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The year 2020 was marked by the COVID-19 pandemic that killed more than one million people. Scientists around the world are looking for an effective vaccine against this virus.
The objective of our study was to assess the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine by paramedics.
Descriptive and cross-sectional study including paramedics (nurses, orderlies) from the military hospital of Tunis. Data collection was carried out by a clinical psychologist. We studied the associations between the different characteristics of our population and the decision to accept or refuse vaccination against COVID-19.
A total of 161 paramedics agreed to answer our questionnaire. The average age was 37.73 years. The average number of years worked was 14.95 years. There were 85 women (52.8%) and 76 men (47.2%). The rapid discovery of the vaccine was hoped for by 94.4%. Vaccination was considered a means of collective protection by 84.5%. However, only 52.8% agreed to be vaccinated by the COVID-19 vaccine. The main factors significantly associated with refusal of the COVID-19 vaccine were previous refusal of influenza vaccination (p = 0.006).
Apprehension about vaccination does not appear to be sparing the future COVID-19 vaccine. To achieve vaccination coverage that would protect health care workers, several awareness and communication activities must be carried out.
As of 25 July 2021, the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency reported 1,422 new COVID-19 cases, 188,848 total cases, and 2.073 total deaths (1.10% fatality rates). Since the first SARS-CoV-2 case was reported, efforts to find a treatment and vaccine against COVID-19 have been widespread. Four vaccines are on the WHO’s emergency use listing and are approved of their usage; BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, AZD1222, and Ad26.COV2.S. Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 need at least 14 days to achieve effectiveness. Thus, people should abide by prevention and control measures, including wearing masks, washing hands, and social distancing. However, a lot of new cases were reported after vaccinations, as many people did not follow the prevention control measures before the end of the 14 days period. There is no doubt we need to break free from mask mandates. But let us not decide the timing in haste. Even if the mask mandates are eased, they should be changed depending on the number of reported cases, vaccinations, as well as prevention and control measures on how circumstances are changing under the influence of mutant coronavirus.
Australia suffered two waves of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in 2020: the first lasting from February to July 2020 was mainly caused by transmission from international arrivals, the second lasting from July to November was caused by breaches of hotel quarantine which allowed spreading into the community. From a second wave peak in early August of over 700 new cases a day, by November 2020 Australia had effectively eliminated community transmission. Effective elimination was largely maintained in the first half of 2021 using snap lockdowns, while a slow vaccination programme left Australia lagging behind comparable countries. This paper describes the interventions which led to Australia's relative success up to July 2021, and also some of the failures along the way.
This study aimed to investigate the environmental contamination of nucleic acid at 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCOV) vaccination site and to evaluate the effect of improvement to the vaccination process. Nucleic acid samples were collected from the surface of the objects in 2019-nCOV vaccination point A (used between 15 November 2020 and 25 December 2020) and point B (used after 27 December 2020) in a comprehensive tertiary hospital. Samples were collected from point A before improvement to the vaccination process, and from point B (B1 and B2) after improvement to the vaccination process. The real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction method was used for detection. The positive rate of vaccination room was 47.06% (24/51) at point A. No positive result was found in point B1 both at working hours (0/27) and after terminal disinfection (0/27). In point B2, the positive results were found in vaccine's outer packaging and staff gloves at working hours, with a positive rate of 7.41% (2/27). The positive rate was 0 (0/27) after terminal disinfection in point B2. The nucleic acid contamination in the vaccination room of 2019-nCOV vaccine nucleic acid sampling point is serious, which can be avoided through the improvement and intervention (such as personal protection, vaccination operation and disinfection methods).
