Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: June 2016

7 - The 5G radio-access technologies

Summary

The radio access for 5G will have to respond to a number of diverse requirements raised by a large variety of different new services, such as those from the context of massive Machine-Type Communication (mMTC) and ultra-reliable MTC (uMTC), as discussed in Chapter 2. Consequently, a “one-size-fits-all” solution for the air interface as prevalent in today's radio systems may no longer be the adequate choice in the future, as it can merely provide an inadequate compromise. Instead, the system should provide more flexibility and scalability to enable tailoring the system configurations to the service types and their demands. Moreover, as the data rates to be provided by mobile radio systems are ever increasing, technologies need to be devised to squeeze out the last bit from the scarce spectrum resources. This chapter elaborates on novel radio-access technologies addressing the aforementioned issues, which can be considered promising candidates for the 5G system. It is noteworthy that there has been flourishing work on potential radio-access technologies for 5G in recent time; refer to [1][2] for prominent research activities in the field.

The chapter starts with a general introduction to the access design principles for multi-user communications in Section 7.1, which build the fundamentals for the novel access technologies presented in this chapter. Section 7.2 then presents novel multi-carrier waveforms based on filtering, which offer additional degrees of freedom in the system design to enable flexible system configurations. Novel non-orthogonal multiple-access schemes yielding an increased spectral efficiency are presented in Section 7.3. The following three sections then elaborate on radio access technologies and scalable solutions tailored for specific use cases, which are considered key drivers for 5G radio systems. Section 7.4 focuses on Ultra-Dense Networks (UDN), where also higher frequencies beyond 6 GHz are expected to be used. Section 7.5 presents an ad-hoc radio-access solution for the Vehicle-to-Anything (V2X) context, and finally Section 7.6 proposes schemes for the massive access of Machine-Type Communication (MTC) devices, characterized by a low amount of overhead and thus enabling an energy efficient transmission.

Table 7.1 gives a brief overview on the radio-access technologies presented in this chapter, highlighting some of their characteristics and properties. It should be noted that the gathered information is not exhaustive and only the most important aspects are listed.

[1] Wunder, G., Wild, T., Gaspar, I., Cassiau, N., Dryjanski, M., Eged, B., et al., “5GNOW: Non-orthogonal asynchronous waveforms for future mobile applications,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 97–105, February 2014.
[2] ICT-318362 Emphatic project, “Flexible and spectrally localized waveform processing for next generation wireless communications,” White Paper, 2015, www.ict-emphatic.eu/submissions.html
[3] Proakis, G., Digital Communications, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.
[4] Menouar, H., Filali, F., and Lenardi, M., “A survey and qualitative analysis of mac protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 30–35, October 2006.
[5] Baier, P. W., “CDMA or TDMA? CDMA for GSM?,” in IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, The Hague, September 1994.
[6] Dinan, E. H. and Jabbari, B., “Spreading codes for direct sequence CDMA and wideband CDMA cellular networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 48–54, September 1998.
[7] Costa, M., “Writing on dirty paper,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 439–441, May 1983.
[8] Tomlinson, M., “New automatic equalizer employing modulo arithmetic,” Electron. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 138–139, March 1971.
[9] ICT-317669 METIS project, “Report on simulation results and evaluations,” Deliverable D6.5, February 2015, www.metis2020.com/documents/deliverables/
[10] Siohan, P., Siclet, C., and Lacaille, N., “Analysis and design of OFDM/OQAM systems based on filterbank theory,” IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, vol. 50, pp. 1170–1183, May 2002.
[11] Nadal, J., Nour, C. A., Baghdadi, A., and Lin, H., “Hardware prototyping of FBMC/OQAM baseband for 5G mobile communication,” in IEEE International Symposium on Rapid System Prototyping, Uttar Pradesh, October 2014.
[12] ICT-211887 PHYDYAS project, “FBMC physical layer: A primer,” June 2010, www.ict-phydyas.org/
[13] Fuhrwerk, M., Peissig, J., and Schellmann, M., “Channel adaptive pulse shaping for OQAM-OFDM systems,” in European Signal Processing Conference, Lisbon, September 2014.
