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Chapter 4 turns to the pedagogical workings of the Brutus: it instills in the reader a new sense of how to organize and assess the literary past. Syncrisis is central to conceptualizing the past and to portraying individuals and groups across cultures and generations. The dialogue also spends a considerable amount of time reflecting on historical accuracy, for example in the discussions of Coriolanus and Themistocles (41–44), the laudatio funebris (62), the beginning of Latin literature with Livius Andronicus (72–73), and Curio’s dialogue about Caesar’s consulship (218–19). Taken together these reflections on rhetorical presentation of the past help us to understand the freedom with which Cicero handles the data of his literary history. Several claims, exaggerations, and fabrications can be explained by Cicero’s desire to craft meaningful parallels in his history of Latin oratory and literature, including his insistence on Naevius’ death in 204 BCE (60). Such parallels reveal in turn the close interconnection of his intellectual and ideological commitments.
Teaching Shakespeare through performance has a long history, and active methods of teaching and learning are a logical complement to the teaching of performance. Virtual reality ought to be the logical extension of such active learning, providing an unrivalled immersive experience of performance that overcomes historical and geographical boundaries. But what are the key advantages and disadvantages of virtual reality, especially as it pertains to Shakespeare? And more interestingly, what can Shakespeare do for VR (rather than vice versa)? This Element, the first on its topic, explores the ways that virtual reality can be used in the classroom and the ways that it might radically change how students experience and think about Shakespeare in performance.
The prefaces of Cicero’s late dialogues indicate that they share a pedagogic function with the philosophical practices of the Hellenistic Academy. In the first part of this chapter, we give a few examples showing how the late dialogues serve this end, and use them to argue that Cicero’s texts systematically enact, as well as represent, an Academic pedagogical methodology. In the second part of the chapter, we use these results to propose that Cicero’s earlier, “Platonic,” dialogues are equally sophisticated in the modes through which they effect Academic aims concerning philosophical education. As starting points for further inquiry, we indicate a few of the devices the early dialogues employ to prompt the reader to reflect on her job as a philosophical critic.
This chapter explores the essential role played by geography in developing a student’s ‘graphicacy’. It examines the relationship between graphicacy, visual literacy and visual thinking in geography, and explores why this is an essential part of the geography curriculum. The differing types of graphicacy are investigated, along with strategies to support the effective teaching of graphicacy in the classroom.
As Geography teachers, it is necessary to show students what it is that makes geography distinctive, relevant and therefore powerful. The distinctiveness and relevance of a subject is shown through both content and pedagogy – pedagogical content knowledge, powerful knowledge, powerful pedagogy – bringing content knowledge to life for students through the way the subject is taught. Imagine a geography lesson without fieldwork, or without the use of geographical tools such as maps and visual representations, or without the interpretation of information through the lens of place-based analysis, spatial reasoning and human-environment interconnections. The chapter explores the ‘what’, ‘why’ and ‘how’ of developing distinctive and powerful geography lessons through posing an overarching question for reflection: ‘What makes your geography lesson geographical?’ Throughout the chapter, the reader is challenged to reflect on and consider how they can continue to identify, maintain and build their pedagogical practice.
Chapter 3 explores the array of networks among American academic women that facilitated women’s editorial work during the fin-de-siècle period. Important scholars and writers such as Katharine Lee Bates, author of ‘America the Beautiful’; Chaucer editor Edith Rickert; and taste-making magazine editors Charlotte Porter and Helen Clarke all produced Shakespeare editions while participating in these supportive, female communities. This chapter draws on archival holdings to detail Bates’s approach to producing three editions, investigates the practice of hiring editors to revise old editions, and considers the reception and use of women’s editions.
Phonetics is studied by students on a variety of courses, where it may be either elective or obligatory, and its inclusion in the syllabus can be implicit or explicit. In all cases, however, the teaching of phonetics must take into account the needs of students in relation to the rest of their programme, and the use they will make of phonetics in their further studies or work.
Here we focus on the explicit teaching of phonetics, as experienced by students of, for example, linguistics and speech and language therapy. We consider key issues in teaching and learning across all aspects of phonetics, including theory, ear-training and production, transcription of segments and prosodic features, and acoustics. The chapter is underpinned by both phonetics research, where it exists, and that from broader educational research and theoretical perspectives. Finally, we consider future directions for the teaching of phonetics, mapping this against the United Kingdom Professional Standards Framework for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education.
This chapter reports on the status of heritage languages (HLs) in Canada in usage, in research, and in education. It begins with an overview of HLs in Canada and the current ethnolinguistic vitality (demographics, institutional support, and status) of these language varieties. This includes an overview of programs to teach HLs (or to use HLs as the medium of instruction) in primary, secondary, and post-secondary contexts. Census information is provided to profile the distribution of HL speakers across major cities and all the provinces and territories of Canada, and the status of the HLs. The next section surveys publications about HLs in Canada including overviews, studies from the domain of sociolinguistics (language variation and change) that rely on spontaneous speech corpora, acquisition studies employing experimental methodology, and research on pedagogical approaches, noting primary findings from each. Specific information is provided about heritage varieties of Cantonese, German, Greek, Italian, Inuktitut, Korean, Mandarin, Russian, Spanish, Tagalog, and Ukrainian.
