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Plants have a variety of defense mechanisms that are often induced following attacks by herbivores; this benefits those plants by decreasing performance or preference of herbivores that attack the plants later. We investigated the effects of previous exposure of plants to the safflower aphid, Uroleucon carthami, cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, and mechanical wounding on subsequent safflower aphid infestations using commercial safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) cultivars and wild safflower species (C. oxyacantha). The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with two treatments: previously induced plants via direct herbivory or mechanical wounding, and control plants that had never experienced herbivory. To test the performance of safflower aphid on different plant treatments, five unwinged aphids were placed on each plant and allowed to reproduce for 14 days. Finally, the total numbers of aphids on each plant were counted and the percentage of produced winged individuals was calculated. The number of aphids on plants that were previously infested or injured was significantly lower than in control plants. Percentage of winged aphids was significantly higher on induced plants, which is an indicator for unsuitable conditions. Also, significant increase in total phenolic content and hydrogen peroxide was observed in induced plants, showing that the levels of these compounds were either treatment, cultivar and/or genotype × treatment dependent, highlighting the specificity of these interactions. Overall, among the safflower cultivars the lowest number of aphids and the highest percentage of winged aphid individuals were observed on Mahali-Isfahan cultivar and wild safflower, showing that this cultivar is more sensitive to herbivory and/or responds to it more than other cultivars. These findings could contribute to a better utilization of induced defense in the integrated pest management of safflower fields.
A determination of injury for purposes of Article VI of GATT 1994 shall be based on positive evidence and involve an objective examination of both (a) the volume of the dumped imports and the effect of the dumped imports on prices in the domestic market for like products, and (b) the consequent impact of these imports on domestic producers of such products.
Tiafenacil is a new non-selective, protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PPO) – inhibiting pyrimidinedione herbicide that is under consideration for registration in corn, soybean, wheat, cotton, and other crops to control grass and broadleaf weeds prior to crop emergence. The sensitivity of dry beans to tiafenacil is not known. Four field experiments were completed at Exeter and Ridgetown, ON, Canada during the 2019 and 2020 growing seasons to determine the sensitivity of azuki, kidney, small red, and white beans to tiafenacil applied preemergence (PRE) at 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 g ai ha−1. Tiafenacil at 100 g ai ha−1 caused 5% or less injury to azuki, kidney, small red and white beans, and 0 to 3% injury in azuki bean, 1-5% injury in kidney bean, 1-4% injury in small red bean, and 1 to 4% injury in white bean. Tiafenacil applied PRE at 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 g ai ha−1 caused up to 1, 4, 4, and 5% visible dry bean injury, respectively but caused no negative effect on other growth parameters measured including the final seed yield. Crop injury was generally the greatest with tiafenacil at the 100 g ai ha−1 in dry beans. Generally, kidney, small red, and white bean were more sensitive to tiafenacil than azuki bean. Dry bean injury was persistent and increased with time with the greatest injury observed 8 WAE. Tiafenacil applied PRE can be a useful addition to the current weed control strategies for grass and broadleaf weed control suppression, especially GR horseweed and amaranth species prior to bean emergence.
Children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The vast majority of TBI are of mild severity (MTBI), however, they may develop persistent neurophysiological symptoms.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of PTSD in children with MTBI in Western Greece.
A one-year prospective study was conducted at the Children Hospital of Patras. A total of 175 children aged 6-14 years screened for risk of PTSD at one-week and one-month post-injury, completing the Child Trauma Screening Questionnaire (CTSQ). The Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES 13) was administered to the parents, to inquire their assessment of PTSD in the children. Statistical analysis was performed with IBM SPSS v.22.0
There were 59 (33.7%) children (27.2% boys, 45.9% girls) whose screen result was at risk. At the rescreening one-month postinjury, 9.9% were still at risk. Parents assessed presence of PTSD in 19% of their children at one-week and in 3.9% at one-month post-injury. There was a positive correlation between parenting and child reporting on symptoms of PTSD in children. However, 23.4% mistakenly estimated their children did not experience stress while in fact they did and 24.2% mistakenly estimated the contrary.
