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The worldwide pandemic exacerbated the new role of the media.If previously the discussion was on whether new or traditional media had primacy in popularity and exposure, nowadays the question is whether communicating health issues through social and traditional media leads to understanding their content better and to more trust in both types of media.
We set the following objectives for this study:(1) to examine trust in the traditional and new media among university students,(2) according to the level of media trust to compose a psychological portrait,establish the most prevalent coping strategies,and emotional reactions to the pandemic.
213 university students (55.9% women,Mage=19 years) were tested from December 2020-March 2021.We examined the attitude towards information on coronavirus presented in the media and to investigate the level of severity of neurotic states,the level of psychological stress,and basic coping strategies used by respondents.
showed that although students generally prefer to use Internet news, trust in traditional media increased during the pandemic. We examined a general psychological portrait of young people derived from trust in the media. In the group of students who trust media information, we found indifference (39% of respondents) and helplessness (24.4%). In the group convinced that the media are hiding the actual state of affairs, anger prevailed (32.4%). The third group, confident that the media exaggerate everything, experienced indifference and anger (38.5% and 32.7%, respectively).
We may conclude that desire to learn more accurate and unbiased information firsthand indicates students’ attitude towards traditional media as more reliable sources of information.
Youth exposed to complex trauma (CT) show an increased risk of psychiatric morbidity, including a wide range of psychiatric disorders. However, to date, there is no specific diagnosis in the DSM-5 that capture the clinical complexity of these patients. Properly, the last version of the ICD-11 includes a diagnosis termed Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD), which considers the pattern of post-traumatic stress symptoms, plus life-impairing disturbances in self-organization (emotion dysregulation, negative self-concept and interpersonal problems). Clinical research about CPTSD, especially in younger population, is still limited.
To explore the symptomatology of CPTSD in a sample of youth exposed to CT and its association with worse clinical outcomes.
187 youth aged 7 to 17 years participated in the EPI_young_stress_project (116 with current psychiatric disorder and 71 healthy controls). CT was evaluated following the TASSCV criteria. To identify CPTSD symptomatology, we performed an exploratory factor analysis including CBCL and TEIQue items. The global level of functioning was measured by CGAS.
Preliminary results pointed that youth exposed to CT showed greater internalizing (p<.001) and externalizing (p<.001) symptomatology. Regardless of their current primary diagnosis based on DSM-5, youth exposed to CT reported more CPTSD symptomatology (p<.001). Moreover, youth with CPTSD showed greater use of psychotropic drugs (p<.001), higher and longer hospitalizations (p=.002) and worse overall functioning (p<.001).
The inclusion of the CPTSD in future versions of mental disorders manuals should increase the implementation of early specific trauma interventions, which may improve victims’ lives and reduce the risk of worse clinical outcomes.
The Covid-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the mental health of adolescents. Several descriptive studies and systematic reviews have shown an increase in suicide rates in this age group.
- To present a literary review on the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the mental health and suicidal behavior of adolescents around the world. - To present data on admission rates due to suicidal behavior during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic in a Spanish child-adolescent psychiatric hospitalization unit.
- We will present a literature review and a retrospective cross-sectional study on admission rates for suicidal behavior in a child-adolescent psychiatric hospitalization unit. - Admission rates for suicidal behavior during the year prior to the pandemic will be compared with rates relative to the first year of the pandemic.
- We have found a significant increase in admission rates for suicidal behavior during the year of the pandemic. Similar results have been found in different studies and meta-analyzes. - The socio-demographic characteristics of the patients are quite similar in the two periods of time analyzed, but the reference to intra-family problems has been more frequent in the year of the pandemic.
Our data is in line with other studies suggesting that the Covid-19 pandemic has had a strong impact on teenage suicidal behavior.
