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Either side of the Second World War, social psychiatry had emerged in the United States, influenced by Adolf Meyer’s work, the ecological wing of the Chicago School of sociology and subsequently the development of the biopsychosocial model by George Engel. The sociological imagination in British social psychiatry was sparse but not always absent. Most of the work in UK is derived from the Institute of Psychiatry in London, augmented by a minority of studies from Scotland and the English provinces. By the turn of this century, the taken-for-granted diagnostic categories used by social psychiatrists were subject to critical questioning. The weak construct validity of schizophrenia was conceded and a broader notion of psychosis as the medical codification of madness (i.e. socially unintelligible conduct) emerged. No discipline has a monopoly of understanding about this topic and so the interdisciplinary potential of social psychiatry, broadly conceived, remains an opportunity for all. However, for its potential to be realised, the principle of interdisciplinarity needs to be fully respected by all.
British psychiatry is almost entirely publicly funded; in the United States, a tradition of well-remunerated private practice has prevailed. Despite similar therapeutics and nosology, psychiatry in Britain and the United States has developed in strikingly different ways. Psychoanalysis once dominated US psychiatry; in a big swing of the pendulum, it has been almost entirely replaced by psychopharmacology. In Britain, the research tradition in the past was weak; in the United States, it has been fuelled by large amounts of government funding. A British hesitancy about embracing large abstract theories has no US counterpart. In terms of training, a progressive agenda has been emphasised in Britain, more defensive postures in the United States.
Suicide is one of the leading mental health crises and takes one life every 40 seconds. Four out of every five suicides occur in low- and middle-income countries. Despite religion being a protective factor against suicide, the estimated number of suicides is rapidly increasing in Pakistan.
Our review focuses on the trends of suicide and means of self-poisoning in the past three decades, and the management of commonly used poisons.
We searched two electronic databases (PubMed and PakMediNet) for published English-language studies describing agents used for suicide in different regions of Pakistan. A total of 46 out of 85 papers (N = 54 747 cases) met our inclusion criteria.
Suicidal behaviour was more common among individuals younger than 30 years. Females comprised 60% of those who attempted suicide in our study sample, although the ratio of completed suicides favoured males. There were regional trends in the choice of agent for overdose. Organophosphate poisoning was reported across the nation, with a predominance of cases from the agricultural belt of South Punjab and interior Sindh. Aluminium phosphide (‘wheat pills’) was a preferred agent in North Punjab, whereas paraphenylenediamine (‘kala pathar’) was implicated in deaths by suicide from South Punjab. Urban areas had other means for suicide, including household chemicals, benzodiazepines, kerosene oil and rat poison.
Urgent steps are needed, including psychoeducational campaigns on mental health and suicide, staff training, medical resources for prompt treatment of self-poisoning and updated governmental policy to regulate pesticide sales.
Observational studies suggest that hormonal contraceptive use may increase depressive symptoms in women, but it is unclear whether the effect is causal.
To quantitatively examine the evidence from randomised clinical trials for the link between hormonal contraceptive use and depressive symptoms.
We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials comparing women randomised to any form of a hormonal contraceptive with women randomised to any other form of a (non-)hormonal contraceptive or placebo. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, EMCare and EMBASE, from inception to 1 May 2020. Certainty of the evidence was assessed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. A random-effect Bayesian network meta-analysis was conducted, with change in depressive symptoms between baseline and three cycles as outcome.
This review identified 3492 records, of which 14 trials were eligible and 12 could be included in the network meta-analysis. These trials included 5833 participants (mean age per study range: 16.8–32.4 years) and compared 10 different interventions. Compared with placebo, hormonal contraceptive use did not cause worsening of depressive symptoms (standardised mean difference: median, −0.04; range, −0.17 [95% credible interval −0.46 to 0.13] to 0.13 [95% credible interval −0.28 to 0.56]).
This study suggests that hormonal contraceptive use does not lead to an increase in depressive symptoms in adult women. Future studies should include first-time users, to confirm the results in young women.
The UK went into nationwide lockdown on 24 March 2020, in response to COVID-19. The direct psychiatric effects of this are relatively unknown.