The findings revealed the risk of PTSD even in mild TBI, justifying thus the screening to identify these children for intervention strategies. On the other hand, the rescreening demonstrated that not all at-risk children required intervention, since a natural remission in PTSD symptoms was observed one-month post-injury.
‘Dr. Google’ has become the go-to resource when our wellbeing is threatened and we initiate the process of self-medication – due to expediency, necessity, or frugality. Yet, the Internet was not always available to help us minister to the illnesses and injuries we endure. Understanding the origins of modern medicine inevitably turns to its history. Possibly the earliest practitioner of medicine was the Egyptian polymath Imhotep, believed to have diagnosed and treated some 200 diseases. Even more speculation revolves around the prehistory of medicine, when our ancestors could neither read nor write; prehistoric medicine may have used the familiar process of trial-and-error learning to identify medicinal herbs and plant substances. This process has now been documented in many living animals by the emerging science of animal self-medication – zoopharmacognosy. Self-medication may thus have a long evolutionary history, which embraces human evolution, as well as the evolution of most living animals.
The Appellate Body (AB) report in Korea–Pneumatic Valves is among the most structurally complex of recent trade remedies reports. The AB weaves a complicated web to explicate the intricacies of the relationship among the relevant provisions on injury determination in anti-dumping disputes in the midst of a contentious and long-running series of disputes between two close regional trading powers. This Article first examines the Korean investigation and its significance in economic terms. Second, it analyzes the AB's conclusions on Article 6.2 of the Dispute Settlement Understanding regarding the panel request and the significance of the AB's treatment. Third, it studies the AB's comments on the panel's anti-dumping calculations where the AB amplifies its prior pronouncements on the elements of injury and causation. Finally, the Article situates this dispute in the broader political debates playing out both at the AB and between the two disputing parties.
Keith Michael Green’s “Disabling Freedom: Bloody Shirt Rhetoric in Postbellum Slave Narratives” explores the mystifications and erasures of anti-Black violence that characterized Reconstruction-era writing. Green pays deep attention to how select narratives – especially the much-neglected Story of Mattie Jackson and Keckley’s better-known Behind the Scenes – strategically employed oblique narrativizations of Black pain and personhood to avoid pernicious narratives of Black unfitness and hyper-embodiment. Green draws on what he calls the “poetics of the bloody shirt” to study the ventriloquization of injury through surrogate objects and persons, with emphasis on not only Jackson and Keckley’s texts but also works by Sojourner Truth, Still, and William Wells Brown to underscore how indirect representations of injury helped postbellum slave narratives articulate the contradictions and risks of Black life and to revise ableist visions of freedom – in the process, contesting the erasure of Black pain in post-emancipation discourse.
The current study aims to examine the prevalence rates and the relationship of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and comorbid depression/anxiety with neurocognitive performance in college athletes at baseline. We hypothesized a priori that the mood disturbance groups would perform worse than healthy controls, with the comorbid group performing worst overall.
Eight hundred and thirty-one (M = 620, F = 211) collegiate athletes completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery at baseline which included self-report measures of anxiety and depression. Athletes were separated into four groups [Healthy Control (HC) (n = 578), Depressive Symptoms Only (n = 137), Anxiety Symptoms Only (n = 54), and Comorbid Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms (n = 62)] based on their anxiety and depression scores. Athletes’ neurocognitive functioning was analyzed via Z score composites of Attention/Processing Speed and Memory.
One-way analysis of variance revealed that, compared to HC athletes, the comorbid group performed significantly worse on measures of Attention/Processing Speed but not Memory. However, those in the depressive symptoms only and anxiety symptoms only groups were not significantly different from one another or the HC group on neurocognitive outcomes. Chi-square analyses revealed that a significantly greater proportion of athletes in all three affective groups were neurocognitively impaired compared to the HC group.