The assessment of social and emotional wellbeing (SEWB) among Aboriginal people in Australia and elsewhere is complex and challenging task. A culturally appropriate tool for screening SEWB among Aboriginal adults known as the Here and Now Aboriginal Assessment (HANAA) has been developed and evaluated. The HANAA is based on exploring key domains of Aboriginal concept of SEWB and is based on a yarning process aimed to initiate a semi-structured interview that covers each domain. Over the last ten years the HANAA has been widely used by Aboriginal mental health service providers around Australia and elsewhere.
There have been multiple requests by service providers for a similar tool to be developed for young Aboriginal people. The aim of this study was to develop a youth version of the HANAA.
A Working Group was established to guide the development of the youth HANAA. This work included discussion of assessment domains, prompt words and other adolescent specific considerations that were needed. The evlauation process was also discussed.
The adult version of HANAA was well accepted by participants. Reliability was good with kappa agreements between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal interviewers ranging from 0.5 to 1.0. Agreement between interviewers and treating clinicians on ecommended course of action was good.
Based on the previous field test results, it is expected that the youth HANAA will also be a culturally appropriate and useful tool which can be used by a range of service providers with differing levels of mental health training to assess SEWB among young Aboriginal people.
Youth ontogenesis contributes significantly to depressive disorders, causing pronounced atypia, a high level of comorbid pathology. A long-term depressive state lead can to persistent, adverse consequences.
To study the clinical, psychopathological and psychometric features of youth chronic endogenous depression (UCED).
62 patients of the age 16-25 were examined clinically and psychopathologically; the patients were first hospitalized from 2017 to 2020 for a chronic depressive state with non-psychotic mental disorders (ICD-10: F31, F32, F33, F34, F21 keys) lasting more than two years. Psychometric assessment was done by HDRS, SOPS, and SANS.
UCED are characterized by a pronounced atypia with a predominance of symptoms for negative affectivity with apathy, anhedonia, physical and mental asthenia, depressive devitalization. In contrast with non-chronic youth depressions, cognitive disorders, motor inhibition, a large proportion of comorbid pathology are presented in the chronic ones. Depending on the prevalence of additional psychopathological disorders, 2 types were distinguished: Type I – depression with a clear-cut affective psychopathological structure (54.8%, 34 patients); Type II - depression with the symptoms of other than affective registers (45.2%, 28 patients). Psychometric assessment on the HDRS scale, in the sub-scale “negative symptoms” of the SOPS scale, in the sub-scale “anhedonia-associality” of the SANS scale showed a greater severity of psychopathological symptoms in type II depression (p<0.05).
The obtained data confirm the differences between UCED and non-chronic youth depressions and demonstrate the aggravating effect of symptoms of the non-affective spectrum on the severity of UCED and the level of negative affectivity.
The COVID-19 pandemic presents challenges to the provision of community programs and access to mental health services for young people. We examined the feasibility, reach, and acceptability of multi-technology delivery of an integrated system that assesses and provides feedback on youth mental health and wellbeing and connects them to care within the context of a youth sports development program. The system was delivered via computer, telephone, and teleconference with 66 adolescent boys participating in a rugby league development program in three communities in Australia. Young people completed online wellbeing and mental health measures (Assess step), parents were provided with telephone feedback on results, support, and referral options (Reflect step), and youth received teleconferenced workshops and online resources (Connect step). The multi-technology delivery was feasible to implement, and reach was high, with barriers experienced at the Assess step but minimally experienced at the Reflect and Connect steps. Delivering the system via multiple forms of technology was rated as highly beneficial and enjoyable by young people. Players improved in self-reported prosocial behaviour, gratitude, and anxiety symptoms from pre- to post-program. Strong collaboration between researchers, organisational personnel, and community members is important for achieving these outcomes.
