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Discovering why natural selection has left humans vulnerable to mental disorders will make psychiatry more sensible and effective, but defining the appropriate objects and kinds of explanation remains challenging. Asking how a disorder increases fitness is a mistake; disorders are not adaptations and they do not have evolutionary explanations. The correct objects of explanation are the traits that make all members of a species vulnerable to a disorder. Task 1 is to describe the evolutionary origins and functions of the traits involved. Task 2 is to describe the proximate processes that result in the disorder. Task 3 is to discover why natural selection left the traits vulnerable to malfunction. Five main kinds of explanation need to be considered: stochasticity, path dependence, mismatch, trade-offs that benefit the individual and traits that benefit gene transmission at a cost to the individual. Depression, addiction, eating disorders, autism and schizophrenia are used to illustrate the opportunities and challenges of framing and testing hypotheses about vulnerability. Multiple explanations are often needed for a single disorder, frustrating the wish for simplicity. However, recognising the fundamental differences between organic and designed systems offers opportunities for resolving – or at least understanding – some enduring controversies in psychiatry.
The chapter provides a general introduction to the book, presenting the background and the overall framework. It assesses the relationship between traditional linguistic phylogenetics and more recent computational approaches. After discussing the terminology relevant for linguistic phylogenetic studies it provides an overview of the various chapters of the book, highlighting some of the most important problems discussed by the authors. It then discusses some of the specific results of the individual chapters and the broader perspectives they offer on the phylogenetics of the Indo-European language family.
The introduction of the book has two purposes. First, it explains why a normative theory of ECJ procedural and organisational law is needed. It puts forward three reasons: first, procedural and organisational design involves making important choices on the role of courts in society; second, the dominant normative approach to assessing the ECJ’s work, namely the focus on its methods of interpretation, faces a number of conceptual problems; and third, ECJ judicial reform is of great practical relevance and requires normative anchoring. Secondly, the introduction explains the empirical strategies the book pursues to investigate the ECJ’s inner workings. In particular, it explains how requests for access to adminstrative documents and statistical analysis is used in the book to get a better understanding how the ECJ’s procedural and organisational rules are applied in practice. Finally, the introduction summarises the core of the book’s argument.
The Introduction explains how the ECB was established as a central bank mainly controlled and guided by its constitutional framework. When this constitutional model has been challenged by a series of crises, the carefully designed economic constitutional model has been replaced by a constant flow of ad hoc measures that were largely responses to the economic and political realities of the moment. In the euro area, the economic, financial, sovereign debt and finally pandemic crises have also been constitutional crises. The ECB lacks a nation state’s economic and political will-formation as its counterpart and as its ultimate control. Its main counterpart is the constitutional framework, called the European Macroeconomic Constitution. This special model requires a special EU constitutional law approach to assess the ECB’s measures and to guide it going forward. It is a broadly based constitutional law methodology that could also be defined as economic constitutionalism.
This chapter examines the relationship between “logic,” language, and methodology in Heidegger. It begins by contrasting two ways in which one might understand that relationship: Dummett’s position as articulated in The Logical Basis of Metaphysics and Dreyfus’s influential reconstruction of Sein und Zeit. Focusing on Sein und Zeit §33, the chapter distinguishes Heidegger’s own view from each of these. First, drawing on his discussions of “grammar,” it shows where and why he diverges not just from someone like Dummett, but also from Kant. Second, it argues for the difference between the approach in this chapter and the Dreyfusian one: For Dreyfus, Heidegger’s attack on logic is ultimately a question of content, for Golob it is ultimately a question of method. The chapter closes by indicating how this analysis might be extended to texts from the 1924 Platon: Sophistes lectures to Die Sprache in the 1950s, paying particular attention to the concept of a “meta-language.”
This chapter shows how scholars have both justified, and argued against, the subgrouping of Indo-European in the history of the discipline and sets out the justifications given for methodological choices made by researchers. Since the late nineteenth century, it has been generally agreed that the best supporting evidence for reconstructing a subgroup comprising two or more languages is the presence of non-trivial linguistic innovations which have taken place in common during their prehistory, innovations which were not shared by other languages in the same family. This chapter addresses questions which arise out of this methodology, including whether all shared linguistics innovations should be given equal weight in the assessment of possible subgroups, and whether it is possible to reconstruct dialectal variation in a proto-language.
