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Radiocarbon (14C) dating is often carried out upon multi-specimen samples sourced from bioturbated sediment archives, such as deep-sea sediment. These samples are inherently heterogeneous in age, but existing 14C calibration techniques were originally developed for age homogeneous material, such as archaeological artifacts or individual tree rings. A lack of information about age heterogeneity leads to a systematic underestimation of a sample’s true age range, as well as the possible generation of significant age-depth artifacts during periods of the Earth’s history coinciding with highly dynamic atmospheric Δ14C. Here, a new calibration protocol is described that allows for the application of sedimentological priors describing sediment accumulation rate, bioturbation depth and temporally dynamic species abundance. This Bayesian approach produces a credible calibrated age distribution associated with a particular laboratory 14C determination and its associated sedimentological priors, resulting in an improved calibration, especially in the case of low sediment accumulation rates typical of deep-sea sediment. A time-optimized computer script (biocal) for the new calibration protocol is also presented, thus allowing for rapid and automated application of the new calibration protocol. This new calibration protocol could be applied within existing age-depth modeling software packages to produce more accurate geochronologies for bioturbated sediment archives.
Paleoperspectives of climate provide important information for understanding future climate, particularly in arid regions such as California, where water availability is uncertain from year to year. Here, we present a record from Barley Lake, California, focusing on the interval spanning the Younger Dryas (YD) to the early Holocene (EH), a period of acute and rapid global climate change. Twelve radiocarbon dates constrain the timing between 12.9 and 8.1 ka. We combine a variety of sediment analyses to infer changes in lake productivity, relative lake level, and runoff dynamics. In general, the lake is characterized by two states separated by a <200-year transition: (1) a variably deep, lower-productivity YD lake; and (2) a two-part variably shallow, higher-productivity EH lake. Inferred EH winter-precipitation runoff reveals dynamic multidecadal-to-centennial-scale variability, in agreement with the EH lake-level data. The Barley Lake archive captures both hemispheric and regional signals of climate change across the transition, suggesting a role for both ocean-atmosphere and insolation forcing. Our paleoperspective emphasizes California's sensitivity to climate change and how that change can generate abrupt shifts in limnological regimes.
Heavy mineral analysis is a long-standing and valuable tool for sedimentary provenance analysis. Many studies have indicated that heavy mineral data can also be significantly affected by hydraulic sorting, weathering and reworking or recycling, leading to incomplete or erroneous provenance interpretations if they are used in isolation. By combining zircon U–Pb geochronology with heavy mineral data for the southern North Sea Basin, this study shows that the classic model of sediment mixing between a northern and a southern source throughout the Neogene is more complex. In contrast to the strongly variable heavy mineral composition, the zircon U–Pb age spectra are mostly constant for the studied samples. This provides a strong indication that most zircons had an initial similar northern source, yet the sediment has undergone intense chemical weathering on top of the Brabant Massif and Ardennes in the south. This weathered sediment was later recycled into the southern North Sea Basin through local rivers and the Meuse, leading to a weathered southern heavy mineral signature and a fresh northern heavy mineral signature, yet exhibiting a constant zircon U–Pb age signature. Thus, this study highlights the necessity of combining multiple provenance proxies to correctly account for weathering, reworking and recycling.
This chapter focuses on the factors that influence the erosion, transport, and storage of sediment at global and drainage-basin scales. It examines global variations in sediment fluxes by rivers and the factors that influence these variations, including human effects. It introduces the concepts of the sediment delivery ratio and the sediment budget, and demonstrates how estimation of sediment budgets provides insight into spatial patterns of sediment production, storage, and transport within drainage basins. It also shows how sediment budgets have been used to understand human impacts on sediment dynamics at drainage-basin scales and discusses the value of sediment budgets for watershed management. It reviews approaches that have been used to try to examine sediment movement at watershed scales, such as various fine-sediment tracing technologies, and addresses challenges to estimating sediment dynamics at large scales, including the sediment-budget closure problem.
Sediment transport in rivers provides a dynamic linkage between flow and channel form. Topics examined in this chapter include differences among wash load, suspended bed-material load, and bedload; entrainment of particles on the bed into motion and into suspension; flow competence; the influence of particle mixtures on entrainment relations; the major factors influencing concentration profiles of suspended sediment in river flows; mechanisms of bedload transport and approaches to the development of bedload and bed-material transport equations; and factors that complicate understanding and prediction of bed-material transport in rivers, including armoring, bedforms, modality, particle–particle interactions, spatial-temporal variability, turbulence, and the validity of transport threshold relations. The use of particle-tracing methods in combination with information on channel change to estimate bed-material transport is also presented.
