To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The material properties of platform and medium figure prominently in Scott Rettberg’s examination of digital fiction as literary engagements with computer code, video gaming, hypertext, audio and visual plug-ins, and virtual reality. Narratives with multiple or interactive pathways, role-playing and perspectival shifts, and mass authorship reconceptualize postmodern and contemporary literary themes and techniques within digital textualities.
Dans cet article, nous étudions l'axiologie des techniques des discours écologistes de la décroissance à l'aune de celle du philosophe français Gilbert Simondon. Cette articulation fertile permet de montrer, premièrement, que les discours de la décroissance n’évaluent les techniques qu’à partir de leurs usages ; deuxièmement, elle explique pourquoi une telle axiologie, praxéologique plutôt que technologique, est incapable d'influer sur le progrès technique. À partir de Simondon, nous montrons notamment que la pensée de la décroissance ignore la distinction entre information et énergie au sein des réalités techniques, distinction pourtant nécessaire si l'on souhaite relier l’étude des techniques et l’écologie de façon adéquate et constructive.
Mobile communication technologies can provide citizens access to information that is tailored to their specific circumstances. Such technologies may therefore increase citizens’ ability to vote in line with their interests and hold politicians accountable. In a large-scale randomized controlled trial in Uganda (n = 16,083), we investigated whether citizens who receive private, timely, and individualized text messages by mobile phone about public services in their community punished or rewarded incumbents in local elections in line with the information. Respondents claimed to find the messages valuable and there is evidence that they briefly updated their beliefs based on the messages; however, the treatment did not cause increased votes for incumbents where public services were better than expected nor decreased votes where public services were worse than anticipated. The considerable knowledge gaps among citizens identified in this study indicate potential for communication technologies to effectively share civic information. Yet the findings imply that when the attribution of public service outcomes is difficult, even individualized information is unlikely to affect voting behavior.
The personal costs of war — military dead and injured—are the most salient measure of war costs and the primary instrument through which war affects domestic politics. We posit a framework for understanding war initiation, war policy, and war termination in democratic polities, and for understanding the role that citizens and their deaths through conflict play in those policy choices. We believe that war support derives from individuals’ calculations of a war’s value and cost. High-value conflicts are more likely to be supported than low-value conflicts. Conversely, low-cost conflicts are more likely to occur andto have durable support, while high-cost conflicts are likely to see rapid erosion of support when they are fought. We develop a comprehensive theoretical approach and examine these arguments with a variety of empirical methods in multiple wars, conducting analyses of tens of thousands of citizens across a wide variety of historical and hypothetical conditions. We also analyze the ways that military casualty information travels from distant battlefields to the homefront and address policy implications.
YouTube is increasingly used as a source of healthcare information. This study evaluated the quality of videos on YouTube about cochlear implants.
YouTube was searched using the phrase ‘cochlear implant’. The first 60 results were screened by two independent reviewers. A modified Discern tool was used to evaluate the quality of each video.
Forty-seven videos were analysed. The mean overall Discern score was 2.0 out of 5.0. Videos scored higher for describing positive elements such as the benefits of a cochlear implant (mean score of 3.4) and scored lower for negative elements such as the risks of cochlear implant surgery (mean score of 1.3).
The quality of information regarding cochlear implant surgery on YouTube is highly variable. These results demonstrated a bias towards the positive attributes of cochlear implants, with little mention of the risks or uncertainty involved. Although videos may be useful as supplementary information, critical elements required to make an informed decision are lacking. This is of particular importance when patients are considering surgery.
The objective of this study was to assess sources of information about gestational weight gain (GWG), diet and exercise among first-time pregnant Brazilian women in the USA.
First-time pregnant Brazilian women.
Eighty-six women, the majority of whom were immigrants (96·5 %) classified as having low acculturation levels (68 %), participated in the study. Approximately two-thirds of respondents had sought information about GWG (72·1 %), diet (79·1 %) and exercise (74·4 %) via the internet. Women classified as having low acculturation levels were more likely to seek information about GWG via the internet (OR = 7·55; 95 % CI 1·41, 40·26) than those with high acculturation levels after adjusting for age and receiving information about GWG from healthcare provider (doctor or midwife). Moreover, many respondents reported seeking information about GWG (67 %), diet (71 %) and exercise (52 %) from family and friends. Women who self-identified as being overweight pre-pregnancy were less likely to seek information about diet (OR = 0·32; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·93) and exercise (OR = 0·33; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·96) from family and friends than those who self-identified being normal-weight pre-pregnancy.
