To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
How do you read a patent and what subject matter is patentable? What is the purpose of a patent? Who is an inventor on the patent if work is done by many people on the project? What is the process of obtaining a patent in my country and globally? Read this chapter to see how you could lose commercialization rights to your own invention. When exactly does an invention or idea become patentable? Once you own a patent, how can you make money from it? What is the process of licensing and the key terms that should be negotiated in such a license agreement? What is the use of a copyright or a trade secret in biotech? What exactly constitutes patent infringement ? These questions and many others are addressed in this chapter on intellectual property.
We developed an agent-based model using a trial emulation approach to quantify effect measure modification of spillover effects of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell metropolitan area, Georgia. PrEP may impact not only the individual prescribed, but also their partners and beyond, known as spillover. We simulated a two-stage randomised trial with eligible components (≥3 agents with ≥1 HIV+ agent) first randomised to intervention or control (no PrEP). Within intervention components, agents were randomised to PrEP with coverage of 70%, providing insight into a high PrEP coverage strategy. We evaluated effect modification by component-level characteristics and estimated spillover effects on HIV incidence using an extension of randomisation-based estimators. We observed an attenuation of the spillover effect when agents were in components with a higher prevalence of either drug use or bridging potential (if an agent acts as a mediator between ≥2 connected groups of agents). The estimated spillover effects were larger in magnitude among components with either higher HIV prevalence or greater density (number of existing partnerships compared to all possible partnerships). Consideration of effect modification is important when evaluating the spillover of PrEP among MSM.
Chapter 10, in contrast to all the previous chapters that focused on the performance of the downlink, analyzes the performance of the uplink of an ultra-dense network. Importantly, this chapter shows that the phenomena presented in – and the conclusions derived from – all the previous chapters also apply to the uplink, despite its different features, e.g. uplink transmit power control, inter-cell interference source distribution. System-level simulations are used in this chapter to conduct the study.
Chapter 3 summarizes the modelling, derivations and main findings of probably one of the most important works on small cell theoretical performance analysis, which concluded that the fears of an inter-cell interference overload in small cell networks were not well-grounded, and that the network capacity – or in more technical words, the area spectral efficiency – linearly grows with the number of deployed small cells. This research was the cornerstone of much of the research that followed on small cells performance analysis.
Chapter 1 introduces the capacity challenge faced by modern wireless communication systems and presents ultra-dense wireless networks as an appealing solution to address it. Moreover, it provides background on the small cell concept – the fundamental building block of an ultra-dense wireless network – describing its main characteristics, benefits and drawbacks. This chapter also presents the structure of the book and the fundamental concepts required for its systematic understanding.
Chapter 6 brings attention to another important feature of ultra-dense networks, i.e. the surplus of the number of small cell base stations with respect to the amount of user equipment. Building on this fact and looking ahead at next generation small cell base stations, the ability to go into idle mode, transmit no signalling meanwhile, and thus mitigate inter-cell interference is presented in this chapter, as a key tool to enhance ultra-dense network performance and combat the previously presented caveats. Special attention is paid to the upgraded modelling and analysis of the idle mode capability at the small cell base stations.
Chapter 5 studies in detail – and also from a theoretical perspective – yet another and more important caveat towards a satisfactory network performance in the ultra-dense regime, i.e. that of the impact of the antenna height difference between the user equipment and the small cell base stations. Similarly as in the previous chapter, such antenna-related modelling upgrades, the new derivations in a three-dimensional space and the new obtained results are carefully presented and discussed in this book chapter for the better understanding of the readers. Moreover, several small cell deployment and configuration guidelines are provided to improve the network performance.
Chapter 7 investigates the impact of ultra-dense networks on multi-user diversity. A denser network reduces the number of user equipment per small cell in a significant manner, and thus can significantly reduce – and potentially neglect – the gains of channel-dependent scheduling techniques. These performance gain degradations are theoretically analyzed in this chapter, and the performance of a proportional fair scheduler is compared to that of a round robin one.
Chapter 8, standing on the shoulders of all previous chapters, presents a new capacity scaling law for ultra-dense networks. Interestingly, the signal and the inter-cell interference powers become bounded in the ultra-dense regime. The former is due to the antenna height difference between the user equipment and the small cell base stations, and the latter is due to the finite user equipment density as well as the idle mode capability at the small cell base stations. This leads to a constant signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio at the user equipment, and thus to an asymptotic capacity behaviour in such a regime. From this new capacity scaling law, it can be concluded that, for a given user equipment density, the network densification should not be abused indefinitely, and instead, it should be stopped at a certain level. Network densification beyond such a point is a waste of both invested money and energy consumption.