The chapter lays a roadmap for the Handbook on Shareholder Engagement and Voting. It defines shareholder engagement as shareholders’ involvement with their investee companies, using their shareholder rights and powers, both formal and informal (such as voting rights), to influence corporate affairs inside and outside general meetings of shareholders. The chapter further discusses the Handbook’s overall methodological considerations, that is, a sophisticated functionalist approach, with a combined use of doctrinal and empirical methods. The chapter proceeds to elaborate on the framework of research questions that guide the Handbook’s chapter contributions on 19 jurisdictions around the globe. The framework comprises three groups of questions: general jurisdictional features, legal means of shareholder voting and engagement, as well as shareholder voting and engagement in practice. The chapter concludes with a brief outline of the Handbook’s structure.
The Introduction describes the kinds of masculinism and forums for manhood in Milton's works that the book will study. Outlining the chapters and framing the theory and cultural history underlying the book, the Introduction places its study of Milton's masculinity in current scholarly conversations on gender, queer theory, critical race theory, and Milton's major works. Using "Lycidas" and Milton's sonnets as frames, the Introduction shows how Milton makes his own manliness.
Research on hardened daub fragments provides highly relevant data on the building activities of past societies. Unfortunately, in many cases these elements are not considered relevant research objects, resulting in a very important loss of information for archaeology. There is still a long way to go in the studies of earth building remains, the vast majority of which have focused on assemblages coming from specific sites. Likewise, a good number of these studies carried out from a macroscopic approach either have not published the methodology used or barely offer some considerations about it. This article approaches the methodological procedures for their analysis through direct observation, while hoping to contribute to making these remains more visible and to facilitate and promote their study. This methodological proposal can be applicable to materials of different composition and from very different contexts, chronologies, and origins.
In this chapter, we explain the methodological frame and normative hypothesis of Resilient Property, drawing on wicked problem theory, vulnerability theory and equilibrium theory. Structuring methods drawn from wicked problem theory and “method assemblage” are adopted to support fuller analyses of the complex array of relations and practices, individual and institutional vulnerabilities that are at stake when homeless squatters occupy empty property. Resilient Property draws insights from “vulnerability theory”: adopting Fineman’s general approach to vulnerability and resilience; and building on her insights concerning institutional vulnerability, including the vulnerability of the state. This provides a central anchor for our analyses of state responses to squatting: that a necessary implication of recognizing that the state itself is a vulnerable institution is that we recognize the need for states (and governments) to act in ways that build their own resilience, to shore up their authority and legitimacy in the face of conflict or crises. This underpins our focus on “equilibrium” in Resilient Property: recognizing that states are not neutral arbiters in relation to competing claims to land but are required to negotiate their “other-regarding” responsibilities – adjudicating and allocating resilience to individuals and institutions – against the backdrop of their own “self-regarding” need for resilience. Through this approach, Resilient Property enables us to develop a realistic, contextualized, conceptualization of state action with regard to complex property problems.
This paper examines the methodological problems presented by the relationship between law and religion, and the tensions between internal and external approaches. It argues for a (neutral) semiotic approach: the basics of sense construction, as understood by the Greimasian model of semiotics, are the same for both law and religion. At the same time, the model allows for the identification of differences. But it also problematizes the value of the concepts themselves: who, we may ask, needs to talk about either “law” or “religion” as such a very different question from that of the characterization of particular acts or norms as “legal” or “religious?”. “Law as Religion: Religion as Law” is thus a secondary (or meta-) question addressing the relationship between institutional concepts rather than human behaviour in either its factual or normative dimensions. It may, however, figure large in the rhetoric of religious politics, whose full understanding requires us to narrativise the pragmatics (speech behaviour) of its various participants.
In 1684, Lourenço da Silva de Mendonça from the kingdom of Kongo in the Indies ‘arrived in Rome to take up an important role for Black peoples’. That role was to bring an ethical and criminal kufunda (case) before the Vatican court, which accused the nations involved in Atlantic slavery, including the Vatican, Italy, Spain and Portugal, of committing crimes against humanity. It detailed the ‘tyrannical sale of human beings … the diabolic abuse of this kind of slavery … which they committed against any Divine or Human law’. Mendonça was a member of the Ndongo royal family, rulers of Pedras (Stones) of Pungo-Andongo, situated in what is now modern Angola. He carried with him the hopes of enslaved Africans and other oppressed groups in what was a remarkable moment that, I would argue, challenges the established interpretation of the history of abolition.
Chapter 1 introduces the key themes of the book: hydro-social understandings of water, critical development approaches, women’s empowerment, and development evaluation. It also provides some reflections on my own positionality vis-à-vis the research and the water project.
Chapter 2 explains the multidisciplinary nature of prehistoric archeology, providing an overview of many of the disciplines and explaining their basic applications in the field. It describes how archeological data is amassed and interpreted in ever-more efficient ways thanks to constantly evolving modern technologies.