All the more telling for being an arbitrary and often intimate historical record, poetry provides the primary source for this chapter’s account of nineteenth-century medicine. Poems by John Gibson, Thomas Fessenden, George Crabbe, William Wordsworth, and Humphrey Davy disclose that the practice of medicine, whether by quacks or the learned, was so ineffectual at the start of the century as to allow the Romantics to plausibly argue for the curative effects of poetry and the imagination, both of which became integral to a new science of life. The professional medicine that sprang from this science, however, asserted its autonomy from poetry, most effectively by pathologising such poets as John Keats and Oscar Wilde, who in turn offered their own verse ripostes. Its positivism and ‘hands-on’ diagnostics yielded new conceptions of the body and touch that Alfred Tennyson, G. M. Hopkins, and Walt Whitman each reflect upon in their poetry. Finally, the growing acceptance of the germ theory of disease enabled pathologies of art as illness that are variously elaborated upon and joked about by Edward Lear, Henry Savile Clerk, Wilde, and Ronald Ross, who also reaches for poetry to record his sublimely momentous discovery of the malaria pathogen in 1896.
The “shutdown” economy of April 2020 is compared to a normally functioning economy both in terms of market and nonmarket activities. Three novel methods and data indicate that a full shutdown of “nonessential” activities puts market production about 25 % below normal in the short run. At an annual rate, a full shutdown costs $9 trillion, or about $18,000 per household per quarter. Employment already fell 24 million by early April 2020. These costs indicate, among other things, the value of innovation in both health and general business sectors that can accelerate the time when, and the degree to which, normal activity resumes.
The goal of vaccinating the majority of Americans against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a timely manner requires a robust federal vaccine distribution plan involving pharmacy partnerships. Previously, the 2009 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) H1N1 Vaccine Pharmacy Initiative resulted in approximately 10% of adults who received a vaccine during the 2009 pandemic reporting they were vaccinated at a pharmacy. This proportion has already largely increased for COVID-19 vaccinations, with the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) using similar channels for vaccination as existing partnerships with national pharmacy and grocery retail chains for the COVID-19 Community-Based Testing Program. It continues to prove crucial that the Biden administration’s national COVID-19 vaccine distribution plan, including the Federal Retail Pharmacy Program, focus on ensuring equitable vaccine distribution and access in medically underserved areas and to vulnerable populations, enabling maximum uptake of COVID-19 vaccines.
To examine the associations between factors based on the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and behavioral intention of free and self-paid (600 RMB or 91 USD) COVID-19 vaccination of 80% effectiveness and rare mild side effects among doctors and nurses in China.
362 doctors and 1702 nurses in major departments of five hospitals of three Chinese provinces.
An anonymous online survey was conducted from October to November 2020, facilitated by hospital administrators through online WeChat/QQ working groups. Data on outcome expectations, self-efficacy, norms, and COVID-19-related work experiences were collected. Multivariate logistic regression models were used for data analysis.
The logistic regression analysis showed that physical (e.g., protective effect of vaccination) and self-evaluative outcome expectations (e.g., anticipated regret), self-efficacy, norms (e.g., descriptive norm, subjective norm, professional norm, and moral norm), and job satisfaction were significantly and positively associated with the free and self-paid COVID-19 vaccination intention outcomes among doctors and nurses, adjusted for background variables. Doctors who had engaged in COVID-19-related work reported higher self-paid vaccination intention.
Health promotion is needed to improve the uptake of COVID-19 vaccination among healthcare workers. Such interventions may consider modifying the identified factors of vaccination intention, including strengthening perceived efficacy, positive feelings about vaccination, the need to avoid future regret, self-efficacy, and social norms. Future studies should examine the actual behavior patterns of COVID-19 vaccination and testing the efficacy of promotion intervention through randomized controlled studies.
Public health has been given over ever more to individual citizens to vouchsafe. Democracy requires its participants to take responsibility for themselves, not be ordered about by a state. That applies primarily to chronic and lifestyle diseases, where the individual can have an effect. But epidemic diseases have not disappeared, though they are no longer as important in the industrialized world as earlier. To prevent pandemics, the state and its interventions are still needed. Because every infected person poses a threat to others, and no one wants to bear the inconvenience of preventive measures, statutory enforcement is required. This dilemma came out starkly in the coronavirus pandemic. In effect, the state held a third of humanity in house arrest during the spring of 2020. In other ways, it regulated its subjects drastically, with fines and even jail for violating pandemic restrictions. But not all violation of required behavior could be just made unlawful. To get people to wear masks, for example, passing laws and regulations was not very effective. Citizens had to buy-in to the need for masks and adopt them voluntarily. Much the same will hold for a vaccine, if and when one becomes available.