[14] Fuhrwerk, M., Peissig, J., and Schellmann, M., “On the design of an FBMC based air interface enabling channel adaptive pulse shaping per sub-band,” in European Signal Processing Conference, Nice, September 2015.
[15] Lin, H., Gharba, M., and Siohan, P., “Impact of time and frequency offsets on the FBMC/OQAM modulation scheme,” IEEE Signal Proc., vol. 102, pp. 151–162, September 2014.
[16] ICT-317669 METIS project, “Proposed solutions for new radio access,” Deliverable D2.4, February 2015, www.metis2020.com/documents/deliverables/
[17] Pinchon, D. and Siohan, P., “Derivation of analytical expression for low complexity FBMC systems,” in European Signal Processing Conference, Marrakech, September 2013.
[18] Lin, H. and Siohan, P., “Multi-Carrier Modulation Analysis and WCP-COQAM proposal,” EURASIP Journal on Advances in Sig. Proc., vol. 2014, no. 79, May 2014.
[19] Abdoli, M.J., Jia, M.. and Ma, J., “Weighted circularly convolved filtering in OFDM/OQAM,” in IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, London, September 2013, pp. 657–661.
[20] Javaudin, J. P., Lacroix, D., and Rouxel, A., “Pilot-aided channel estimation for OFDM/OQAM,” in IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Keju, April 2003, pp. 1581–1585.
[21] Zhao, Z., Vucic, N., and Schellmann, M., “A simplified scattered pilot for FBMC/OQAM in highly frequency selective channels,” in IEEE International Symposium on Wireless Comm. Systems, Barcelona, August 2014.
[22] Caus, M. and Perez-Neira, A., “Multi-stream transmission for highly frequency selective channels in MIMO-FBMC/OQAM systems,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 786–796, February 2014.
[23] Zhao, Z., Gong, X. and Schellmann, M., “A novel FBMC/OQAM scheme facilitating MIMO FDMA without the need for guard bands,” in International ITG Workshop on Smart Antennas, Munich, March 2016.
[24] Wild, T. and Schaich, F., “A reduced complexity transmitter for UF-OFDM,” in IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Glasgow, May 2015.
[25] ICT-318555 5GNOW project, “5G waveform candidate selection,” Deliverable D3.1, 2013, www.5gnow.eu/?page_id=418
[26] Vakilian, V., Wild, T., Schaich, F., Brink, S.t., and Frigon, J.-F., “Universal-filtered multi-carrier technique for wireless systems beyond LTE,” in IEEE Global Communications Conference Workshops, Atlanta, December 2013.
[27] Schaich, F., Wild, T., and Chen, Y., “Waveform contenders for 5G: Suitability for short packet and low latency transmissions,” in IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Seoul, May 2014.
[28] Wang, X., Wild, T., Schaich, F., and Brink, S. ten, “Pilot-aided channel estimation for universal filtered multi-carrier,” submitted to IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference VTC–Fall ‘15, September 2015.
[29] Wild, T., Schaich, F., and Chen, Y., “5G air interface design based on universal filtered (UF-)OFDM,” in Intl. Conference on Digital Signal Processing, Hong Kong, August 2014.
[30] Higuchi, K. and Benjebbour, A., “Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) with successive interference cancellation for future radio access,” IEICE Transactions on Communications, vol. E98-B, no. 3, pp. 403–414, March 2015.
[31] Tse, D. and Viswanath, P., Fundamentals of Wireless Communication, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
[32] Benjebbour, A., Li, A., Saito, Y., Kishiyama, Y., Harada, A., and Nakamura, T., “System-level performance of downlink NOMA for future LTE enhancements,” in IEEE Global Communications Conference, Atlanta, December 2013.
[33] Benjebbour, A., Li, A., Kishiyama, Y., Jiang, H., and Nakamura, T., “System-level performance of downlink NOMA combined with SU-MIMO for future LTE enhancements,” in IEEE Global Communications Conference, Austin, December 2014.
[34] Saito, K., Benjebbour, A., Kishiyama, Y., Okumura, Y., and Nakamura, T., “Performance and design of SIC receiver for downlink NOMA with open-loop SU-MIMO,” in IEEE Intl. Conference on Communications (ICC), London, UK, June 2015.
[35] Taherzadeh, M., Nikopour, H., Bayesteh, A., and Baligh, H., “SCMA codebook design,” in IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Vancouver, September 2014.
