To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Random testing presents three main chanllenges: the test oracle problem, the test data selection problem, and the problem of when to finish testing. These are discussed in detail, and unit-test and application-test examples are worked using a simple but effective solution to these. Barriers to full automation are presented along with an overview of more advanced types of random testing. Some of the limitations are examined through the introduction of faults.
Psychiatric diagnoses are derived from expert opinion (1). Since no objective tests or markers are on the horizon, clinical psychiatry is anchored to “the patient’s altered experience, expression and existence, associated with suffering in self and/or others”(2). Many studies have examined diagnostic stability over time. In the last years investigators have been reporting prospective and retrospective consistencies of diagnoses between two time points, specially in first episodes of psychosis (3).
To examine the prospective and retrospective stability of diagnostic categories 2 years after the first episode of psychosis
Data were examined from the First Episode Psychosis Program of Navarra (PEPsNA), a prospective observational study of a cohort of patients with first-episode psychosis in Navarra (Spain). Diagnosis was assigned using DSM-IV-TR at baseline and 24 months later. Diagnoses were divided into 5 categories: Affective psychosis, Schizophrenia spectrum psychosis, Schizoaffective disorder, acute psychosis and other diagnoses. Diagnostic change was examined using prospective and retrospective consistency
A total of 78 first-episode psychosis cases with baseline and 24 months follow-up were identified. Table 1 shows the diagnosis movement matrix, and Figure 1 its graphical representation. Of cases, 71.8% (56/78) had the same baseline and 24 months follow-up diagnosis. Prospective and retrospective consistencies are shown in Table 2
The prospective and retrospective consistencies of Schizophrenia spectrum psychosis and acute psychosis were higher than others. Affective psychosis and Schizoaffective disorder show very variable consistencies
This paper is concerned with spreading phenomena of the classical two-species Lotka-Volterra reaction-diffusion system in the weak competition case. More precisely, some new sufficient conditions on the linear or nonlinear speed selection of the minimal wave speed of travelling wave fronts, which connect one half-positive equilibrium and one positive equilibrium, have been given via constructing types of super-sub solutions. Moreover, these conditions for the linear or nonlinear determinacy are quite different from that of the minimal wave speeds of travelling wave fronts connecting other equilibria of Lotka-Volterra competition model. In addition, based on the weighted energy method, we give the global exponential stability of such solutions with large speed $c$. Specially, when the competition rate exerted on one species converges to zero, then for any $c>c_0$, where $c_0$ is the critical speed, the travelling wave front with the speed $c$ is globally exponentially stable.
The beneficial effects of a healthy diet on the quality of life have prompted the food industry to develop low-fat variants, but fat content directly affects the physicochemical and sensory properties of food products. The utilization of high-pressure homogenization (HP) and incorporation of hydrocolloids have been suggested as strategies to improve the physical stability and rheological properties of light cream. Thus, this study aims to analyze the associated effect of high-pressure homogenization (80 MPa) and three different hydrocolloids: microcrystalline cellulose, locust bean gum and xanthan gum, on emulsion stability and rheological properties of ultra-high-temperature (UHT) light cream (ULC) with a 15% w/w fat content. The stability of ULC was determined by the ζ potential of oil droplets and emulsion stability percentage. Rheological characterization was based on flow behavior tests and dynamic oscillatory measurements, which were carried out in a rheometer. Results showed that the high-pressure homogenization process did not influence the emulsion stability of the treatments. Moreover, the hydrocolloids added to systems present weak interactions with milk proteins since all ULC showed macroscopical phase separation. The samples presented the same rheological behavior and were classified as pseudoplastic fluids (n < 1). ULC treated at 80 MPa was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) more consistent than the treatments at 20 MPa. All ULC showed a predominant elastic behavior (G′ > G″), and a remarkable increase in both G′ and G″ at 80 MPa. The results presented in this study highlight the potential of HP for altering some rheological characteristics of UHT light cream, for example, to increase its consistency. These results are important for the dairy industry and ingredient suppliers, in the standardization of UHT light cream and/or to develop low-fat products.
In this chapter, I argue that my preferred version of total pragmatic encroachment compares favorably to alternative explanations of pragmatic encroachment. In section 7.1, I raise the problem of forced choice against the genuine constituent explanation and the practical adequacy threshold explanation. In sections 7.2 to 7.4, I suggest a number of problems for the shifting thresholds view and argue that total pragmatic encroachment avoids them. In section 7.5, I deal with an objection to total pragmatic encroachment that concerns the (in)stability of rational belief and rational credences. In section 7.6, I turn to three more general objections to demonstrate that my account of total pragmatic encroachment can handle them and I explain how the sum of views I argue for coheres.