For many students, history is an important foundational subject in Australian schools because it may be the only time they will formally study or engage with the subject matter. Schooling in Australia is the responsibility of states and territories. Respective governments organise teacher accreditation and registration, curriculum through syllabuses, assessment, and the myriad of policies and practices that guide the school education of children and young people. The most recent review of the Australian Curriculum took place in 2020 across all learning areas, with reports and an updated website to be released in 2022. This chapter examines the development of the Australian Curriculum and the role that history played in encouraging a national approach to education. It then analyses the structure of the Australian Curriculum: History, the inclusion of history within the Humanities and Social Sciences learning area, and how the teaching of history encourages citizenship in Australia. Lastly, we examine three ways that history is constructed in curriculum in Australia: 1. The Australian Curriculum: History for Years 7–10 and 11–12 2. Victoria’s senior history syllabus for Years 11–12 3. The Year 12 History Extension course in New South Wales
While Chapter 7 looked at teacher-centred practice (and you can return there to refresh your understanding of pedagogy), we now turn to the vast array of student-centred practices that are available for application in the history classroom. This chapter identifies student-centred practice examples, links to theory that support this type of pedagogy and provides examples of how to incorporate activities in your history teaching planning.
This chapter provides you with an understanding of the educational context and opportunities for teaching and learning within the Australian Curriculum cross-curriculum priority Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. Beginning with professional obligations outlined in current educational policy frameworks and the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, then drilling down to local community and professional placement scenarios, this chapter highlights the importance of historical inquiry for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students and their non-Indigenous peers. By understanding the importance of reconciliation, and respect and recognition for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures in the classroom, all students may gain opportunities for critical thinking to support lifelong learning, while Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students may find a safe and inclusive space for finding their voice, strengthening their identities, and sharing and learning about their cultures. This chapter introduces resource evaluation tools, approaches and pedagogies suitable for teaching in this area, and examines pathways for secondary history pre-service teachers and educators to create essential collegial and community networks that support quality secondary history teaching praxis.
Conceptualizing Hildegard of Bingen as a theologian has been impeded by a pervading focus on her visionary status. The author provides a fruitful reassessment of Hildegard’s theology by contextualizing her writings along three coordinates: the authoritative texts she cites, the institutional environment in which theological discussion takes place, and the audience to whom the theology is directed. Her responsibility as magistra of her community led her to construct her trilogy of visions – Scivias, Liber vitae meritorum, and Liber divinorum operum – not just as visionary writings for the broader church but as a structured theological system to aid her nuns pedagogically. Analysis of her writings reveals a systematic methodology of theological instruction, including her use of classical rhetoric; additionally, her concerns for her nuns’ spiritual welfare are reflected in a customized presentation of theological topics. Ultimately, understanding Hildegard’s theology as a direct response to her immediate community reframes it and highlights its similarities to twelfth-century methods of theological instruction.
Although Hildegard of Bingen described herself multiple times in her writings as indocta (unlearned), medieval accounts and modern scholarship reveal discrepancies and conflicting information regarding this claim. What, then, was the extent of her education? Instead of answering this question directly by interrogating the intent, meaning, or reliability of her statements and those of her contemporaries, a broader picture of educational standards, resources, and contexts for the intellectual formation of women religious in medieval Germany is investigated. Invoking the full breadth of meaning of ‘women religious’ to include nuns, canonesses, consecrated widows, beguines, and anchorites unveils a wide-ranging scope of educational activity. Contemporary sources, including monastic and canonical rules, hagiographic literature of female vitae, and concrete evidence of libraries and scribal activity in female communities elucidate details of materials, learning conditions, pedagogy, and intellectual engagement and creativity. This chapter thus contextualizes the medieval German environment of female literacy and learning with which Hildegard would have been familiar.
Concerned about the continued dominance of Western International Relations (IR) theories, the global IR community has proposed various measures to address disciplinary hierarchies through encouraging dialogue and pluralism. By investigating the pedagogical preferences of instructors from 45 countries, this paper questions the global IR initiative's emancipatory potential, arguing that disciplinary practices in IR resemble those of dependent development. The study develops a new typology of IR theoretical (IRT) scholarship and examines the readings assigned in 151 IRT syllabi worldwide for evidence of similarity, replication, and assimilation. The findings show that mainstream core IRTs dominate syllabi globally, regardless of region, language of instruction, or instructors' educational/linguistic backgrounds. This domination extends to periphery scholars not using their own local products. Even when they do seek alternative approaches, they prefer to import core alternatives, that is, critical traditions, rather than homegrown IRTs. Finally, the results show that even in syllabi taught in local languages the readings remain dominated by core IRT works. These findings expose a structural defect in the current cry for global IR, by revealing the system's dependent development paradox. The paper concludes with suggestions for creating a symmetric interdependent structure, in the aim of achieving a genuine globalization of IR.
