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Constitutional law’s twofold logic of inquiry into authorization and prohibition provides the basic structure for constitutional law reasoning. It also supplies the method by which constitutional lawyers break down into discrete, manageable questions the complex set of facts and legal claims that a difficult constitutional problem presents. Finally, as Chapter 2 discussed, this logic rests on several presuppositions that further shape the analysis of any constitutional problem. We can now begin to consider how to solve a problem once we have identified the questions of constitutional law it raises. The answer to a constitutional question that is at all perplexing, or controversial among competent lawyers, can seldom if ever be identified by simply pointing to the constitutional text. Questions that can be answered in that fashion (do Wyoming and California really elect the same number of senators?) do not give rise to serious constitutional law debate, however puzzling they may be from other perspectives.
Seven oceanographic expeditions were conducted between the years 2013 and 2018 to determine the horizontal and vertical distribution schemes in the epipelagic and mesopelagic copepod community structure of the Caribbean Oceanic ecoregion (CAO) and the oceanographic variables that regulate it. Four indicator species are suggested for the North Equatorial Current and the Caribbean Surface Water (CSW) mass (Clausocalanus furcatus, Oncaea venusta, Temora stylifera and T. turbinate) and two indicator species for deep-water masses such as the Western North Atlantic Central Water (NACW) and the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) (Mormonilla phasma and Conaea rapax). The copepod assemblage responds to local oceanographic patterns that are regulated (24%) by the variability of dissolved oxygen and temperature in the water column. The horizontal structure of the copepod assemblage in offshore waters presented a spatial sectorization. Three zones were differentiated: (1) oceanic Colombian zone; (2) influence of the Magdalena River zone; and (3) offshore north-east zone. Water mass mixing processes and migration mechanisms favour the homogeneity of the vertical assemblage of copepods in the CAO ecoregion. This study provides relevant information on the structure and density of copepod species, providing key information to describe the ecological processes and the different responses to the oceanographic factors that modulate them.
We have grown intermetallic ErPd2Si2 single crystals employing laser diodes with the floating-zone method. The temperature dependence of the unit-cell parameters was determined using synchrotron and in-house X-ray powder diffraction measurements from 20 to 500 K. The diffraction patterns fit well with the tetragonal I4/mmm space group (No. 139) with two chemical formulae within the unit cell. The synchrotron powder diffraction study shows that the refined unit-cell parameters are a = 4.10320(2) Å, c = 9.88393(5) Å at 298 K and a = 4.11737(2) Å, c = 9.88143(5) Å at 500 K, resulting in the unit-cell volume V = 166.408(1) Å3 (298 K) and 167.517(2) Å3 (500 K). In the whole studied temperature range, no structural phase transition was observed. Upon cooling, the unit-cell parameters a and c are shortened and elongated, respectively.
The Behavioral Agreement for severe-and-enduring clients with anorexia nervosa and its preparatory worksheets provide a structured-strategic plan of action for adult clients to practice collaboratively with their Support(s). It incorporates client and Support traits to determine what is realistic and unrealistic for long-term change.
This chapter introduces a rationale for a YA Temperament Based Therapy with Support version of treatment. In YATBT-S, parents are primary “Supports,” or the “S” in TBT-S. This chapter addresses concepts unique to young adult development, including a model for parental involvement specifically tailored for the YA life stage. It addresses why parents need to be included in treatment for YA with AN. Components of YA developmental stages and forms of parental assistance are outlined to establish a collaborative, interdependent treatment model.
The manual is divided into four parts. Part 1 introduces clinicians to TBT-S, its fundamental philosophy and neurobiologically based principles upon which treatment has been developed to augment other ED therapies. Part 2 outlines the logistics to prepare for and apply TBT-S in multiple treatment settings. Part 3 details TBT-S treatment modules and activities. It is the heart of the manual for treatment providers. Part 4 describes how TBT-S can be applied in various treatment settings Experiential TBT-S activities, glossary, client and Support handouts, and treatment schedules are provided in the addenda.
The geology of the Schroeder Hill region near the head of the Shackleton Glacier, central Transantarctic Mountains, consists of Triassic Fremouw Formation and overlying Falla Formation strata intruded by Jurassic Ferrar Dolerite sills. At ‘Alfie’s Elbow', south-east of Schroeder Hill, upper Fremouw strata are overlain by Upper Cenozoic Sirius Group deposits. These upper Fremouw beds differ from all other examined upper Fremouw strata in the Shackleton Glacier region in being carbonaceous. Quartz-pebble conglomerate characterizes the basal Falla beds, emphasizing a change in provenance. Sirius Group beds occur as a stratigraphic succession draped on modern topography and as structureless sand wedged in modern microtopography. Fremouw beds locally are arched with the fold axis approximately parallel to regional normal faulting related to the uplift and formation of the Transantarctic Mountains.