In its post-1932 legal history, the constitutional stability, Thailand has been seeking for, has been harshly convulsed by the conflict between the traditional concept of authority and political stability which underpins the so-called ‘Thai-style democracy’ (‘TSD’) and increasingly sturdy demands for liberal democracy and constitutionalism, culminating in ‘colour-coded politics’ which started in 2006. The conflict between the ‘Yellow’ and the ‘Red’ ideologies resulted in a number of military coups, installing the TSD and the abolition of electoral politics. Thailand’s constitutional graveyard can then be seen as constitutional saṃsāra—the cycle of repeated birth and death. Based on this saṃsāra metaphor, I ask: To what extent do the irresistible and continuous rise of liberal demands and the trends of constitutionalism, modernisation, and democratisation in contemporary Thai legal history challenge the TSD? In other words, I examine how ‘modern innovations’ challenge Thailand’s constitutional saṃsāra and the attempt to halt it, that is, the imposition of constitutional nirvana. I answer this question by assessing the competing theories of law and politics (normativism vs anti-liberal realism), the concepts of ‘institution’, and the concept of the state of exception. I also use Hans Kelsen’s and Carl Schmitt’s theories/approaches to law and politics which have been transplanted into the Thai soil to theorise my answers.
The idea there is a “balance of nature” was a staple of the schools of natural philosophy from which biology emerged. Not until the second half of the twentieth century was the concept of a balance of nature rigorously characterized as ecological stability, and the metaphysical speculations about its cause superseded with scientific hypotheses about its basis. But significant uncertainty and controversy exists about what features of an ecological system’s dynamics should be considered its stability and thus no consensus has emerged about how ecological stability should be defined. Instead, ecologists have employed a confusing multitude of different terms to attempt to capture apparent stability properties, e.g., constancy, persistence, resilience, resistance, robustness, tolerance. This chapter diagnoses and resolves the underlying lack of conceptual clarity about ecological stability. It presents a comprehensive account of stability as a three-fold concept that crucially depends on two reference specifications. The account clarifies the concepts ecologists have used that are defensible, their interrelationships, and their potential relationships with other biological properties. Besides providing insights about how problematic scientific concepts should be characterized, the idea that ecological stability is a conceptually confused concept is also criticized.
G. E. Hutchinson inimitable phrase “the ecological theater and evolutionary play” captures the indispensable contribution ecology and evolutionary science make to understanding the biological world. Both concern vast overlapping portions of that world, and alone neither supplies a complete accounting of it. Just as ecological and evolutionary sciences are at the core of biology, philosophy of evolutionary biology and ecology are at the core of philosophy of biology. This book introduces readers to the philosophically rich issues ecology poses. Ecology has also never been more important as a science, and its philosophy more important to society. Climate change, biodiversity loss, and other looming environmental challenges make ecology’s role in understanding such threats and identifying solutions all the more critical. When ecology is applied and its insights marshalled to address these problems and guide policy-formation interesting philosophical issues emerge. This book explores the often ethically charged dimensions of applied ecological science. Topics include: the ecological niche, whether there are distinctively ecological laws, the reality of biological communities, ecological stability and the balance of nature, ecological modeling and reduction, how biodiversity should be characterized, how scientific progress should be conceptualized when ecology is applied, and the fact/value distinction in applied ecology.
Mathematical models of biological populations and communities are the most common type of representation in ecology, with a wide array of functional forms and many different types of variables and parameters. This complexity and the uneasy relationship between theoretical and empirical work in ecology makes for fertile philosophical fodder. For example, most ecological models are highly idealized, incorporating unrealistic assumptions to make mathematical model analysis tractable. This is troubling in ecology as mathematical ecologists often uncritically emulate mathematically sophisticated models of physics to ensure their modeling is mathematically rigorous. Showing the characterization of ecological stability as Lyapunov stability as indefensible is one goal of this chapter. Another goal is assessing the ecological promise of individual-based models (IBMs) and the philosophical issues they pose. IBMs do not aggregate over, or abstract from, the details of interactions between individual organisms. This modeling strategy is part of a more general, well-vetted “methodologically-individualistic” approach to representing the world often employed in social sciences. Debates about methodological individualism in the social sciences reveal insights about how individual-based ecological modeling should be understood and indicate their reductive potential in ecology.