This is the first study to assess sources of information about GWG, diet and exercise among pregnant Brazilian immigrants in the USA. Findings have implications for the design of interventions and suggest the potential of mHealth intervention as low-cost, easy access option for delivering culturally and linguistically tailored evidence-based information about GWG incorporating behavioural change practices to this growing immigrant group.
This chapter outlines the history of the conflict between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) and the Government of Uganda, using the framings of war, peace and information. It gives an overview of the conflict history, including the deep sense of betrayal that guides the LRA. An overview of previous peace attempts highlights the reasons why these had failed – some of which were going to be mirrored in the Juba Talks. Through the history of peace attempts, the chapter connects actors in the Juba Talks to previous efforts and shows how the debate on peace shifted when the International Criminal Court issued arrest warrants for five LRA commanders. In describing how the Juba Talks came about, the chapter uses the categories of space, ideology and affiliation to explain the identity of the LRA and its political wing, the Lord’s Resistance Movement. The chapter further argues that the LRA entered the Juba Peace Talks with the understanding that it would be a forum to deal publicly with the root causes of the war. They also hoped to gain better control of the narratives that had influenced this war, with a discourse in favour of the government.
This chapter sets out the first of two positive arguments for extending corporate voting rights to employees. The long-standing theory of the firm, in confronting the question why firms even exist, explains the separation of corporate insiders from outsiders in a way that allows firms to most efficiently carry out joint production. Those inside the corporation should have their preferences captured through more direct governance mechanisms such as voting, those outside the firm through processes like contract or regulation. Under this understanding of the firm, employees are, of course, the classic insiders, a conclusion that’s only reinforced by more recent work on the generation and flow of information within firms. The economic theory of the firm, then, provides a powerful argument for extending the corporate franchise to employees.
This chapter critically examines the argument for giving shareholders alone the right to vote based on their ownership of the corporate residual. The argument is that shareholders are only paid what's left over after all other contractual participants – employees, customers, creditors, and suppliers – have been satisfied. Because shareholders receive the marginal gains, they have the best incentives to exercise discretion on the part of the entire firm, and hence should be accorded ultimate control. Shareholders, though, are not the unidimensional profit maximizers used to get this argument up and running. Moreover, shareholders do not, by virtue of their relationship with the firm, have ready access to the information necessary to cast informed votes, and many shareholders – such as index fund shareholders – lack real incentives to seek out that information. Finally, this vision of shareholders as the sole owners of the residual is just descriptively wrong – employees, too, are invested in the long-term interest of the firm, cannot easily diversify that interest, and often possess firm-specific skills as well as contributions to the ongoing value of the business.
This chapter argues that, during the First World War, personal, partial, emotive and literary practices were fundamental to how transatlantic discourses about the war were managed, maintained, and ultimately resolved in favor of the Anglo-American alliance. It examines the different ways writers - for example, Rupert Brooke, John Masefield, Bertrand Russell, T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound and Robert Frost - were mobilized by institutions like Wellington House, universities, newspapers and publishers. It considers writers’ and poets’ contributions to overlapping official and unofficial propaganda networks, and how this cultural exchange worked to “sell” particular interpretations and experiences of the conflict to reading publics.
The distinction between humans and the natural world is an artefact and more a matter of linguistic communication than a conceptual separation. This Element proposes ecosemiotics as an epistemological tool to better understand the relationship between human and natural processes. Ecosemiotics with its affinity to the humanities, is presented here as the best disciplinary approach for interpreting complex environmental conditions for a broad audience, across a multitude of temporal and spatial scales. It is proposed as an intellectual bridge between divergent sciences to incorporate within a unique framework different paradigms. The ecosemiotic paradigm helps to explain how organisms interact with their external environments using mechanisms common to all living beings that capture external information and matter for internal usage. This paradigm can be applied in all the circumstances where a living being (man, animal, plant, fungi, etc.) performs processes to stay alive.