[36] Nikopour, H. and Baligh, H., “Sparse code multiple access,” in IEEE Intl. Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, London, September 2013.
[37] Nikopour, H., Yi, E., Bayesteh, A., Au, K., Hawryluck, M., Baligh, H., and Ma, J., “SCMA for downlink multiple access of 5G wireless networks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conference, Austin, December 2014.
[38] Bayesteh, A., Yi, E., Nikopour, H., and Baligh, H., “Blind detection of SCMA for uplink grant-free multiple-access,” in IEEE International Symposium on Wireless Comm. Systems, Barcelona, August 2014.
[39] Au, K., Zhang, L., Nikopour, H., Yi, E., Bayesteh, A., Vilaipornsawai, U., Ma, J.. and Zhu, P., “Uplink contention based sparse code multiple access for next generation wireless network,” in IEEE Global Communications Conference Workshops, Austin, December 2014.
[40] Ping, L., Liu, L., Wu, K., and Leung, W.K., “Interleave-division multiple–access,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 938–947, April 2006.
[41] Kusume, K., Bauch, G., and Utschick, W., “IDMA vs. CDMA: Analysis and comparison of two multiple access schemes,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 78–87, January 2012.
[42] Chen, Y., Schaich, F., and Wild, T., “Multiple access and waveforms for 5G: IDMA and universal filtered multi-carrier,” in IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Seoul, May 2014.
[43] ICT-318555 5GNOW Project, “5G waveform candidate selection,” Deliverable D3.2, 2014, www.5gnow.eu/?page_id=418
[44] Lähetkangas, E., Pajukoski, K., Vihriälä, J. et al., “Achieving low latency and energy consumption by 5G TDD mode optimization,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications, Sydney, June 2014.
[45] Haneda, K., Tufvesson, F., Wyne, S., Arlelid, M., and Molisch, A.F., “Feasibility study of a mm-wave impulse radio using measured radio channels,” in IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Budapest, May 2011.
[46] Gustafson, C., Haneda, K., Wyne, S., and Tufvesson, F., “On mm-wave multi-path clustering and channel modeling,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 1445–1455, March 2014.
[47] Gustafson, C., Tufvesson, F., Wyne, S., Haneda, K., and Molisch, A. F., “Directional analysis of measured 60 GHz indoor radio channels using SAGE,” in IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Budapest, May 2011.
[48] International Telecommunications Union Radio (ITU-R), “Guidelines for evaluation of radio interface technologies for IMT-Advanced,” Report ITU-R M.2135, December 2008, www.itu.int/pub/R-REP-M.2135-2008
[49] 3GPP TR 36.912, “Feasibility Study for Further Advancements for E-UTRA,” Technical Report TR 36.912 V10.0.0, Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network, March 2011.
[50] Lauridsen, M., “Studies on Mobile Terminal Energy Consumption for LTE and Future 5G,” PhD thesis, Aalborg University, 2015.
[51] Schotten, H., Sattiraju, R., Gozalvez, D., Ren, Z., and Fertl, P., “Availability indication as key enabler for ultra-reliable communication in 5G,” in European Conference on Networks and Communications, Bologna, June 2014.
[52] Sattiraju, R. and Schotten, H.D., “Reliability modeling, analysis and prediction of wireless mobile communications,” in IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference Workshops, Seoul, May 2014.
[53] Sattiraju, R., Chakraborty, P., and Schotten, H.D., “Reliability analysis of a wireless transmission as a repairable system,” in Intl. Workshop on Ultra-Low Latency and Ultra-High Reliability in Wireless Communications, IEEE Global Communication Conference, Austin, December 2014.
[54] Beygi, S., Mitra, U., and Ström, E. G., “Nested sparse approximation: Structured estimation of V2V channels using geometry-based stochastic channel model,” IEEE Trans. on Signal Proc., vol. 63, no. 18, pp. 4940–4955, September 2015.
[55] Apelfröjd, R. and Sternad, M., “Design and measurement based evaluation of coherent JT CoMP – A study of precoding, user grouping and resource allocation using predicted CSI,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Comm. and Netw., vol. 2014, no. 100, 2014, http://jwcn.eurasipjournals.com/content/2014/1/100
[56] Ivanov, M., Brännström, F., Amat, A. Graell i, and Popovski, P., “Error floor analysis of coded slotted ALOHA over packet erasure channels,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 419–422, March 2015.