The methodology used in this study is data-driven and evidence-based. This approach strengthens the credibility of findings drawn out of the two corpora in Chinese and English. Most medical discourse studies focus primarily on spoken data, but this study focuses on written data, and the online data is the first written corpus of its kind. New findings regarding shared and culture-specific features of EL shed light on how and why language users stretch their words to increase efficiency of health communication. This study not only contributes to the conceptualisation of EL in healthcare discourse but also affords methodological significance to cross-cultural research of health communication. By examining pragmatic variations in the use of EL, we can develop strategies for improving communication in healthcare discourse. The findings also benefit the public by showing healthcare professionals how medical information may best be communicated through EL. The new insights and resources may also inform policy making by highlighting EL use as an important skill for healthcare professionals.
Due to the shift to the social model of health care, public health researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in the insider perspectives and experiences of key players in health, including health consumers and healthcare providers (Olson, Young & Schultz, 2016). Thus, qualitative research has been adopted in public health in many ways and in numerous fields of health research. The main focus of this chapter is on qualitative research. You will learn about the nature of qualitative inquiry and the need for qualitative research in public health. You will also gain a basic understanding of some philosophical assumptions of qualitative research that lead to different understandings about public health in different groups of people. Attempts have been made in the past few decades to provide evidence-based public health care to individuals and communities. Thus, we have witnessed a large number of research projects carried out in the public health arena. Evidence-based practice in public health and the need for qualitative inquiry are also discussed in this chapter.
This chapter offers a guide to reading Plato’s dialogues, including an overview of his corpus. We recommend first considering each dialogue as its own unified work, before considering how it relates to the others. In general, the dialogues explore ideas and arguments, rather than presenting parts of a comprehensive philosophical system that settles on final answers. The arc of a dialogue frequently depends on who the individual interlocutors are. We argue that the traditional division of the corpus (into Socratic, middle, late stages) is useful, regardless of whether it is a chronological division. Our overview of the corpus gives special attention to the Republic, since it interweaves so many of his key ideas, even if nearly all of them receive longer treatments in other dialogues. Although Plato recognized the limits inherent in written (as opposed to spoken) philosophy, he devoted his life to producing these works, which are clearly meant to help us seek the deepest truths. Little can be learned from reports of Plato’s oral teaching or the letters attributed to him. Understanding the dialogues on their own terms is what offers the greatest reward.
This study investigates the effect of differing representations of state boundaries on the draw-a-map task in perceptual dialectology in a region of the United States. The typical draw-a-map survey instrument represents state borders with solid lines. Would respondents react differently to maps with dashed-line state borders? More specifically, would respondents draw more dialect areas that cross state lines on maps with dashed-line state borders versus solid-line state borders? These questions are explored through two datasets, and similarities and differences emerge. For example, respondents of both map types draw more single-state dialect areas than multistate dialect areas, and respondents with dashed-line maps draw more dialect areas on average than respondents with solid state maps. While dataset 1 showed a significant association between map type and multistate dialect area with respondents using dashed-line border maps drawing more multistate dialect areas than respondents with solid-line maps, H(1) = 5.13, P = .017, this association was not significant in dataset 2, H(1) = .06, P = .798.
This chapter introduces the principal methodologies used in the book. It describes the existing tools for the study of Old and Middle English, including grammars, dictionaries, handbooks and corpora, and explains that while their direct documentation of twelfth-century English is scanty, the information they contain can be reconceptualised to help date texts to the twelfth century, assess the likely effect of twelfth-century texts on their readers and evaluate the extent to which they inherited earlier conventions for writing English. This approach is exemplified with reference to four different English versions of Ps 111.9 found in manuscripts copied in the final two-thirds of the twelfth century and which are typical of the kinds of text that the book as a whole treats: understudied, textually complex and requiring a gamut of philological techniques to be fully understood and contextualised.
This chapter is about reflection on, refinement of, and future use of the EV framework. The process of reflecting on the development of the EV framework and discussing considerations for future applications of it will enable me to highlight the most salient interconnections and differentials between the Sierra Leone and Paradises in Peril case studies and make clear the transcendent local to global patterning of environmental violence. In the course of discussing these reflections I pay particular attention to the way my own views of EV and subsequent development of the EV framework evolved through my fieldwork and engagements with varied interlocutors, from villagers to government officials. I will also clarify some final points on the EV framework to facilitate its use going forward and to outline points of improvement that will take time and iteration to calibrate. I will then present three critical junctures of EV that the model helped make apparent by distilling the substantive subtleties of each complex case, facilitating the triangulation of these underlying critical realities of EV that enable it to be pervasive and pernicious in the human niche.