This article pursues the reiteration of reading as a practice that circumscribes the work of the literary text. In doing so, it responds to particular assertions made in Kate Highman’s “Close(d) Reading and the ‘Potential Space’ of the Literature Classroom.” More pertinently, though, it seeks to reposition the value of reading as a vital attribute in engaging with the humanities and emphasizes that analyzing and the interpreting of the text is the practice indisputably central to the humanistic endeavor. The discussion reiterates that any ways in and through the text are available only by reading, making it necessary to encourage and inculcate it as a central objective so that the work of the text, in accordance with Attridge’s qualification of it, remains productive. Finally, it argues that situating this critical practice as a deliberate objective within the teaching of literature must be reprioritized as a matter of urgency.
Ageism is pervasive and socially normalized, and population aging has created a need to understand how views of aging and of older people, typically considered to be people over the age of 65, can be improved. This study sought to understand how undergraduate students’ attitudes towards older adults and the aging process may be influenced after completing a typical, lecture-based undergraduate course on aging that lacked service-learning components. Two undergraduate student cohorts (n = 40) at two Canadian universities participated in semi-structured focus groups/interviews, describing how the course may have impacted their perceptions of the aging process and of older adults. An iterative collaborative qualitative analysis demonstrated that course content stimulated a deeper understanding of the aging process, prompting a reduction in and increased awareness of ageism, and enhanced personal connection with aging, ultimately facilitating the development of an age-conscious student. Lecture-based courses focused on aging may be sufficient to facilitate positive attitude change among undergraduate students towards older adults and the aging process.
The critical role of disciplinary literacy in enhancing understanding and engagement within arts-based subjects has drawn increased recognition amongst researchers and practitioners alike in recent years. The successful integration of disciplinary literacy into the classroom however has been challenged in equal measures by a prevailing sense of confusion and misunderstanding surrounding the concept of disciplinary literacy and by the concurrent, deep-rooted pressures of performativity experienced by teachers and pupils operating within regimes of examination intensification. The result of these tensions has been a documented increase in reductionist classroom-based approaches to the development of disciplinary literacy. Given the frequently cited importance of engaged disciplinary literacy encounters in the music classroom, a review of the dominant pedagogical practices in this field is germane. This paper reports on the findings of a study exploring the integration of disciplinary literacy in the Irish secondary school music classroom. The findings of this research demonstrate a dominance of listening and performing strategies in classroom-based literacy development initiatives and an aligned relegation of student verbalisation in the music classroom. Recommendations for more disciplinary engaged, student-centred approaches in the development of music literacy within the secondary classroom are outlined.
Rumba guaguancó, a sub-genre of Afro-Cuban popular dance, has been widely defined as a dance of courtship, characterized as a male pursuit of a woman's sex. The article analyzes alternative meanings of the sub-genre articulated in the pedagogical practices of black women rumba dancers. Insights were gleaned from the author's own dance training in Havana while conducting original ethnographic research between 2009 and 2018. What the author terms “a black feminist choreographic aptitude” taught by rumberas (women rumba dancers) speaks to the pointedly gendered valances of worsening racialized class inequality in contemporary Cuba. Building on Blanco Borelli's theory of “hip(g)nosis,” the article interrogates the racialized and gendered discourses historically reproduced through dominant definitions of rumba, limiting women of African descent to sexual objects. The study argues for increased critical attention to pedagogy as a hermeneutical tool, centering those subjects historically marginalized from the production of knowledge about their bodies.
This chapter reviews the varied and creative ways people have taught Frederick Douglass’s four autobiographies and weighs methods for inspiring critical thought and performance skills through Douglass’s speeches. Douglass’s 1845 Narrative is used at multiple levels of education as a platform for reflecting on what literacy is and how Douglass – and students themselves – have become literate in their world. Other teachers consider how Douglass has constituted himself in relation to audiences he wished to move to political action, reflecting on his self-portraits and shaping of key incidents in his life. The chapter also advocates for offering students a choice of speech events to analyze and perform. This helps them to refine their thinking about contemporary issues and make performance decisions, imagining how Douglass – and they, too – wish to move an audience.
Two questions should be considered when assessing the Kantian dimensions of Kuhn’s thought. Was Kuhn a Kantian? Did Kuhn have an influence on later Kantians and neo-Kantians? Kuhn mentioned Kant as an inspiration, and his focus on explanatory frameworks and the conditions of knowledge appear Kantian. But Kuhn’s emphasis on learning; on activities of symbolization; on paradigms as practical, not just theoretical; and on the social and community aspects of scientific research as constitutive of scientific reasoning are outside the Kantian perspective. Kuhn’s admiration for Kant is tempered by his desire to understand the processes of learning, initiation into a scientific community, experimentation using instruments, and persuasion, drawing on the work of Piaget, Koyré, Wittgenstein, and others. Both Kuhn and Kant were interested in the status of science, and the role of the scientist in its development and justification. But Kuhn presents science in a much more messy, historically contingent, and socially charged way than Kant does. The paper’s conclusion evaluates Kuhn’s reception among researchers including Richardson and Friedman, assessing the prospects for future work.