Chapter 7 explores voices at the margin of society in The Nigger of the ‘Narcissus’. To the extent this novel on seafaring is autobiographical, it also explores Conrad himself as a marginal subject. The novel is one of the most sympathetic portrayals of a class of people frequently considered to be marginal: a multinational group of physical laborers paid a meager wage, living in harsh and deadly conditions, executing their menial jobs heroically (with notable exceptions). To move from the margin to the center, take up the pen and write a compelling story about this life for the middle-class literary establishment – first published in the conservative W. E. Henley’s The New Review in 1897 – is the part of Conrad’s achievement I focus on in this chapter. The chapter explores how Conrad makes his readers listen to the voice of the sailors, reflect on the value of their work, and appreciate the importance of seemingly menial, physical labor – like the heroism of serving coffee, which the novel discusses.
Theories about plot structure and the extent of their value. ‘The Seven Basic Plots’ (Christopher Booker). Five-act structure (Gustav Freytag). Joseph Campbell’s hero’s journey. Tsvetan Todorov’s five stages of action. The inevitability of plot. Kenn Adams’s story spine. Kurt Vonnegut’s story shapes. ‘Seeding’ conditions in order to make later events believable. The use of more than one timeframe. The risks inherent in confounding reader expectation.
‘You have a broad trajectory for your story when you start writing because you know the beginning and have a sense of an ending, but this trajectory will not be a straight line – the most direct journey from A to Z, where everything goes right, is the least interesting and probably not worth writing about.’
The short story as a way into discussions of plot. The event-plot short story. Synchronised (reader and character) moments of discovery as a key pleasure in fiction. Poetic justice. The relationship of the character to the theme. The Chekhovian / slice-of-life / anti-plot short story. Plot is sidelined as a prime focus in favour of narratives reflective of human experience. Plot and time: plot is only available in retrospect and the location of the reader in – and in relationship to – the narrative defines the meaning of the story. Telling it slant: the usefulness of an indirect route to meaning.
‘Plot may depend not so much on a sequence of events unfolding chronologically as on what the protagonists and the reader know about the events and when they know it.’
Ideology is a central concept in political psychology. Here, we synthesise the scholarly debate's major themes. We first examine the ways in which ideology has been operationalised and discuss its prevalence (or lack thereof) in the mass public. This is followed by a discussion of the top-down and bottom-up forces that shape citizens' ideology. Top-down processes include political elites and socialisation. Bottom-up processes range from political values, basic human values, and personality to biology and genetics. Finally, we outline steps that we would welcome in the next generation of research on political ideology. These include fundamental questions about the causal relationship between different bottom-up factors and a call for more attention to measurement of key constructs and of open science practices in the study of political ideology. We hope this chapter inspires others and sets the stage for the next generation of research on political ideology.
This Element explores what it means for two theories in physics to be equivalent (or inequivalent), and what lessons can be drawn about their structure as a result. It does so through a twofold approach. On the one hand, it provides a synoptic overview of the logical tools that have been employed in recent philosophy of physics to explore these topics: definition, translation, Ramsey sentences, and category theory. On the other, it provides a detailed case study of how these ideas may be applied to understand the dynamical and spatiotemporal structure of Newtonian mechanics - in particular, in light of the symmetries of Newtonian theory. In so doing, it brings together a great deal of exciting recent work in the literature, and is sure to be a valuable companion for all those interested in these topics.
Rejecting the notion, endorsed by John Searle, of an “individual institution,” this chapter treats them as inherently social, and expresses no surprise that institutions have formed a central focus of sociological analysis since the discipline's founding. Engaging especially with work in the area of organizational theory and, beyond sociology, organizational and management studies, this chapter identifies an underlying dimension along which the literature can be arrayed, running from (macro, structural) scripts to (more micro, agentic) skills, as embodied in work by John Meyer and Neil Fligstein, respectively. Between these endpoints, this chapter identifies not only a similarly well-known Scandinavian institutionalism associated with March and Olsen and focusing on the microfoundation of bounded rationality, but also literature on institutional logics and institutional work emerging from business and management programs and only now starting to impact the broader social sciences. Beyond traditional strengths in explaining institutional maintenance, work in these idioms is making real progress in accounting for institutional origins and change.
The gravity and magnetic survey methods have been in use since the early days of geophysical prospecting for petroleum. They find most application in frontier exploration. In that context, regional and global datasets are often available to assist with early evaluations.