Cultural, social and legal markers of elite maturity were shifting over the central Middle Ages, generating changes which affected how young people experienced late childhood and early adulthood. This chapter examines how some of these developments unfolded in relation to child kingship. It reinforces an argument which recurs throughout the book: that change over time was more substantial than cultural and political differences between kingdoms. First, the chapter examines the shifting significance of a boy king’s knighting. The acceptance of arms had been part of a child king’s rite of passage to young adulthood in the mid-eleventh century but, a century and a half later, knighting had instead become a crucial element in a royal child’s rite of passage to kingship. Then the chapter turns to consider the seals produced for and used by boy kings, emphasising the increasing diversity in seal forms and their creation from the thirteenth century. A crucial theme throughout the entire discussion is how kingship altered a child’s progression from boyhood to manhood, distinguishing a boy king’s experience of adolescence from other elite youths.
This chapter examines the relationships between volunteerism and religion, between youth activism and Islamic charity. During the reign of King ʿAbdallah, informal groups that advocated volunteering flourished among youth in Saudi Arabia. The rise of youth activism in Saudi Arabia is tied to the rise of social media.
At the heart of this chapter is the Young Initiative Group (YIG), an informal organization that grew out of the efforts of youth who distributed meals during Ramadan 2009. The chapter explores how the YIG negotiated alternative forms of belonging and community through charity work. The YIG embedded its volunteering practices within the religious obligation of alms and compassion for the needy. The group’s community approach was rooted in an Islamic ethics of care. This appeared to be both a reflection of the personal religiosity of some of its founders and strategic positioning vis-à-vis the authorities, given the initiative’s lack of legal status. The YIG’s rhetorical emphasis on family-like relations among volunteers, together with a critique of consumption patterns and references to Islamic norms of benevolence, created an apolitical profile of a group that promoted social reform.
In this innovative study of everyday charity practices in Jeddah, Nora Derbal employs a 'bottom-up' approach to challenge dominant narratives about state-society relations in Saudi Arabia. Exploring charity organizations in Jeddah, this book both offers a rich ethnography of associational life and counters Riyadh-centric studies which focus on oil, the royal family, and the religious establishment. It closely follows those who work on the ground to provide charity to the local poor and needy, documenting their achievements, struggles and daily negotiations. The lens of charity offers rare insights into the religiosity of ordinary Saudis, showing that Islam offers Saudi activists a language, a moral frame, and a worldly guide to confronting inequality. With a view to the many forms of local community activism in Saudi Arabia, this book examines perspectives that are too often ignored or neglected, opening new theoretical debates about civil society and civic activism in the Gulf.
Children and young people constitute more than one quarter of all plaintiffs in rights-based strategic climate litigation cases filed globally up to 2021. This article examines the implications of this development for children's environmental rights inside and outside the courtroom, relying on the analysis of case documents, media coverage, and the broader literature on strategic climate litigation and children's rights. The article finds that children are well placed to make powerful arguments for intergenerational justice. Conversely, children's rights arguments that address their current-day grievances are under-utilized. More consistent inclusion of these types of claim could strengthen children's environmental rights, clarifying and enforcing legal obligations towards children in the context of the climate crisis as it unfolds. The involvement of children in strategic climate litigation, moreover, can advance the critical role of this demographic as stakeholder in climate solutions. However, the participation of children also raises ethical and practical dilemmas, which are currently poorly understood and only haphazardly addressed.
Over the past decade, hundreds of youth leadership initiatives have been established globally with the mission of grooming a new generation of leaders. This paper examines this largely unstudied and rapidly expanding leadership pipeline based on an ongoing study, which has collected data on 277 programmes that: target African youth, offer educational training or professional development, and have goals of cultivating leaders who will contribute to African development; and interviewed and surveyed 240 youth participants. Our purpose is twofold: (1) we offer an overview of the organisational approaches of these initiatives, which reveal a global ecosystem within and beyond Africa that is investing billions of dollars into youth leadership. Then, using case studies of the African Leadership Academy and University, and the Young African Leadership Initiative, (2) we ask what their tendency toward elite-driven strategies, corporate leadership models, and foreign collaboration may indicate about their larger politics and likely impact.