Research on producer willingness to adopt individual best pasture management practices (BMPs) is extensive, but less attention has been paid to producers simultaneously adopting multiple, complementary BMPs. Applications linking primary survey data on BMP adoption to water quality biophysical models are also limited. A choice-experiment survey of livestock producers is analyzed to determine willingness to adopt pasture BMPs. Sediment abatement curves are derived by linking estimates of producer responsiveness to incentives to adopt rotational grazing with a biophysical simulation model. Current cost share rates of $24/acre should yield a 12% decrease in sediment loading from pastures.
We examined the radiocarbon (14C) reservoir effect in Lake Kutubu using tephrochronology and terrestrial plant material to deliver a precise age-depth profile and sedimentation rates for this lake. Based on the presence of two tephra horizons (Tibito and Olgaboli), we found a reservoir age offset in sediments of between 1490 and 2280 14C yr using the sediment ages derived from the lead-210 (210Pb) dating method. The live submerged biological samples collected exhibited a higher reservoir age offset than the sediment. This is most likely a result of delayed transport of “bomb” 14C from the atmosphere to aquatic and sedimentary system. The 14C reservoir effect increased with distance from the lake inlet and also decreased with depth. Dissolution of 14C-depleted carbon from surrounding limestone and direct in-wash of old soil or vegetation remnants from the catchment are the most likely causes of the 14C reservoir effect. Based on limestone areas mapped in Papua New Guinea, we indicate lakes which may be subject to a significant 14C reservoir effect. The results of this study demonstrate the magnitude of the 14C reservoir effect in lakes and provide insights to the correct interpretation of past environmental and archaeological events in PNG.
Investigation of Lake Quinault in western Washington, including a reflection seismic survey, analysis of piston cores, and preliminary mapping in the steep, landslide-prone Quinault River catchment upstream of the lake, reveals evidence for three episodes of earthquake disturbance in the past 3000 yr. These earthquakes triggered failures on the lake’s underwater slopes and delta front, as well as subaerial landsliding, partial channel blockage, and forced fluvial sediment aggradation. The ages of the three Lake Quinault disturbance events overlap with those of coseismically subsided, coastal marsh soils nearby in southwest Washington that are interpreted to record ruptures of the Cascadia megathrust. Absent from Lake Quinault, however, are signals of obvious disturbance from five additional subduction earthquakes inferred to have occurred during the period of record. The lack of evidence for these events may reflect the limitations of the data set derived from the detrital, river-dominated lake stratigraphy but may also have bearing on debates about segmentation and the distribution of slip along the Cascadia subduction zone during prior earthquakes.
We started a geochemical mapping campaign in the Early Pleistocene fluviatile Kedichem Formation in the Netherlands in order to meet the demand for more information about subsurface sediment compositions. Geochemical data were collected during a sampling campaign, and about 600 samples from the Kedichem Formation were analyzed. By linking the geochemical data with lithological classifications from the TNO-NITG borehole database, we established a geochemical prediction model.
Elements were divided into classes according to their geochemical behaviour in relation to lithological parameters. For each of the classes, we combined lithological groups in to groups with relevant geochemical differences. By calculating for each element the average composition in each of these groups, we were able to predict the geochemical composition of subsurface sediments by ‘translating’ the spatial lithological data from the TNO-NITG borehole database into geochemical data. We visualized this model by calculating and interpolating the average composition of horizontal slices of the Kedichem Formation. The model performance is fairly good, although it has a tendency to underestimate extreme values.
We investigated the spatial variability of the heavy-mineral composition in the Early Pleistocene fluviatile Kedichem Formation in the Netherlands in order to meet the demand for more information about subsurface sediment composition. We first determined the spatial extension and thickness of the sediment body, then used Fuzzy clustering techniques on a database containing approx. 2000 heavy-mineral counts from the Kedichem Formation to map the spatial extension of the various sediment provenances within the formation. Three clusters could be discerned, one representing a combined Meuse-Scheldt source, the other two representing a mixed Rhine-Baltic source. We made slice maps at several depths through the formation, and plotted the cluster memberships.