These results demonstrate that collegiate athletes with comorbid depressive/anxiety symptoms should be identified, as their poorer cognitive performance at baseline could complicate post-concussion interpretation. Thus, assessing for mood disturbance at baseline is essential to obtain an accurate measurement of baseline functioning. Further, given the negative health outcomes associated with affective symptomatology, especially comorbidities, it is important to provide care as appropriate.
Chapter 8 addresses the manner in which the International Court of Justice interprets and applies satisfaction as a remedy of international law. The definition, function and categories of satisfaction are issues that this chapter addresses, along with its relationship to other remedies of international law, in particular to declaratory judgments. The differences between the manner in which satisfaction is prescribed by the International Law Commission through the Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts and the mechanisms through which the Court grants this remedy generate controversy regarding its availability and applicability before the Court. The Corfu Channel Case is the most often quoted in situations in which satisfaction is considered as granted through the issuance of a declaration of illegality. As such, even if states often request satisfaction as formal apologies to be given by responding states the Court undertakes a different approach.
Introduction and rapid adoption of dicamba-resistant (DR) soybean led to an increase of postemergent applications of dicamba. This resulted in a widespread increase in nontarget dicamba injury to non-DR soybean in 2017. Field studies were conducted in Manhattan, KS, in 2018 and 2019 and in Ottawa, KS, in 2019 to investigate the injury and yield response of soybean varieties with varying herbicide-resistance traits and maturity groups when exposed to dicamba. Four varieties were tested: ‘Credenz 3841LL’ (glufosinate resistant), ‘Credenz 4748LL’ (glufosinate resistant), ‘Asgrow AG4135RR2Y’ (glyphosate resistant), and ‘Stine 40BA02’ (glyphosate and isoxaflutole resistant), abbreviated as CR3841, CR4748, AG4135, and ST40B, respectively. Soybeans were treated with 5.6 g ae ha−1 of dicamba at V3 and R1 stages. Percent soybean injury, soybean height, soybean yield and yield components, and injury to offspring were evaluated. Four weeks after treatment (WAT) at V3, the greatest injury was observed in AG4135 and ST40B. Dicamba application at R1 resulted in the greatest injury to ST40B both 4 WAT and at senescence. Minimal injury was observed in all varieties treated at V3 at senescence and yield loss was 5% or less. Dicamba application at R1 resulted in 19 to 34% yield loss, with the least yield loss in CR4748, and the greatest in ST40B. Varieties with greater injury at senescence generally yielded less than other varieties.
Professors MacQueen and Thomson have defined ‘contract’, within Scots law, as denoting ‘an agreement between two or more parties having the capacity to make it, in the form demanded by law, to perform, on one side or both, acts which are not trifling, indeterminate, impossible or illegal’. This definition reflects the fact that Scottish contracts are underpinned by consent, rather than by ‘consideration’. This, naturally, has the potential to be of great significance within the context of physician/patient relationships, particularly since the 2006 case of Dow v Tayside University Hospitals NHS Trust acknowledged that these relationships could be contractual in nature. This observation is of renewed importance since the landmark decision in Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board, which found that physicians must ensure that they obtain full and freely given ‘informed consent’ from their patients, prior to providing medical services. In light of the present medical regime which requires ‘doctor and patient [to] reach agreement on what should happen’, the basis of liability for medical negligence, in Scotland, requires reanalysis: ‘To have a contract only when the patient pays is not consistent with a legal system which has no doctrine of consideration in contract’.
The majority of injury deaths occur outside health facilities. However, many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) continue to lack efficient Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Understanding current first aid practices and perceptions among members of the community is vital to strengthening non-EMS, community-based prehospital care.
This study sought to determine caregiver first aid practices and care-seeking behavior for common household child injuries in rural communities in Ghana to inform context-specific interventions to improve prehospital care in LMICs.