In spite of the growing recognition of the agency of youths in volatile societies, youths continue to be an under-utilized resource in conflict management. Thus, drawing on qualitative fieldwork in Nigeria, Adzande examines how youths are contributing to the management of farmer-herder conflicts. This study shows that youths are involved in informal policing as community vigilantes, as well as participating in mediation and the enforcement of restorative justice. A new initiative which is yet to be evaluated is the community-based security architecture in which youths can work with other actors to facilitate early warning, prevention, and resolution of conflicts between farmers and herders.
A new wave of global social movements is being led by young Africans. In the same way that a wave of European Baby Boomers took to the streets demanding social change as teenagers and young adults in the student protests of 1968, this cohort of young Africans are at the forefront of similar protests. And young sub-Saharan Africans are using social media to push back against tradition and fight for change, as exemplified by Nigeria’s #endSARS protests against police brutality. Driven by Twitter – at the movement’s peak in October 2020, 48 million #endSARS tweets were posted in just 10 days – #endSARS constituted the country’s most significant protest movement since pro-democracy rallies in the 1990s. Threatened by the power of platforms such as Twitter, the frequency and duration of internet shutdowns by governments across Africa is steadily increasing – in June 2021, the Nigerian government suspended Twitter in the country. For many young Nigerians #endSARS was a real political awakening. The protests created the recognition that young people could be a powerful political force, combined with the more brutal understanding that the establishment will respond violently to perceived challenges.
The world’s people are getting old. According to the United Nations Population Fund, in 2018, for the first time in history, people aged 65 or above outnumbered children under five. Europe has the greatest percentage of people over 60 (25 per cent) but rapid ageing is occurring everywhere: by 2050 most regions of the globe will have a quarter or more of their populations older than 60. But there is one area that is bucking this trend: all of the world’s 20 youngest countries by population are situated in Africa. By 2050, Africa will be home to one billion young people and by 2100 almost half of the world’s youth are expected to be from Africa. The UN’s World Population Prospects says: ‘In all plausible scenarios of future trends, Africa will play a central role in shaping the size and distribution of the world’s population over the next few decades.’ Only by listening to their voices, documenting the lives and dreams of the people who will lead, inspire, solve the problems and build our mutual future, can we begin to understand what it means to be young in an otherwise ageing world.
The chapter charts what we know of Thistlewood’s early Lincolnshire years, his character and appearance, his gentlemanly status and modest wealth, his fecklessness and gambling, the birth of his illegitimate son Julian, and his marriages – particularly to Susan, who stayed with him to the end. It follows his increasing radicalisation after the family’s arrival in London in 1811 and his joining Evans’s Society of Spencean Philanthropists in 1814.
Educational institutions around the world have long been targets of terrorist attacks. Schools, colleges, and universities often lack security measures against intentional threats and may be viewed as relatively easy, soft targets with high potential for mass casualties. The long-term psychosocial impact on children, youth, and survivors of terrorist attacks are significant and recovery remains a challenge. Deliberate attacks on students and children, in particular, can also often gain mass-media attention, provoke significant community unrest, and place a spotlight on the local government’s inability to protect the vulnerable. This study is an epidemiological examination of all terrorism-related events targeting educational institutions from 1970-2019.
Data collection was performed using a retrospective search through the Global Terrorism Database (GTD). The database was searched using the internal search functions for all events that occurred from January 1, 1970 - December 31, 2019. “Educational institutions” as a primary target type was selected for the purpose of this study and events were further sub-classified by country and attack type. All classifications were pre-determined by the GTD.
The GTD listed 4,520 attacks against educational institutions, recording 3,732 deaths and 9,920 wounded. This accounted for 2.7% of all terrorist attacks (total 168,003 attacks against all target types). There has been a downtrend in attacks since the 2014 peak when 344 attacks were recorded that year. Pakistan recorded the most attacks with 969 events, followed by Afghanistan (369), India (311), and Iraq (279). The most common attack types included bombing/explosions (2290), facility/infrastructure attacks (636), armed assaults (628), hostage takings (kidnappings ), assassinations (357), unarmed assaults (72), unknown (67), hostage takings (barricade incidents ), and hijackings (9).