We examined whether the first UK lockdown changed the demographics of patients admitted to psychiatric hospitals (to include gender, legality, route of admission and diagnoses), independent of seasonal variation..
We conducted an anonymous review of psychiatric admissions aged ≥18 years in the 6-month period after the announcement of the first UK lockdown (March to August 2020), and in the previous year (March to August 2019), in Kent and Medway NHS and Social Care Partnership Trust in-patient facilities. The number of admissions were compared, along with factors that may help to explain the psychological effects of national lockdown.
There was no significant increase in total number of admissions or the gender percentage. However, there was a 11.8% increase in formal sectioning under the Mental Health Act 1983. This increase was sustained and statistically significant across all 6 months. A sustained decrease in admissions via the crisis team was also observed as being statistically significant. Separate diagnoses saw changes in percentage of admissions between March and May. The most statistically significant was schizophrenia admissions for men in April (18.7%), and women in March (18.4%).
Our findings highlight the effect of COVID-19 on the legal status of psychiatric admissions, and emphasise the importance of having a robust, adaptable and open psychiatric service that caters to the ongoing needs of patients, regardless of government restrictions.
Young adults with heart disease constitute a growing group with the risk of cognitive and physical impairment. The knowledge of their academic performance and mental and physical health is, however, scant. This study aimed to compare young adults with CHDs or arrhythmia with their peers.
Information on physical health (Somatic Symptom Scale-8), mental health problems (Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25), quality of life (Satisfaction With Life Scale), physical activity, and academic performance was collected online in a national cross-sectional survey in Norway among students in higher education (the SHoT2018 study).
Among 50,054 students, 172 (0.34%) reported CHD and 132 (0.26%) arrhythmias. Students reporting arrhythmias scored significantly higher than the control group on somatic symptoms (OR = 2.3 (95% CI: 1.62–3.27)), anxiety (OR = 1.60 (1.08–2.37)), depression (OR = 1.49 (1.05–2.11)), self-harm, and suicide attempt (OR = 2.72 (1.56–4.75)), and lower quality of life (OR 1.64 (1.16–2.32)) and more loneliness (OR = 1.99 (1.28–3.10)) compared to participants without heart disease. Participants with CHD reported an increased somatic symptom burden (OR = 1.58 (1.16–2.16)). Despite a tendency to a higher score, this group did not differ significantly from the control group on anxiety or depression, quality of life, or loneliness. However, the risk of self-harm thoughts and suicidality was significantly increased (OR for suicide attempt 2.22 (1.3–3.77)). There was no difference between the groups on academic performance.
Although Norwegian students with heart disease reported more somatic symptoms, their academic progress was not reduced compared to students without heart disease. Students with CHD or arrhythmias showed an increased risk of self-harm thoughts and suicidality.
The California kingsnake (Lampropeltis californiae), native to North America, is a significant threat to the conservation of endemic species in the Spanish Macaronesian island of Gran Canaria. However, its role disseminating potential invasive parasites, such as zoonotic pentastomids, has not been proven. Among its parasitic fauna, only protistans have been documented, in contrast to other Lampropeltis spp., which are known to carry pentastomids. Thus, a parasitological study is urgently required. Between 2016 and 2018, a total of 108 snakes were necropsied and stool samples examined. A single snake was infested with Ophionyssus natricis, and another individual with Serpentirhabdias sp. Only this latter snake presented gross lesions, characterized by granulomatous pneumonia. No Pentastomida were found. By contrast, almost the entire population (98.5%) was infested with larval helminths (three different nematode and two cestode species), characterized by granulomatous gastrointestinal serositis. This suggests the snake poses a ‘dead end’ host for local parasites. Based on these findings, snakes in Gran Canaria carry potential zoonotic mites, which along with Serpentirhabdias sp. could represent a threat to endemic lizards. The presence of metazoan parasites and their lesions are reported for the first time in the California kingsnake.