A cluster-randomized, population-based household survey of caregivers of children under five years in a rural sub-district (Amakom) in Ghana was conducted. Caregivers were asked about their practices and care-seeking behaviors should children sustain injuries at home. Common injuries of interest were burns, laceration, choking, and fractures. Multiple responses were permitted and reported practices were categorized as: recommended, low-risk, or potentially harmful to the child. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between caregiver characteristics and first aid practices.
Three hundred and fifty-seven individuals were sampled, representing 5,634 caregivers in Amakom. Mean age was 33 years. Most (79%) were mothers to the children; 68% had only completed basic education. Most caregivers (64%-99%) would employ recommended first aid practices to manage common injuries, such as running cool water over a burn injury or tying a bleeding laceration with a piece of cloth. Nonetheless, seven percent to 56% would also employ practices which were potentially harmful to the child, such as attempting manual removal of a choking object or treating fractures at home without taking the child to a health facility. Reporting only recommended practices ranged from zero percent (burns) to 93% (choking). Reporting only potentially harmful practices ranged from zero percent (burns) to 20% (fractures). Univariate regression analysis did not reveal consistent associations between various caregiver characteristics and the employment of recommended only or potentially harmful only first aid practices.
Caregivers in rural Ghanaian communities reported using some recommended first aid practices for common household injuries in children. However, they also employed many potentially harmful practices. This study highlights the need to increase context-appropriate, community-targeted first aid training programs for rural community populations of LMICs. This is important as the home-based care provided for injured children in these communities might be the only care they receive.
Few options are available for controlling bermudagrass invasion of seashore paspalum. Bermudagrass and seashore paspalum tolerance to topramezone, triclopyr, or the combination of these two herbicides were evaluated in both greenhouse and field conditions. Field treatments included two sequential applications of topramezone (15.6 g ai ha−1) alone and five rates of topramezone + triclopyr (15.6 + 43.2, 15.6 + 86.3, 15.6 + 172.6, 15.6 + 345.2, or 15.6 g ai ha−1 + 690.4 g ae ha−1). Secondary greenhouse treatments included a single application of topramezone (20.8 g ha−1) or triclopyr (258.9 g ha−1) alone, or in combination at 20.8 + 258.9 or 20.8 + 517.8 g ha−1, respectively. Greenhouse and field results showed that topramezone applications in combination with triclopyr present opposite responses between bermudagrass and seashore paspalum. Topramezone increased bermudagrass injury and decreased seashore paspalum bleaching injury compared to topramezone alone. In field evaluations, topramezone + triclopyr at 15.6 + 690.4 g ha−1 used in sequential applications resulted in >90% injury to bermudagrass, however, injury decreased over time. Furthermore, sequential applications of topramezone + triclopyr at 15.6 + 690.4 g ha−1 resulted in >50% injury to seashore paspalum. Application programs including topramezone plus triclopyr should increase bermudagrass suppression and reduce seashore paspalum injury compared to topramezone alone. However, additional studies are needed because such practices will likely require manipulation of topramezone rate, application timing, application interval, and number of applications in order to maximize bermudagrass control and minimize seashore paspalum injury.
Online reputational injury can occur in a number of ways; and one way is through the use of algorithms that pervade the Internet. The Internet is comprised of complex technologies that enable the dissemination of information rapidly, providing global reach in a matter of seconds through the click of a button. The Internet provides robust public discourse over a gamut of topics in real-time and allows individuals from different parts of the world to interact with one another while preserving some sense of anonymity (that is, if they so choose). Many online communications stem from one piece of content that is regurgitated and redistributed on multiple platforms. For example, consider the social application Twitter. Twitter allows individuals to transmit bite-sized pieces of data among millions of users. Twitter has surprisingly become an outlet for a recent US President, and the fact that the public has direct access to a sitting President in this manner is undoubtedly incredible. Further, the Internet emboldens individuals to act behind the shield of a screen. There is little cost to spreading information, ideas, and gossip online, with seemingly few ramifications. Despite what may be perceived as a few keystrokes that have an ephemeral impact, content on the Internet has a tendency of permanence.