Community pharmacies were underutilized as vaccination locations during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Since that time, community pharmacies are a common location for seasonal influenza vaccinations with approximately one-third of adults now getting vaccinated at a pharmacy. Leveraging community pharmacies to vaccinate during a pandemic such as pandemic influenza or the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic will result in a more timely and comprehensive public health response. The purpose of this article is to summarize the results of a strategic planning meeting held in 2017 that focused on operationalizing pandemic influenza vaccinations at a regional supermarket chain pharmacy. Participating in the planning session from the supermarket chain were organizational experts in pharmacy clinical programs, managed care, operations leadership, supply chain, information technology, loss prevention, marketing, and compliance. Additionally, experts from the county and state departments of health and university faculty collaborated in the planning session. Topics addressed included (1) establishing a memorandum of understanding with the state, (2) developing an internal emergency response plan, (3) scaling the pandemic response, (4) considerations for pharmacy locations, (5) staffing for pandemic response, (6) pandemic vaccine-specific training, (7) pharmacy workflow, (8) billing considerations, (9) documentation, (10) supplies and equipment, (11) vaccine supply chain, (12) communications, and (13) security and crowd control. Information from this planning session may be valuable to community pharmacies across the nation that seek to participate in COVID-19 pandemic vaccinations.
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a vector-borne infection associated with a variety of potentially serious complications and sequelae. Vaccination against TBE is strongly recommended for people living in endemic areas. There are two TBE vaccination schemes – standard and rapid – which differ in the onset of protection. With vaccination in a rapid schedule, protection starts as early as 4 weeks after the first dose and is therefore especially recommended for non-immune individuals travelling to endemic areas. Both schemes work reliably in immunocompetent individuals, but only little is known about how TBE vaccination works in people with HIV infection. Our aim was to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the rapid scheme of TBE vaccination in HIV-1 infected individuals. Concentrations of TBE-specific IgG > 126 VIEU/ml were considered protective. The seroprotection rate was 35.7% on day 28 and 39.3% on day 60. There were no differences between responders and non-responders in baseline and nadir CD4 + T lymphocytes. No serious adverse events were observed after vaccination. The immunogenicity of the TBE vaccination was unsatisfactory in our study and early protection was only achieved in a small proportion of vaccinees. Therefore, TBE vaccination with the rapid scheme cannot be recommended for HIV-1 infected individuals.
Besides addressing the increased prevalence of psychiatric disorders, social challenges, and building community resilience during the crisis, mental health professionals (MHPs) are in a unique position to assist the vaccination drive against coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in various nations. Vaccination programs are adversely affected by misinformation, fake news and vaccine hesitancy fuelled by social media. MHPs can enable this vital public health strategy by prioritizing vaccination for individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) and substance use disorders, promote awareness and public education, debunk misinformation and integrate psychosocial care into the vaccination drives. In order to target the health inequity and discrimination faced by people with SMI coupled with their additional risks, the authors urge the global mental health fraternity to tailor these crucial roles with respect to COVID-19 vaccination based on the regional needs and contexts.
In March 2020, academic medical center (AMC) pharmacies were compelled to implement practice changes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These changes were described by survey data collected by the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program which were interpreted by a multi-institutional team of AMC pharmacists and physician investigators.
The CTSA program surveyed 60 AMC pharmacy departments. The survey included event timing, impact on pharmacy services, and corrective actions taken.