Patients in medium secure hospitals may be at particularly increased risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and complications. We undertook a service evaluation involving all current in-patients within a single, English medium secure hospital to describe the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine among this population. Data regarding capacity to consent to the vaccine, acceptance/refusal of this (and reasons for refusal) and demographics was retrospectively collected from the patients’ clinical records and analysed. In total, 85 patients (92.4% of eligible patients) had capacity to decide if they wanted the COVID-19 vaccine. Of these 68 (80.0%) consented and 17 (20.0%) declined to consent. A similar proportion of patients aged under and over 40 years old consented to have the vaccine. Those from a Black Asian minority ethnic background were more likely to decline the vaccine than White British patients. The reasons for capacitous refusal appeared similar to those seen in the general population.
Contagious ecthyma (CE) is an infectious disease of small ruminants caused by a parapoxvirus of family Poxviridae subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. The disease is obviously distinguished by an establishment of scabby lesions and ulcerative formation on less hairy areas including muzzle, ears, nostril, and sometimes on genitalia. The disease is endemic in sheep and goats. The virus is transmissible to other ruminants and is a public health concern in humans. Although the disease is known as self-limiting, it may cause a significant economic threat and financial losses due to lower productivity in livestock production. Information with regard to the risk of the disease and epidemiology in most parts of the world is underreported. This paper aims to provide relevant information about the epidemiology of CE in selected regions of Europe, South America, North America, Asia, Africa, and Australia. An in-depth comprehension of virus infection, diagnoses, and management of the disease will enable farmers, researchers, veterinarians, abattoir workers, health personnel, and border controllers to improve their measures, skills, and effectiveness toward disease prevention and control, toward reducing unnecessary economic loss among farmers. A herd health program for significant improvement in management and productivity of livestock demands a well planned extension program that ought to encourage farmers to equip themselves with adequate skills for animal healthcare.
Hurricane Sandy made landfall across New York City (NYC) in October 2012, but the long-term consequences of the storm are still not fully understood. We analyzed NYC data to quantify the extent of Hurricane Sandy-related concerns over time.
Data on NYC 311 Call Center inquiries were downloaded from the NYC Open Data website (October 29, 2012 to May 26, 2020) to provide information about Sandy-related calls using the keywords “Hurricane” and “Sandy”.
In the first 2 wk after Hurricane Sandy, 15.6% of 311 calls were related to the storm. From 2012 to 2020, the volume of inquiries decreased from 87,209 to 25. The majority of calls in 2012 (49,181; 56%) was requesting general Hurricane Sandy information, and in 2020 assistance with property restoration (20; 79%)
The long-term consequences of Hurricane Sandy in NYC persist into 2020, almost 8 y after the initial event. The needs of Hurricane Sandy victims have changed over time from requiring general information regarding closures, property destruction and immediate disaster relief to aid with legal, financial, and mental health consequences. Disaster response policy-makers must understand the changing needs of NYC residents to provide resources and prepare for future disasters.
Studies exploring the longer-term effects of experiencing coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) on mental health are lacking. We explored the relationship between reporting probable COVID-19 symptoms in April 2020 and psychological distress (measured using the General Health Questionnaire) 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 months later. Data were taken from the UK Household Longitudinal Study, a nationally representative household panel survey of UK adults. Elevated levels of psychological distress were found up to 7 months after probable COVID-19, compared with participants with no likely infection. Associations were stronger among younger age groups and men. Further research into the psychological sequalae of COVID-19 is urgently needed.
Following the format change to single best answer questions (SBAs) for the Diploma of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, this excellent resource is fully aligned with the new syllabus and exam style. Topics covered include basic clinical and surgical skills, all stages of pregnancy from antenatal care to postpartum problems, and general gynaecological and fertility concerns. Containing 310 single best answer (SBA) style questions, detailed explanations ensure candidates understand the reasoning and evidence-based decision-making behind each answer. With a recommended reading source also provided readers can explore and revise topics in further detail to reinforce their learning. A further 130 questions are included in two mock exam papers, helping candidates to strengthen their time management skills. Written by an author with many years' experience working on the DRCOG, candidates can be sure of the exact question format and how best to prepare for the actual exam.