This article draws on qualitative data collected over a five-year period as part of a longitudinal mixed methods research project at a tertiary music institution in Australia. Forty tertiary string students consistently identified factors specific to the one-on-one instrumental teaching environment as influencing their perceptions as to the nature and causes of their playing-related discomfort pain. Student perceptions of individual teacher’s attitudes to pain and injury, experiences with regards to asking and receiving advice and the perceived influence of the first instrumental teacher are discussed using six examples. The paper concludes with several recommendations for instrumental music teachers and music institutions.
A non-GMO trait called Inzen™ was recently commercialized in grain sorghum to combat weedy grasses, allowing the use of nicosulfuron POST in the crop. Inzen™ grain sorghum carries a double mutation in the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene Val560Ile and Trp574Leu, which potentially results in cross-resistance to a wide assortment of ALS-inhibiting herbicides. To evaluate the scope of cross-resistance to Weed Science Society of America Group 2 herbicides in addition to nicosulfuron, tests were conducted in 2016 and 2017 at the Lon Mann Cotton Research Station near Marianna, AR, the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Fayetteville, AR, and in 2016 at the Pine Tree Research Station near Colt, AR. The tests included ALS-inhibiting herbicides from all five families: sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, pyrimidinylthiobenzoics, triazolinones, and triazolopyrimidines. Treatments were made PRE or POST to grain sorghum at a 1× rate for crops in which each herbicide is labeled. Grain sorghum planted in the PRE trial were Inzen™ and a conventional cultivar. Visible estimates of injury and sorghum heights were recorded at 2 and 4 wk after herbicide application, and yield data were collected at crop maturity. In the PRE trial, no visible injury, sorghum height reduction, or yield loss were observed in plots containing the Inzen™ cultivar. Applications made POST to the Inzen™ grain sorghum caused visible injury, sorghum height reduction, and yield loss of 20%, 13%, and 35%, respectively, only in plots where bispyribac-Na was applied. There was no impact on the crop from other POST-applied ALS-inhibiting herbicides. These results demonstrate that the Inzen™ trait confers cross-resistance to most ALS-inhibiting herbicides and could offer promising new alternatives for weed control and protection from carryover of residual ALS-inhibiting herbicides in grain sorghum.
This chapter explores the topic of product liability. The Explanatory Memorandum to the Trade Practice Amendment (Australian Consumer Law) Bill (No 2) 2010 (Cth) states that:
‘The Australian Consumer Law (ACL) contains a statutory liability regime for manufacturers of goods with a safety defect. The manufacturer’s liability in the Bill continues the operation of the current Pt VA of the TPA. However[,] the drafting of the provisions has been amended to reflect the drafting style used for other provisions of the ACL.’
Under the ACL, a manufacturer is held liable for producing goods with safety defects. The ACL provides for an action to be brought against the manufacturer of the defective good where there has been loss or damage suffered because:
injuries were sustained as a result of the safety defect;
another good was destroyed or damaged as a result of the safety defect; or
a building or fixture was destroyed or damaged as a result of the safety defect.
Under the Trade Practices Act 1974 (TPA), consumers were able to pursue actions against manufacturers unhampered by the limitations deriving from the implied terms regime at Part V, Divisions 2 and 2A of the TPA. The ACL continues the form and content of the product liability regime under the TPA. Accordingly, the jurisprudence developed under the TPA is informative for the ACL.
Seeking compensation has been shown to have an adverse effect on the psychological health and recovery of injured patients, however, this effect requires clarification.
A total of 2019 adults sustaining a traffic injury were recruited. Of these, 709 (35.1%) lodged a compensation claim. Interviews occurred at 1-, 6- and 12-month post-injury. Outcomes were psychological distress (posttraumatic stress (PTS) and depressive symptoms) and health-related functioning (HrF) (quality of life measured by EQ-5D-3L and disability by WHODAS) over 12-months post-injury. Covariates included individual stress vulnerability (preinjury, injury-related factors).