The maps show an overall dominance of the Meuse-Scheldt source in the south of the Netherlands, whereas the Rhine-Baltic source occurs mainly in the central Netherlands. The methods employed show that it is possible to map and study the 3-D variation in heavy-mineral composition and hence sediment provenance in the Dutch subsurface with the use of simple statistical and visualization techniques.
Nebalia mediterranea sp. nov. (Crustacea, Leptostraca) is described from the Aegean coast of Turkey and Northern Cyprus. The new species is closely related to other sympatric species in the eastern Mediterranean, N. strausi and N. kocatasi, according to general body appearance. The new species differs, however, from other Nebalia species in having a rostrum about 2.5 times as long as wide, the antennular scale is clearly more than twice as long as wide, the fourth article of the antennule has only one short thick distal spine, the third article of the antenna has three similar spine-like setae on external lateral face, the first article of the second maxilla endopod is 1.2 times as long as the second article, the exopod of the second maxilla is longer than the first article of the endopod, pleonites 5–7 have distally rounded to slightly truncated denticles along posterior dorsal borders, the protopod of pleopod 4 has 4 serrations along posterior border, and the terminal seta of the uropods is about 1.8 the length of rami.
Benthic communities form an important component of the marine food chain. Their occurrence also provides information on the health of the ecosystem. A study was carried out to understand the distribution and abundance of macrobenthos along with sediment characteristics and physicochemical parameters in Visakhapatnam Harbour, a major port along the east coast of India. In all 84 macrobenthic taxa were reported from the port area of which 60 were polychaetes and 24 were other invertebrate taxa. Our observations revealed an increase in the number of polychaete species observed over the last 20 years from this region. An earlier study reported 38 polychaete species in 1975 and a year later the number of polychaete species reported was 12, indicating an increase in the number of polychaete species in the present study by about 150%. The macrobenthic abundance and dominance of species varied with the seasons. Pre-monsoon was dominated by Cirratulus sp., during monsoon tanaids were dominant indicating a seasonal shift in the occurrence and dominance of macrobenthos. During post-monsoon, Cossura coasta was dominant followed by Nephtys dibranchis and amphipods. Sediment characteristics (sand, silt and clay), organic carbon and dissolved oxygen were the important factors influencing the abundance and species diversity. The abundance of macrobenthic forms also varied with inner and outer harbour region. Higher species diversity was observed in the outer harbour suggesting the outer harbour has semi-polluted conditions such as higher dissolved oxygen (DO) and salinity, low nutrients (nitrite, nitrate and silicate) and low organic carbon in the sediment.
Experimental observations show that a strong magnetic field has a dramatic influence on the sedimentation of RBCs, which motivates us to model the sedimentation of red blood cell (RBC) under strong external magnetic body force. To model the sedimentation of a RBC in a square duct and a circular pipe, a recently developed technique derived from the lattice Boltzmann and the distributed Lagrange multiplier/fictitious domain methods (LBM-DLM/FD) is extended to employ the mesoscopic network model for simulations of the sedimentation of a RBC in flow. The flow is simulated by the LBM with a strong magnetic body force, while the network model is used for modeling RBC deformation. The fluid-RBC interactions are enforced by the Lagrange multiplier. The sedimentation of RBC in a square duct and a circular pipe is simulated, which demonstrates the developed method's capability to model the sedimentation of RBCs in various flows. Numerical results illustrate that the terminal settling velocity increases incrementally with the exerted body force. The deformation of RBC has a significant effect on the terminal settling velocity due to the change in the frontal area. The larger the exerted force, the smaller the frontal area and the larger the RBC deformation become. Additionally, the wall effect on the motion and deformation of RBC is also investigated.
The variations in the composition and structure of macroinvertebrate benthic communities in relationship with the marine sediment enrichment with heavy metals were investigated in the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia. Standard community parameters as well as the trophic and ecological structure were analysed in 18 stations sampled in six localities. Highest values of diversity descriptors (S, N and H′) were recorded in the less-polluted localities and vice versa. Besides, the results of AMBI and BENTIX indexes were also concordant with those obtained with the classical diversity parameters and matched with the sediment heavy metals distribution in the Gulf of Gabes. Compared with the northern and southern parts of the Gulf, the central area was found to be the most polluted and to host the most-affected benthic community. In addition, biotic indexes were found to be very useful tools to monitor the ecological quality status of benthic assemblages.
