charting the endonormative stabilization of Singapore English. In Leitner, G. et al. eds. Communicating with Asia: The Future of English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Thompson, R. 2003 Filipino English and Taglish: Language Switching from Multiple Perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Times-Chambers Essential English Dictionary 1997 (2nd ed.) ed. Higgleton, E. and Ooi., V. Edinburgh: Chambers-Harrap.Google Scholar
Websters Dictionary of English Usage 1989 ed. Gilman, E. W.. Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster.Google Scholar
Websters New International Dictionary 1909 ed. Harris, W. T.. Massachusetts: G. & C. MerriamGoogle Scholar
Websters Third New International Dictionary with Philippine Supplement 1961 ed. Gove., P. Massachusetts: G. & C. Merriam.Google Scholar
Wee, L. 2011 Metadiscursive convergence in the Singlish debate. Language and Communication 31: 7585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wee, L., Goh, R., and Lim, L. eds. 2013 The Politics of English in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Asia Pacific. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yule, H. and Burnell, A. C. eds. 1886/1903 Hobson Jobson: A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases. London: John Murray.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×