Complex traumas are traumatic experiences that involve multiple interpersonal threats during childhood or adolescence, such as repeated abuse. These traumas are hypothesised to cause more severe psychopathology and poorer cognitive function than other non-complex traumas. However, empirical testing has been limited to clinical/convenience samples and cross-sectional designs.
To investigate psychopathology and cognitive function in young people exposed to complex, non-complex or no trauma, from a population-representative longitudinal cohort, and to consider the role of pre-existing vulnerabilities.
Participants were from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a population-representative birth cohort of 2232 British children. At age 18 years (93% participation), we assessed lifetime exposure to complex and non-complex trauma, past-year psychopathology and current cognitive function. We also prospectively assessed early childhood vulnerabilities: internalising and externalising symptoms at 5 years of age, IQ at 5 years of age, family history of mental illness, family socioeconomic status and sex.
Participants exposed to complex trauma had more severe psychopathology and poorer cognitive function at 18 years of age, compared with both trauma-unexposed participants and those exposed to non-complex trauma. Early childhood vulnerabilities predicted risk of later complex trauma exposure, and largely explained associations of complex trauma with cognitive deficits, but not with psychopathology.
By conflating complex and non-complex traumas, current research and clinical practice underestimate the severity of psychopathology, cognitive deficits and pre-existing vulnerabilities linked with complex trauma. A better understanding of the mental health needs of people exposed to complex trauma could inform the development of new, more effective interventions.
Although the clinical importance of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has received increasing recognition, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. The objective of this study was to estimate the lifetime prevalence of NSSI in adults and its association with sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric disorders, and lifetime treatment for NSSI.
A nationally representative face-to-face survey was conducted with 7192 adults aged ≥18 years in England. Respondents were interviewed about engagement in NSSI, psychiatric illness, suicidal thoughts and behavior, and treatment history for this behavior.
The estimated lifetime prevalence rate of NSSI was 4.86%. Younger age, growing up without biological parents in the household, being unmarried, and impoverished backgrounds were associated with NSSI. The majority of respondents with lifetime NSSI (63.82%) had at least one current psychiatric disorder. Most psychiatric conditions were associated with greater odds of lifetime NSSI in multivariate models. NSSI was strongly associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, respectively, even after accounting for psychiatric disorders and sociodemographic covariates. A substantial proportion of respondents with NSSI history (30.92%) have engaged in medically severe self-harm, as indexed by requiring medical attention for this behavior. The majority of respondents with NSSI (56.20%) had not received psychiatric care for this behavior.
NSSI is prevalent in the general population and associated with considerable psychiatric comorbidity. A high rate of unmet treatment needs is evident among those with this behavior. Those at the greatest lifetime risk for NSSI may also be particularly limited in their resources to cope with this behavior.
Recovery in schizophrenia is a complex process, involving clinical, societal and personal recovery. Until now, studies analysed these domains separately, without examining their mutual relations and changes over time.
This study aimed to examine different states of recovery and transition rates between states.
The Pharmacotherapy Monitoring and Outcome Survey (2006–2017) yearly assesses patients with schizophrenia in the Northern Netherlands. Data from 2327 patients with one up to 11 yearly measurements on clinical, societal and personal recovery were jointly analysed with a mixture latent Markov model (MLMM).
The selected MLMM had four states that differed in degree and pattern of recovery outcomes. Patients in state 1 were least recovered on any domain (16% of measurements), and partly recovered in states 2 (25%; featured by negative symptoms) and 3 (21%; featured by positive symptoms). Patients in state 4 (38%) were most recovered, except for work, study and housekeeping. At the subsequent measurement, the probability of remaining in the same state was 77–89%, transitioning to a better state was 4–12% and transitioning to a worse state was 4–6%; no transitions occurred between states 1 and 4. Female gender, shorter illness duration and less schizophrenia were more prevalent in better states.
Quite a high recovery rate was present among a substantial part of the measurements (38%, state 4), with a high probability (89%) of remaining in this state. Transition rates in the other states might increase to a more favourable state by focusing on adequate treatment of negative and positive symptoms and societal problems.