Almost all departments (98.4%) reported at least one disruption. Shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) were common (91.5%) as were drug shortages (66.0%). To manage drug shortages, drug prioritization protocols were utilized, new drug supply vendors were identified (79.3%), and onsite compounding was initiated. PPE shortages were managed by incorporating the risk mitigation strategies recommended by FDA and others. Research pharmacists supported new clinical research initiatives at most institutions (84.0%), introduced use of virtual site visits, and shipped investigational drugs directly to patients. Some pharmacies formulated novel investigational products for clinical trial use. Those AMC pharmacies within networked health systems assisted partner rural and inner-city hospitals by sourcing commercial and investigational drugs to alleviate local disease outbreaks and shortages in underserved populations. Pharmacy-based vaccination practice was expanded to include a wider range of pediatric and adult vaccines.
The COVID-19 pandemic radically altered hospital pharmacy practice. By adopting innovative methods and adapting to regulatory imperatives, pharmacies at CTSA sites played an extremely important role supporting continuity of care and collaborating on critical clinical research initiatives.
Anthropogenic activities can lead to several devastating effects on the environment. The pollutants, which include the discharge of effluents, runoffs in the form of different lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of pesticides, heavy metals, and other contaminants, can harm exposed fauna and flora. The aquatic environment is the ultimate destination for many pollutants which negatively affect aquatic biodiversity and even can cause a species to become extinct. A pollutant can directly affect the behavior of an animal, disrupt cellular systems, and impair the immune system. This harm can be reduced and even mitigated by adopting proper approaches for the conservation of the target biota. Among aquatic organisms, cetaceans, such as the Yangtze finless porpoise, Irrawaddy dolphin, Ganges River dolphin, Amazon River dolphin, and Indus River dolphin, are at a higher risk of extinction because of lack of knowledge and research, and thus insufficient information with respect to their conservation status, management, and policies. Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of mass mortalities of cetaceans. This article reviews the limited research reported on stress and pneumonia induced by pollution, stress-induced pneumonia and immunosuppression, pneumonia-caused mass mortalities of aquatic mammals, and vaccination in wildlife with a specific focus on aquatic mammals, the role of genomics in vaccine development and vaccination, and the major challenges in vaccine development for biodiversity conservation.
Pertussis is a highly contagious infectious disease and remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Over the last decade, vaccination has greatly reduced the burden of pertussis. Yet, uncertainty in individual vaccination coverage and ineffective case surveillance systems make it difficult to estimate burden and the related quantity of population-level susceptibility, which determines population risk. These issues are more pronounced in low-income settings where coverage is often overestimated, and case numbers are under-reported. Serological data provide a direct characterisation of the landscape of susceptibility to infection; and can be combined with vaccination coverage and basic theory to estimate rates of exposure to natural infection. Here, we analysed cross-sectional data on seropositivity against pertussis to identify spatial and age patterns of susceptibility in children in Madagascar. A large proportion of individuals surveyed were seronegative; however, there were patterns suggestive of natural infection in all the regions analysed. Improvements in vaccination coverage are needed to help prevent additional burden of pertussis in the country.
Between December 31, 2019, and August 30, 2020 (date of this article), the novel coronavirus and its corresponding infection, coronavirus disease (COVID-19), increased to more than 25 million cases, and 843 158 deaths have been registered. Countries around the world have been affected, albeit in different levels and intensities.
Despite implementations of preventive public health measures, most countries are seriously preparing for 1 or more waves. The threat of this surge is likely to persist until herd immunity is acquired either by natural infection or through vaccination. However, given the time frame needed for herd immunity to occur and the low probability that a vaccine will be available on a global scale by the coming fall and winter seasons, contingency preparedness plans should be established and put in place for the coming days or months. These plans should help mitigate new peaks of the pandemic while relaxing the social isolation rules, patient, public health, and hospital levels.
In this article, we discuss recommendations that practicing physicians and public health agencies should provide to individuals, especially those at risk of infection, to take and implement pre-emptive measures in anticipation of the potential next peak of the pandemic.