Chapter 4 analyzes in detail – from a theoretical perspective – the first practical caveat towards such linear growth of capacity in the ultra-dense regime, i.e. that of the impact of the transition of a large number of interfering links from non-line-of-sight to line-of-sight. Importantly, this chapter shows that the theoretical tools used until then to analyze traditional sparse or dense small cell networks, such as that presented in the previous chapter, do not directly apply to ultra-dense ones, and neither do their conclusions. In this chapter, we detail the path loss modelling upgrades necessary for a more realistic and accurate modelling of ultra-dense networks, present the subsequent and new theoretical derivations, and analyze the obtained results for the better understanding of the readers.
Adoption of the new biofuel crop carinata (Brassica carinata A. Braun) in the southeastern United States will largely hinge on sound agronomic recommendations that can be economically incorporated into and are compatible with existing rotations. Timing of weed control is crucial for yield protection and long-term weed seedbank management, but predictive weed emergence models have not been as widely studied in winter crops for this purpose. In this work, we use observed and predicted emergence of a winter annual weed community to create recommendations for timing weed control according to weed and crop phenology progression. Observed emergence timings for four winter annual weed species in North Carolina were used to validate previously published models developed for winter annual weeds in Florida by accounting for temperature and daylength differences, and this approach explained more than 70% of the variability in observed emergence. Emergence of stinking chamomile (Anthemis cotula L.) and cutleaf evening primrose (Oenothera laciniata Hill.) followed biphasic patterns comparable to wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.), which were predicted with previously published models accounting for 82% and 84% of the variation, respectively. Using the predictive models for weed emergence and carinata growth, critical control windows (CCW) were estimated for Clayton, NC, and Jay, FL, according to different planting dates. The results demonstrated how early planting coincided with the emergence of three competitive winter weeds, but early control could also remove a large proportion of the predicted emergence of these species. The framework for how planting timing will affect winter weed emergence and crop growth will be an instructive decision-making tool to help prepare farmers to manage weeds in carinata, but it could also be useful for weed management planning for other winter crops.
In multilingual people, semantic knowledge is predominantly shared across languages. Providing semantic-focused treatment to people with aphasia has been posited to strengthen connectivity within association cortices that subserve semantic knowledge. In multilingual people, such treatment should result in within- and cross-language generalisation to all languages, although not equally. We investigated treatment effects in two multilingual participants with aphasia who received verb-based semantic treatment in two pre-stroke highly proficient languages. We compared within- and cross-language generalisation patterns across languages, finding within- and cross-language generalisation after treatment in the less-impaired, pre-morbidly more-proficient first-acquired language (L1). This observation supports the theory that connectivity is greater between the lexicon of a pre-morbidly more-proficient L1 and the shared semantic system than the lexicon of a pre-morbidly less-proficient later-acquired language. Our findings of within- and cross-language generalisation patterns could also be explained by both the Competing Mechanisms Theory and the theory of lingering suppression.
This chapter is largely devoted to commenting on the other contributions to the volume. An attempt is made to evaluate the arguments and criticisms brought to bear by each contributor on the project of defining civil liberty not as absence of interference but rather in neo-Roman terms as absence of more general conditions of subjection and dependence. The chapter opens with an exposition of the neo-Roman theory, focusing on its articulation in Roman and common law traditions of thinking about the law of persons and related arguments about ‘fundamental’ rights and liberties. The chapter next defends the distinctiveness and coherence of the neo Roman approach against a number of objection that have been raised against it. The chapter ends by reflecting on how the re-appropriation and development of a neo-Roman perspective might help us to think more fruitfully about some current threats to privacy and democracy as well as individual liberty. This concluding section focuses particularly on threats stemming from increasing surveillance and other silent exercises of power.