Compared with non-compensation participants, compensation groups had higher stress vulnerability (more severe injuries and negative reactions) and poorer baseline outcomes (psychological health and HrF). After adjustment, we found an effect of compensation on HrF [β-0.09 (−0.11 to −0.07), p < 0.001] and PTS [β = 0.36 (0.16 to 0.56), p = 0.0003], but not on depression [β = −0.07 (−0.42 to 0.28), p = 0.7]. Both groups improved over time. Vulnerable individuals (β = 1.23, p < 0.001) and those with poorer baseline outcomes (PTS: β = 0.06, p = 0.002; HrF: β = −1.07, p < 0.001) were more likely to lodge a claim. In turn, higher stress vulnerability, poor baseline outcomes and claiming compensation were associated with long-term psychological distress and HrF. Nevertheless, concurrent HrF in the model fully accounted for the compensation effect on psychological distress (β = −0.14, p = 0.27), but not vice versa.
This study provides convincing evidence that seeking compensation is not necessarily harmful to psychological health. The person's stress vulnerability and injury-related disability emerge as major risk factors of long-term psychological distress, requiring a whole-systems approach to address the problem.
Introduction: Calgary's introduction of rentable electronic scooters (e-scooters) in July of 2019 was met with wild popularity, representing the third most popular launch after Tel-Aviv and Paris. The present study aims to characterize the injury burden seen in all Calgary Emergency Departments (EDs) and Urgent Care Centres (UCCs) attributable to e-scooters since their 2019 introduction. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all electronic medical records of patients presenting to Calgary EDs or UCCs with the term “scooter” in the triage note, where exclusion criteria are considered for non e-scooter injuries (e.g: non-motorized scooters). Trends in scooter injuries will be compared between April - October 2018 (control arm preceding e-scooter introduction) and April - October 2019. Injury incidence, types, patient demographics, and relative risk compared to bicycle-related injuries will be determined. Descriptive statistics will be calculated. Moreover, 33 ED visits were brought in by EMS and provide information about injury types and locations of injuries involving EMS transport. Results: Preliminary data reveals 540 scooter-related visits (3.10% admitted/transferred) between July 8th and September 30th 2019 (mean age of 28, 56.30% male). Conversely, the number of bicycle-related visits and motor vehicle related injuries were 1482 and 586 (9.90% and 9.70% admitted/transferred) respectively over the same time period suggesting a greater burden but likely a lower per-ride incidence of injury requiring ED or UCC care. Moreover, between July 8th to October 1st 2019, 33 e-scooter presentations involved EMS (21.21% admitted to hospital), where 12.12% involved upper extremity injury, 21.21% were lower extremity injuries, and 6.06% were head injuries (mean age of 34, 48.48% male). Conversely, estimated EMS transfers to EDs or UCCs for bicycle injuries and motor vehicle injuries were 197 and 463 respectively over the same time period. ICU admissions or fatality were not recorded. Conclusion: Representing the most comprehensive study of e-scooter injury patterns in Canada to date, we here demonstrate a significant injury burden attributable to e-scooters following their introduction in Calgary in 2019. Bicycle-related and motor vehicle injuries were both more prevalent in this time period, and required more EMS visits. Further characterization of injury types, injuries and comparison with injury patterns prior to e-scooter introduction is yet to be determined.
The late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century US economy maimed and killed employees at an astronomically high rate, while the legal system left the injured and their loved ones with little recourse. In the 1910s, US states enacted workers' compensation laws, which required employers to pay a portion of the financial costs of workplace injuries. Nate Holdren uses a range of archival materials, interdisciplinary theoretical perspectives, and compelling narration to criticize the shortcomings of these laws. While compensation laws were a limited improvement for employees in economic terms, Holdren argues that these laws created new forms of inequality, causing people with disabilities to lose their jobs, while also resulting in new forms of inhumanity. Ultimately, this study raises questions about law and class and about when and whether our economy and our legal system produce justice or injustice.