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many countries opted for strict public health measures, including closing schools. After some time, they have started relaxing some of those restrictions. To avoid overwhelming health systems, predictions for the number of new COVID-19 cases need to be considered when choosing a school reopening strategy. Using a computer simulation based on a stochastic compartmental model that includes a heterogeneous and dynamic network, we analyse different strategies to reopen schools in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, including one similar to the official reopening plan. Our model allows us to describe different types of relations between people, each type with a different infectiousness. Based on our simulations and model assumptions, our results indicate that reopening schools with all students at once has a big impact on the number of new COVID-19 cases, which could cause a collapse of the health system. On the other hand, our results also show that a controlled school reopening could possibly avoid the collapse of the health system, depending on how people follow sanitary measures. We estimate that postponing the schools' return date for after a vaccine becomes available may save tens of thousands of lives just in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area compared to a controlled reopening considering a worst-case scenario. We also discuss our model constraints and the uncertainty of its parameters.
The total COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) infected cases have reached 139 million worldwide and nearing 3 million deaths on April 16, 2021. The availability of accurate data is crucial as it makes it possible to analyze correctly the infection trends and make better forecasts. The reported recovered cases for many US states are surprisingly low. This could be due to difficulties in keeping track of recoveries and resulted in higher numbers for the reported active cases than the actual numbers on the ground. In this work, based on the typical range of recovery rate for COVID-19, we estimate the active data from the total cases and death cases and bring out a correction for the data for all the US states reported on worldometer.
Susceptible S-Infected I-Recovered R-Death D (SIRD) compartmental models are often used for modelling of infectious diseases. On the basis of the analogy between SIRD and compartmental models in hydrology, this study makes mathematical formulations developed in hydrology available for modelling in epidemiology. We adapt the Hayami model solution of the diffusive wave equation generally used in hydrological modelling to compartmental I–R–D models in epidemiology by simulating the relationships between the number of infectious I(t), the number of recoveries R(t) and the number of deaths D(t). The Hayami model is easy-to-use, robust and parsimonious. We compare the empirical one-parameter exponential model usually used in SIRD models to the two-parameter Hayami model. Applications were implemented on the recent Covid-19 pandemic. The application on data from 24 countries shows that both models give comparable performances for modelling the I–D relationship. However, for modelling the I–R relationship and the active cases, the exponential model gives fair performances whereas the Hayami model substantially improves the model performances. The Hayami model also presents the advantage that its parameters can be easily estimated from the analysis of the data distributions of I(t), R(t) and D(t). The Hayami model is parsimonious with only two parameters which are useful to compare the temporal evolution of recoveries and deaths in different countries based on different contamination rates and recoveries strategies. This study highlights the interest of knowledge transfer between different scientific disciplines in order to model different processes.
Vision and hearing impairments affect 55% of people aged 60+ years and are associated with lower cognitive test performance; however, tests rely on vision, hearing, or both. We hypothesized that scores on tests that depend on vision or hearing are different among those with vision or hearing impairments, respectively, controlling for underlying cognition.
Leveraging cross-sectional data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study (ARIC-NCS), we used item response theory to test for differential item functioning (DIF) by vision impairment (better eye presenting visual acuity worse than 20/40) and hearing impairment (better ear .5–4 kHz pure-tone average > 25 decibels).
We identified DIF by vision impairment for tests whose administrations do not rely on vision [e.g., Delayed Word Recall both in ARIC-NCS: .50 logit difference between impaired and unimpaired (p = .04) and in BLSA: .62 logits (p = .02)] and DIF by hearing impairment for tests whose administrations do not rely on hearing [Digit Symbol Substitution test in BLSA: 1.25 logits (p = .001) and Incidental Learning test in ARIC-NCS: .35 logits (p = .001)]. However, no individuals had differences between unadjusted and DIF-adjusted measures of greater than the standard error of measurement.
DIF by sensory impairment in cognitive tests was independent of administration characteristics, which could indicate that elevated cognitive load among persons with sensory impairment plays a larger role in test performance than previously acknowledged. While these results were unexpected, neither of these samples are nationally representative and each has unique selection factors; thus, replication is critical.