During the summer, from 1996–2000, vertical profiles of conductivity, temperature and transmissivity were obtained near the tidewater glacier of Marian Cove, King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula. The aims for the study were to determine the short-term variations of water structure due to hydrographic forcings and to understand sedimentation of suspended particulate matter in Antarctic fjord environments. Four distinct water layers were identified in the ice-proximal zone of the cove: i) a surface layer composed of cold and turbid meltwater, ii) a relatively warm Maxwell Bay inflow layer with characteristics of outer fjord water, iii) a turbid/cold mid-depth layer (40–70 m) originating from subglacial discharge, and iv) a deep layer comprised of the remnant winter water. The main factor influencing the characteristics of glacial meltwater layers and driving deposition of suspended particles in the cove is tidal forcing coupled with wind stress. The relatively small amount of meltwater discharge in Marian Cove yields low accumulation rates of non-biogenic sedimentary particles in the cove. The response to north-western and western winds, coupled with flood tide, may promote settling and sedimentation of suspended particles from turbid layers in the ice-proximal zone of the cove.
Despite Holothuria scabra's wide distribution and status as one of the best candidates for sustaining the development of tropical sea cucumber aquaculture, very few data are available regarding the organic fraction it assimilates in practice. In this paper we report experimental results where H. scabra's diet was supplemented with various 15N-labelled organic fractions of sediment. We used juveniles weighing between 38 and 88 mg at the beginning of the experiment (~2 cm long and 30 days old). Their growth was measured over a four-week period and their 15N composition recorded. The results showed that H. scabra juveniles assimilated all added organic components from both dissolved and particulate fractions of the sediment. Bacteria seem to be an important food source for juveniles, even more so than microphytobenthos (diatoms).
Floods through inundated urban environments constitute a hazard to the population and
infrastructure. A series of field measurements were performed in an inundated section of
the City of Brisbane (Australia) during a major flood in January 2011. Using an acoustic
Doppler velocimeter (ADV), detailed velocity and suspended sediment concentration
measurements were conducted about the peak of the flood. The results are discussed with a
focus on the safety of individuals in floodwaters and the sediment deposition during the
flood recession. The force of the floodwaters in Gardens Point Road was deemed unsafe for
individual evacuation. A comparison with past laboratory results suggested that previous
recommendations could be inappropriate and unsafe in real flood flows.
The concentrations of organophosphoric acid triesters (OPEs) in water samples from Maizuru Bay were in the range of 3.0–62 ng/l. In general, the concentrations of OPEs were found in the order of TBXP > TDCPP > TCEP > TBP > TCP > TPP > TEP. The organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) diazinon, fenitrothion, iprobenfos and chlorpyrifos were detected in water samples. The concentrations of OPEs in sediment from Maizuru Bay were in the range of <0.5–56 µg kg−1 dry weight (dw). Among OPPs, diazinon in sediment samples were in the range of 1.8–71 µg kg−1 dw. However, the detection frequencies of fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos in sediment were low. The concentrations of OPEs in mussels from Maizuru Bay were in the range of <1–34 µg kg−1 wet weight (ww). The concentrations of OPEs were found in the order of TBP > TDCPP > TCP > TBXP = TPP = TCEP. Pesticides were detected in mussels, but these concentrations were lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) values. The partition coefficients between water and sediment (Kws) of diazinon and fenitrothion were 200–1300 and 200–300, respectively and the partition coefficients between water and biological samples (Kwb) of diazinon and fenitrothion were 700–3300 and 450–700, respectively, suggesting that these pesticides accumulate in biological samples at higher rates than in sediment.
The Rb/Sr ratio of lake sediments has been demonstrated to be a potential indicator of chemical weathering by increasing work. However, Rb and Sr in lake sediments are derived from both chemical weathering and physical erosion. Rb and Sr of different forms in lake sediments may record different environmental processes and information. In this study, the variation patterns of Rb and Sr of different forms in sediments of Daihai Lake were investigated. The results show that Rb and Sr of different forms display noticeably different variation patterns due to their different sources and associated environmental processes. Using the Rb/Sr ratios of bulk lake sediments to reflect chemical weathering is not accurate. The non-residual Sr of the sediments without detrital carbonates, representing the Sr leached from the catchment, can be used as an index of chemical weathering because the weathering of Sr minerals is very sensitive to climate change, and the non-residual Sr content of the sediment is determined more by Sr2 + influx than by the physicochemical conditions of lake water. The correspondence between the non-residual Sr and TIC/TOC in Daihai Lake also indicates that the non-residual Sr of the sediments is a good indicator of chemical weathering in the catchment.