The design and execution of modern, targeted surveys has been transformed as a result of advances in instruments and the advent of satellite navigation. Imaging and interpretive techniques have been transformed by modern computer-based approaches. The potential field methods are extremely cost-effective at delineation of basins and determining structural controls on those basins, especially delineating normal faulting within rift basins. Magnetic surveys yield depth to basement and delineate any igneous rocks present. Such surveys therefore enable early decisions about cost-effective placement of seismic surveys and other intensive follow-ups.
In more mature exploration, gravity and gravity gradient data combine well with seismic data in distinguishing between alternate interpretations, thereby removing ambiguities. High-resolution magnetic data offer an effective means of fault connection in conjunction with regional seismic coverage, if shales or mudstones are present.
In a production environment, gravity logging is the most sensitive density log available, and 4D-gravity finds application in gas production and also water-flood monitoring.
Fragmentation and amalgamation of supercontinents play an important role in shaping our planet. The break-up of such a widely studied supercontinent, Rodinia, has been well documented from several parts of India, especially the northwestern and eastern sector. Interestingly, being located very close to the Proterozoic tectonic margin, northeastern India is expected to have had a significant role in Neoproterozoic geodynamics, but this aspect has still not been thoroughly studied. We therefore investigate a poorly studied NE–SW-trending Shillong Basin of Meghalaya from NE India, which preserves the stratigraphic record and structural evolution spanning the Neoproterozoic Era. The low-grade metasedimentary rocks of Shillong Basin unconformably overlie the high-grade Archean–Proterozoic basement and comprise a c. 4000-m-thick platform sedimentary rock succession. In this study, we divide this succession into three formations: lower Tarso, middle Ingsaw and upper Umlapher. A NW–SE-aligned compression event later caused the thrusting of these sedimentary rocks over the basement with a tectonic contact in the western margin, resulting in NE–SW-trending fold belts. The rift-controlled Shillong Basin shows a comparable Neoproterozoic evolution with the equivalent basins of peninsular India and eastern Gondwana. The recorded Neoproterozoic rift tectonics are likely associated with Rodinia’s break-up and continent dispersion, which finally ended with the oblique collision of India with Australia and the intrusion of Cambrian granitoids during the Pan-African Orogeny, contributing to the assembly of Gondwana. This contribution is the first to present a complete litho-structural evolution of the Shillong Basin in relation to regional and global geodynamic settings.
This chapter assesses factors of alignment between institutions and the technology of network infrastructures, and how to achieve or restore alignment. This is a significant challenge, since institutions and technologies are “two worlds apart” that need to be brought together. This is accomplished in three steps. First, we specify how technology and institutions are interrelated at three layers of analysis: structure, governance, and transactions. By connecting these three layers with the services to be provided, we are able to identify the conditions to be fulfilled within each layer, in order for the critical functions to be safeguarded. Second, we focus on characterizing different problems of coordination that develop either within the technological dimension, or within the institutional dimension. Our underlying argument is that modalities of coordination adopted to solve these problems may partially differ, depending on whether we are looking at the technological side or the institutional side, but that they ultimately need to share compatible characteristics if alignment is to be reached and the critical functions satisfied. Third, when disturbances of different orders challenge the existing arrangements, we provide indications as to how alignment can be reached, or reestablished, at the three layers we have identified.
The introductory chapter presents the argument of the book, that transnational lawmakingcoalitions exist beneath the surface of the UN human rights treaty bodies’ formal actors, rules, and processes. TLCs shed light on the particularities of the treaty interpretation process and provide an analytical lens to understanding the key role expert bodies and issue professionals play in the development of human rights law. The chapter situates the book in the relevant literatures and outlines its research methods and structure.
Inorganic ions are essential factors stabilizing nucleosome structure; however, many aspects of their effects on DNA transactions in chromatin remain unknown. Here, differential effects of K+ and Na+ on the nucleosome structure, stability, and interactions with protein complex FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1, and RNA polymerase II were studied using primarily single-particle Förster resonance energy transfer microscopy. The maximal stabilizing effect of K+ on a nucleosome structure was observed at ca. 80–150 mM, and it decreased slightly at 40 mM and considerably at >300 mM. The stabilizing effect of Na+ is noticeably lower than that of K+ and progressively decreases at ion concentrations higher than 40 mM. At 150 mM, Na+ ions support more efficient reorganization of nucleosome structure by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 and ATP-independent uncoiling of nucleosomal DNA by FACT as compared with K+ ions. In contrast, transcription through a nucleosome is nearly insensitive to K+ or Na+ environment. Taken together, the data indicate that K+ environment is more preserving for chromatin structure during various nucleosome transactions than Na+ environment.