This book explains how actions and inactions arise and change in social contexts, including social media and face-to-face communication. Its multidisciplinary perspective covers research from psychology, communication, public health, business studies, and environmental sciences. The reader can use this cutting-edge approach to design and interpret effects of behavioral change interventions as well as replicate the materials and methods implemented to study them. The author provides an organized set of principles that take the reader from the formation of attitudes and goals, to the structure of action and inaction. It also reflects on how cognitive processes explain excesses of action while inaction persists elsewhere. This practical guide summarises the best practices persuasion and behavioral interventions to promote changes in health, consumer, and social behaviors.
Chapter 16 focuses on the ability for certain members of the animal kingdom to communicate. It first compares the notions of communication and language and examines the ways in which animals may signal information through visual, auditory, chemosensory, mechanoreceptive, and electromagnetic channels. It explains the type of information conveyed by animal communication including alarm, food, mating, and aggressive signals. The chapter then lists the properties that researchers have considered basic to all human languages, including not only arbitrariness of symbols, discreteness, displacement, semantics, productivity, and duality, but also grammar and recursion. The chapter then shows that many of these well-known properties are also found at least in some members of the animal kingdom, namely in the signals of prairie dogs and honeybees.
The legitimacy of a pension system or any social security program depends on its credibility and perceived fairness. In order to gauge this legitimacy, we need to understand the relation between people's knowledge and attitudes. This experimental survey into the role of knowledge and perceptions divided respondents into two groups: the ‘treatment’ group received an information letter about a forthcoming pension reform before they were interviewed, while the control group was interviewed without receiving this ‘treatment’. Comparisons of the responses from the two groups allow us to assess how the level of knowledge and the provision of information affect people's opinions on policy reform. We also consider the patterns of covariation between background factors, people's concerns, and attitudes toward pension reform. The results show that the information letter had a significant impact on subjective but not on the objective level of knowledge. Receiving the information letter improved acceptance and perceptions of the fairness of the reform.
Can corrective information change citizens’ misperceptions about immigrants and subsequently lead to favorable immigration opinions? While prior studies from the USA document how corrections about the size of minority populations fail to change citizens’ immigration-related opinions, they do not examine how other facts that speak to immigrants’ cultural or economic dependency rates can influence immigration policy opinions. To extend earlier work, we conducted a large-scale survey experiment fielded to a nationally representative sample of Danes. We randomly expose participants to information about non-Western immigrants’ (1) welfare dependency rate, (2) crime rate, and (3) proportion of the total population. We find that participants update their factual beliefs in light of correct information, but reinterpret the information in a highly selective fashion, ultimately failing to change their policy preferences.
The success of Islamic-based political and economic movements is contrasted with lower rates of political and economic activity in Muslim countries. The latter -- a significant “participation gap“ -- holds even after accounting for differences at the national-level and, within countries, across individuals. Based on these two trends, the argument is made that Islamic-based movements enjoy a comparative advantage when it comes to mobilizing individuals to participate in collective political and economic activities. This helps to clarify two key research questions: What are the obstacles to political and economic participation among individuals in the Muslim world? And how do references to Islam help to address these obstacles? Three existing explanations for the Islamic advantage are reviewed, each defined in terms of how it sees the obstacle to participation and the role of Islam in alleviating it. While grievance theory holds that Islam speaks to frustrations and resentments among the poor, the faith-based theory of transvaluation argues that religious beliefs create a sense of duty to serve God, regardless of the risks involved. A final theory suggests that individuals are better informed about what they can expect from Islamic-based groups,.
Observable implications of three existing theories of the Islamic advantage -- grievances, faith, information -- are tested using a variety of data sources. Contrary to the expectations of grievance theory, individuals in the Muslim world appear to be more dissatisfied and less apathetic. Moreover, participation rates are lowest among the most aggrieved, much as they are elsewhere in the world. In contrast to what the faith-based theory expects, participation rates are significantly lower among individuals with the strongest religious beliefs. Further, the popularity of Islamic-based political and economic movements does not appear to follow trends in religiosity in the aggregate, neither across space nor across time. Instead, support for these movements appears to come from both the religious and the secular, in Turkey and across the Muslim world. Finally, there is little evidence that voters in Muslim countries are uninformed, generally, or better informed about Islamic-based parties, in particular. The lack of support for the all three existing theories reopens the puzzle of Islamic-based movements yet again.