[57] Ivanov, M., Brännström, F., Amat, A. Graell i, and Popovski, P., “All-to-all broadcast for vehicular networks based on coded slotted ALOHA,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshop, London, June 2015.
[58] Holma, H. and Toskala, A., LTE for UMTS: Evolution to LTE-advanced, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
[59] 3GPP TS 36.211, “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical channels and modulation,” Technical Specification TS 36.211 V11.6.0, Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network, September 2014.
[60] 3GPP TS 36.213, “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical layer procedures,” Technical Specification TS 36.213 V11.9.0, Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network, January 2015.
[61] Thomsen, H., Pratas, N.K., and Stefanovic, C., “Analysis of the LTE access reservation protocol for real-time traffic,” IEEE Communication Letters, 2013.
[62] Thomsen, H., Pratas, N.K., and Stefanovic, C., “Code-expanded radio access protocol for machine-to-machine communications,” Trans. on Emerging Telecomm. Technologies, 2013.
[63] Pratas, N. K., Thomsen, H., Stefanovic, C., and Popovski, P., “Code expanded random access for machine-type communications,” in IEEE Global Conference on Communications Workshops, Anaheim, December 2012.
[64] Zanella, A. and Zorzi, M., “Theoretical analysis of the capture probability in wireless systems with multiple packet reception capabilities,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1058–1071, 2012.
[65] Cassini, E., Gaudenzi, R. D., and Herrero, O. del Rio, “Contention resolution diversity slotted ALOHA (CRDSA): An enhanced random access scheme for satellite access packet networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1408–1419, April 2007.
[66] Liva, G., “Graph-based analysis and optimization of contention resolution diversity slotted ALOHA,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 477–487, February 2011.
[67] Stefanovic, C. and Popovski, P., “ALOHA random access that operates as a rateless code,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 4653–4662, November 2013.
[68] Stefanovic, C. and Popovski, P., “Coded slotted ALOHA with varying packet loss rate across users,” in IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing, Austin, December 2013.
[69] Buzzi, S., Maio, A. De, and Lops, M., “Code-aided blind adaptive new user detection in DS/CDMA systems with fading time-dispersive channels,” IEEE Trans. Signal Proc., vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 2637–2649, 2003.
[70] Honig, M., Madhow, U., and Verdu, S., “Blind adaptive multiuser detection,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 944–960, 1995.
[71] Lin, D.D. and Lim, T.J., “Subspace-based active user identification for a collision-free slotted ad hoc network,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 612–621, 2004.
[72] Bockelmann, C., Schepker, H. F., and Dekorsy, A., “Compressive sensing based multi-user detection for machine-to-machine communication,” Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 389–400, April 2013.
[73] Kasparick, M., Wunder, G., Jung, P., and Maryopi, D., “Bi-orthogonal waveforms for 5G random access with short message support,” in European Wireless 2014, Barcelona, May 2014.
[74] Wunder, G., Jung, P., and Wang, C., “Compressive random access for post-LTE systems,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications, Sydney, June 2014.
[75] Schepker, H., Bockelmann, C., and Dekorsy, A., “Improving group orthogonal matching pursuit performance with iterative feedback,” in IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Las Vegas, September 2013.
[76] Schepker, H., Bockelmann, C., and Dekorsy, A., “Exploiting sparsity in channel and data estimation for sporadic multi-user communication,” in International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems, Ilmenau, August 2013.
[77] Monsees, F., Bockelmann, C., and Dekorsy, A., “Compressed sensing soft activity processing for sparse multi-user systems,” in IEEE Global Communications Conference Workshops, Atlanta, December 2013.
[78] Monsees, F., Bockelmann, C., and Dekorsy, A., “Compressed sensing neyman-pearson based activity detection for sparse multiuser communications,” in International ITG Conference on Systems Communications and Coding, Hamburg, February 2015.
[79] Ji, Y., Stefanovic, C., Bockelmann, C., Dekorsy, A., and Popovski, P., “Characterization of coded random access with compressive sensing based multi-user detection,” in IEEE Global Communications Conference, Austin, December 2014.