To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this chapter we discuss the osteology of the primate hindlimb and pelvic girdle of the newborn. This region in newborn hominoids (apes and humans) is discussed based on the literature and illustrated based on museum specimens. Subsequently, the hindlimb skeleton of newborn tarsiers, Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and strepsirrhines (lemurs and lorises) are described. At birth, the os coxa of all primates is represented by three ossified elements (ilium, pubs, ischium), which are connected at synchondroses centered at the acetabulum. Generally, cercopithecoids, tarsiers, and galagids more frequently have ossified femoral and tibial epiphyses at birth than other primates. In all newborn primates, the talus and calcaneus has commenced ossification. Naviculars have commenced ossification in many strepsirrhines, tarsiers and all known cercopithecoids (but few other anthropoids). Many primate species vary in the number of tarsals ossified at birth. This chapter also includes preliminary histological observations on variations in epiphyseal growth plates of newborn, and on differing rates of early postnatal ossification of the tarsus.
This chapter provides an overview of the anatomy of the primate pelvis, with a particular focus on the features of the hominoid (ape) and human pelvic morphologies. Underlying sources of morphological variation such as phylogenetic signals, sexual dimorphism and obstetric function are examined, as well as general patterns of pelvic anatomical variation within Homo sapiens.
Pelvic internal organs change in volume and position during radiotherapy. This may compromise the efficacy of treatment or worsen its toxicity. There may be limitations to fully correcting these changes using online image guidance; therefore, effective and consistent patient preparation and positioning remain important. This review aims to provide an overview of the extent of pelvic organ motion and strategies to manage this motion.
Methods and Materials:
Given the breadth of this topic, a systematic review was not undertaken. Instead, existing systematic reviews and individual high-quality studies addressing strategies to manage pelvic organ motion have been discussed. Suggested levels of evidence and grades of recommendation for each strategy have been applied.
Various strategies to manage rectal changes have been investigated including diet and laxatives, enemas and rectal emptying tubes and rectal displacement with endorectal balloons (ERBs) and rectal spacers. Bladder-filling protocols and bladder ultrasound have been used to try to standardise bladder volume. Positioning the patient supine, using a full bladder and positioning prone with or without a belly board, has been examined in an attempt to reduce the volume of irradiated small bowel. Some randomised trials have been performed, with evidence to support the use of ERBs, rectal spacers, bladder-filling protocols and the supine over prone position in prostate radiotherapy. However, there was a lack of consistent high-quality evidence that would be applicable to different disease sites within the pelvis. Many studies included small numbers of patients were non-randomised, used less conformal radiotherapy techniques or did not report clinical outcomes such as toxicity.
There is uncertainty as to the clinical benefit of many of the commonly adopted interventions to minimise pelvic organ motion. Given this and the limitations in online image guidance compensation, further investigation of adaptive radiotherapy strategies is required.
This article examines the treatment of the pelvis in the Pilates exercises “Single Leg Stretch” and “Leg Circles.” The teaching practices of the hips, as commonly explained in Pilates educational manuals, reinforce behaviors of a noble-class and racially “white” aesthetic. Central to this article is the troubling notion of white racial superiority and, specifically, the colonizing, prejudicial, and denigrating mentality found in the superiority of whiteness and its embodied behaviors. Using the two Pilates exercises, I illuminate how perceived kinesthetic understandings of race in the body may be normalized and privileged. By examining the intersections between dance and Pilates history, this article reveals the ways embodied discourses in Pilates are “white” in nature, and situates Pilates as a product of historically constructed social behaviors of dominant Anglo-European culture.
Radiographic evaluation of the pelvis and spine often starts with plain radiographs, most commonly ordered after a traumatic injury. Patients with non-traumatic back pain do not routinely need radiographs. Indications for plain films in these patients include age older than 55 years, or back pain lasting longer than 4 weeks. Thoracolumbar radiology is capable of diagnosing fractures of the vertebral bodies, such as burst or compression fractures, or transverse fractures due to distraction injuries. Ligamentous injuries can be identified by widening or rotation of the spinous processes, or by dislocation of one vertebral body relative to another. Osteomyelitis, tumors, and Paget disease may be diagnosed if thoracolumbar involvement is present. In the thoracolumbar spine, a burst fracture may be mistaken for a less serious compression fracture. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis, performed on many trauma patients, may be more accurate in diagnosing injuries of the thoracolumbar spine.
This article reviews the main trends in the evolution of the vertebrate axial skeleton, with special focus on mammals. The structure of vertebrae is exposed according to traditional and current conceptions and several examples of species-specific and topography-specific adapta tions are given. The relationships between stature and the anatomy of the bony girdles surrounding the spine are discussed. Hypotheses on the influence of gravity on axial morphogenesis are formulated.
The line joining the two iliac crests is classically regarded as the anatomical landmark determining the inter-vertebral space L4–L5 for the spinal punctures. Its variability has been reported but never related to predictive clinical anatomic factors identifying patients groups in which there is increased risk of miscalculation of the spinal level.
Two sagittal pelvic anatomical angles, called ‘pelvic incidence’ and ‘pelvic lordosis’ were measured on lateral X-rays of the pelvis of 132 normal individuals and 49 spondylolysis patients. The values were compared with the sagittal projection of the intercrestal line on the disco-vertebral lumbar structures.
A strict relation was observed between this projection of the intercrestal line and the sagittal pelvic anatomical angles. The greater the pelvic incidence, the higher the intercrestal line was projected, all the more in patients with spondylolysis with a listhesis or a disc narrowing.
The relation between the pelvic sagittal angles and the intercrestal line projection explains the variability described for this anatomical landmark. It implies precautions minimizing neurological risk in the case of a puncture carried out more cranially than expected, particularly for high values of pelvic incidence occurring in spinal pathologies such as spondylolysis, in the elderly or in the obese patients. In these cases, we recommend the use of spinal imaging during the procedure to assist selection of the desired insertion level.
The acetabular point was analysed by studying human pelvic bones from 326 individuals ranging from newborns to age 97 y. The bones were categorised into 3 groups according to the degree of fusion for the 3 elements of the pelvis: nonfused (59), semifused (5) and fused (262). The acetabular point in immature pelvic bones is clearly represented by the point of the fusion lines for each bony element at the level of the acetabular fossa. In adult pelvic bones the acetabular fossa has an irregular clover-leaf shape, the superior lobe being smaller than the anterior and posterior lobes. Cross-sectional analysis of acetabular morphology suggested that the acetabular point in adult pelvic bones is always represented by the indentation between the superior and the anterior lobes of the acetabular fossa.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.