Eight hundred seventy-three of the 4,520 attacks were recorded against teachers, professors, and instructors and 486 attacks were recorded against “other personnel” such as security and non-teaching staff.
Terrorist attacks on educational institutions are rare but significant target types. In total, 41.2% of attacks on educational institutions occurred in South Asia, followed by 18.9% in the Middle East and North Africa. Western Europe and North America accounted for 3.9% and 3.6%, respectively. Educational institutions around the world should evaluate their risks and put in place appropriate hardening measures as well as preparedness and recovery plans to intentional threats.
This chapter describes the second way in which participants in the piquetero movement partake in working-class routines: development. For many activists who came of age since the 1990s, participation in a piquetero organization provides the chance to develop a lifestyle that they were raised to see as honorable, but that socioeconomic transformations have made increasingly unfeasible. In a context with limited opportunities for personal growth, the movement offers a working class ethos, plus the resources and training to exercise it. The chapter also shows how the expectations inculcated to young members reflect the ideal of a proletarian family with a gendered division of labor. Boys tend to enroll in infrastructure projects, while girls are far more likely to choose programs associated with household chores. In addition, even though all young members are compelled to have discipline at work and self-restraint at home, the actual meaning of these ideals is gender-specific. For men, being a responsible worker is associated with manual labor and public life, while for women expectations are framed in terms of modesty, domesticity, and motherhood.
Australian schools are experiencing an increase in enrolments for students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Many of these students, who are frequently from migrant, refugee or asylum-seeker backgrounds, progress academically, but a small number experience learning challenges. In these circumstances, practitioners (school psychologists and guidance counsellors) assess the students to determine underlying factors contributing to limited academic progress, and ways in which the student’s learning can be supported and enhanced. However, formal assessment can be challenging due to language and cultural barriers. Considering the gaps in the research and training, the present article proposes an assessment framework and highlights strategies that can be adopted by practitioners at schools to enrich their decision-making and assessment process. Two case studies are used to highlight factors that can impact students’ academic difficulties. Further interview protocols and assessment measures that can be used to assist these students and their families are discussed. Ways in which school authorities can guide and support these students in the classroom and in the school are examined.
Health systems that have strong primary health care at their core have overall better patient outcomes. Primary health care is key to achieving Universal Health Coverage and the broader health-related Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. In 2018, at the launch of the Declaration of Astana, the World Health Organization formed the inaugural Primary Health Care Young Leaders’ Network.
This paper aims to demonstrate the scope for young professional-led communities of practice in fostering support systems for young leaders and strengthening the delivery of primary health care at multiple levels.
A description of the Young Leaders' Network community of practice model is presented, with examples of the work the members are doing, individually and collectively, to advance the science and practice of primary health care.
This initiative brought together 21 individuals from across the world, working across disciplines and within an array of socioeconomic contexts to improve primary health care in their respective countries.
This youth-led community of practice is able to share knowledge, evidence and resources to inform clinical and public health activities, policy initiatives, advocacy and research to improve primary health care delivery and health outcomes for communities across the globe.
Within two decades, Sierra Leone's ‘cliques’ have transformed from peripheral social clubs to warring Crips, Bloods, and Black street gangs at the heart of criminal and political violence. Nevertheless, they remain severely under-studied, with scholarship on Sierra Leonean youth marginality heavily focused on ex-combatants. Drawing on extended fieldwork with Freetown's cliques as they played the ‘game’ – the daily hustle to survive and resist the ‘system’ – this article offers two main contributions. First, it addresses the knowledge gap by charting the origins, evolution and contemporary organisation of these new urban players. Second, it argues that although this history reveals continuity in perennial forms of youth marginalisation, it also shows that the game itself has changed. Cycles of escalating violence and growth are hardwired into this new game. Exacerbated by a political system that sustains and exploits them, cliques present a far greater challenge to everyday peace than has hitherto been recognised.