Inspired by gecko’s adhesive feet, a wheeled wall climbing robot is designed in this paper with the synchronized gears and belt system acting as the wheels by considering both motion efficiency and adhesive capability. Adhesion of wheels is obtained by the bio-inspired adhesive material wrapping on the outer surface of wheels. A ducted fan mounted on the back of the robot supplies thrust force for the adhesive material to generate normal and shear adhesion force whilemoving on vertical surfaces. Experimental verification of robot climbing on vertical flat surface was carried out. The stability and the effect of structure design parameters were analyzed.
In open Kelly and Jackson networks, servers are assigned to individual stations, serving customers only where they are assigned. We investigate the performance of modified networks where servers cooperate. A server who would be idle at the assigned station will serve customers at another station, speeding up service there. We assume interchangeable servers: the service rate of a server at a station depends only on the station, not the server. This gives work conservation, which is used in various ways. We investigate three levels of server cooperation, from full cooperation, where all servers are busy when there is work to do anywhere in the network, to one-way cooperation, where a server assigned to one station may assist a server at another, but not the converse. We obtain the same stability conditions for each level and, in a series of examples, obtain substantial performance improvement with server cooperation, even when stations before modification are moderately loaded.
Ecology is indispensable to understanding the biological world and addressing the environmental problems humanity faces. Its philosophy has never been more important. In this book, James Justus introduces readers to the philosophically rich issues ecology poses. Besides its crucial role in biological science generally, climate change, biodiversity loss, and other looming environmental challenges make ecology's role in understanding such threats and identifying solutions to them all the more critical. When ecology is applied and its insights marshalled to address these problems and guide policy formation, interesting philosophical issues emerge. Justus sets them out in detail, and explores the often ethically charged dimensions of applied ecological science, using accessible language and a wealth of scientifically-informed examples.
This chapter elaborates some initial efforts in establishing a tractable method, namely Formal Analysis (FA), for assessing the stability of networked microgrids under uncertainties from heterogeneous sources including DERs. Both centralized and distributed formal methods are established for computing the bounds of all possible trajectories and estimating the stability margin for the entire networked microgrid system.
We prove that all invariant random subgroups of the lamplighter group L are co-sofic. It follows that L is permutation stable, providing an example of an infinitely presented such group. Our proof applies more generally to all permutational wreath products of finitely generated abelian groups. We rely on the pointwise ergodic theorem for amenable groups.
This chapter presents the conceptual and analytical basics of feedback in a carefully integrated way. The analytical details presented here can also be found many other places: root locus, Black's formula, the fundamental oscillation condition, and the like are treated in many places. What is often missing in texts for the advanced student are the conceptual insights. Why, for instance, is the phase response of the loop transmission so important? What does it mean for a complex pole pair to "dominate" a system response, and why is such dominance so common? Why is open-loop control better for speed than closed-loop control? As always, conceptual understanding and analytical mastery are mutually reinforcing.
This is a book about classical feedback control, complete with a review of the linear system theory that can be a stumbling block for many interested in feedback. The author had four groups of people in mind when writng this book. The first group comprises struggling undergraduates who despair of moving forward because too many things simply do not make any conceptual sense. The second group are the star test takers who find that they must put all that they learned out of their heads and rely on an entirely different set of skills to build physical systems, and who wonder why this is. The third group are the young graduate students preparing for their doctoral qualifying exams and find that a deeper level of insight is called for than was needed in their undergraduate years. And the final group are the successful professional practitioners who have made themselves very effective despite a secret unease with the physical foundations of their field. If you fall into one or more of these categories, or if you are simply curious, this book is for you.
Machine-learning algorithms can be viewed as stochastic transformations that map training data to hypotheses. Following Bousquet and Elisseeff, we say such an algorithm is stable if its output does not depend too much on any individual training example. Since stability is closely connected to generalization capabilities of learning algorithms, it is of interest to obtain sharp quantitative estimates on the generalization bias of machine-learning algorithms in terms of their stability properties. We describe several information-theoretic measures of algorithmic stability and illustrate their use for upper-bounding the generalization bias of learning algorithms. Specifically, we relate the expected generalization error of a learning algorithm to several information-theoretic quantities that capture the statistical dependence between the training data and the hypothesis. These include mutual information and erasure mutual information, and their counterparts induced by the total variation distance. We illustrate the general theory through examples, including the Gibbs algorithm and differentially private algorithms, and discuss strategies for controlling the generalization error.