The critical period for weed control (CPWC) adds value to integrated weed management by identifying the period during which weeds need to be controlled to avoid yield losses exceeding a defined threshold. However, the traditional application of the CPWC does not identify the timing of control needed for weeds that emerge late in the critical period. In this study, CPWC models were developed from field data in high-yielding cotton crops during three summer seasons from 2005 to 2008, using the mimic weed, common sunflower, at densities of two to 20 plants per square meter. Common sunflower plants were introduced at up to 450 growing degree days (GDD) after crop planting and removed at successive 200 GDD intervals after introduction. The CPWC models were described using extended Gompertz and logistic functions that included weed density, time of weed introduction, and time of weed removal (logistic function only) in the relationships. The resulting models defined the CPWC for late-emerging weeds, identifying a period after weed emergence before weed control was required to prevent yield loss exceeding the yield-loss threshold. When weeds emerged in sufficient numbers toward the end of the critical period, the model predicted that crop yield loss resulting from competition by these weeds would not exceed the yield-loss threshold until well after the end of the CPWC. These findings support the traditional practice of ensuring weeds are controlled before crop canopy closure, with later weed control inputs used as required.
Chpater 4 argues that an account of causation in terms of quasi-inertial processes and interferences handles problematic cases of pre-emption and overdetermination better than rival accounts. It also explains why and how the causal relations fail to be transitive.
I argue that our ordinary concept of causation (‘disruptive causation’) can be spelled out in terms of quasi-inertial processes and interferences. These processes and factors, in turn, can be fully explicated in terms of the generalisations provided by physics, biology or other sciences. The quasi-inertial processes in particular can be characterised in terms of the behaviour systems are disposed to in the absence of interfering factors and thus in terms of ceteris paribus generalisations and their underlying dispositions.
We present current methods for estimating treatment effects and spillover effects under “interference”, a term which covers a broad class of situations in which a unit’s outcome depends not only on treatments received by that unit, but also on treatments received by other units. To the extent that units react to each other, interact, or otherwise transmit effects of treatments, valid inference requires that we account for such interference, which is a departure from the traditional assumption that units’ outcomes are affected only by their own treatment assignment. Interference and associated spillovers may be a nuisance or they may be of substantive interest to the researcher. In this chapter, we focus on interference in the context of randomized experiments. We review methods for when interference happens in a general network setting. We then consider the special case where interference is contained within a hierarchical structure. Finally, we discuss the relationship between interference and contagion. We use the interference R package and simulated data to illustrate key points. We consider efficient designs that allow for estimation of the treatment and spillover effects and discuss recent empirical studies that try to capture such effects.
Every day across the world, as people assemble, demonstrate and protest, their pictures, their messages, tweets and other personal information are amassed without adequate justification. Arguing that they do so in order to protect assemblies, governments deploy a wide array of measures, including facial recognition, fake mobile towers and internet shutdowns. These measures are primarily analyzed as interferences with the right to privacy and freedom of expression, but it is argued here that protest and other assembly surveillance should also be understood as an infringement of freedom of assembly. This is necessary not only to preserve the distinct nature of freedom of assembly that protects collective action, but also to allow for better regulation of surveillance and interference with internet communications during assemblies.
Who decides how official statistics are produced? Do politicians have control or are key decisions left to statisticians in independent statistical agencies? Interviews with statisticians in Australia, Canada, Sweden, the UK and the USA were conducted to get insider perspectives on the nature of decision making in government statistical administration. While the popular adage suggests there are 'lies, damned lies and statistics', this research shows that official statistics in liberal democracies are far from mistruths; they are consistently insulated from direct political interference. Yet, a range of subtle pressures and tensions exist that governments and statisticians must manage. The power over statistics is distributed differently in different countries, and this book explains why. Differences in decision-making powers across countries are the result of shifting pressures politicians and statisticians face to be credible, and the different national contexts that provide distinctive institutional settings for the production of government numbers.
This paper explores multilingual language contact in seemingly unrelated settings: translation and English as a lingua franca, also touching on learner language. By delving into similar processes in these settings at three levels – the macro level of a language as a whole, the intermediate level of social interaction and the micro level of cognition – it argues that translation and ELF are sites of multilingual contact resulting in a degree of hybridization in the languages involved, and are thereby important drivers of language change. It is suggested that macro-level similarities in translation and ELF, such as the relative over-representation of high-frequency items and structures and untypical multiword combinations, ensue from interactional and cognitive processes where one fundamental mechanism is priming. Translations engage in cross-linguistic textual priming, while users of ELF interact with other ‘similects’ in complex second-order language contact. Both can contribute crucially to understanding processes of change and contact-induced variation.