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This study has two-fold objectives: first, to test the global convergence hypothesis in the progress of child stunting across 174 countries over the period 1990–2015; second, to identify factors determining the process of convergence or divergence.
The study design comprises macro-level cross-country analyses. Our empirical strategy uses parametric convergence models such as absolute and conditional β-convergence models, while non-parametric convergence models such as Kernel density plots serve as robustness checks.
The study uses a global setting comprising child stunting information from 174 countries.
The participants for this study are 174 countries. The information on child stunting prevalence for most countries is available from the UNICEF-WHO-WB Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates Expanded Database (April-2019), while national-level surveys are used for those countries where UNICEF-WHO-WB Database is not available. The data for socio-economic variables are taken from the World Bank’s data bank (1990–2015).
Findings from the absolute β-convergence model estimates show that progress in child stunting has diverged over the entire period (1990–2015). However, the speed of divergence has reduced for the recent period (2010–2015). The conditional β-convergence model estimates show that cross-country heterogeneity in GDP per capita, poverty and health care expenditure are significant factors explaining divergence in child stunting.
For replacing current divergence with convergence in child stunting worldwide, the study demonstrates the critical role of economic factors and public spending on health care to reduce child stunting, particularly in countries where progress is slow.
This last part of the book introduces the Einstein equation – the basic equation of general relativity, in much the same way that Maxwell’s equations are the basic equations of electromagnetism. Geometries such as the Schwarzschild geometry, or those of the FRW cosmological models, are particular solutions of the Einstein equation. Just three new mathematical ideas are needed to give an efficient and standard discussion of the Einstein equation: a more precise definition of vectors in terms of directional derivatives; the notion of dual vectors as a linear map from vectors to real numbers; and the covariant derivative of a vector field in curved spacetime. These mathematical concepts are introduced in this chapter.
At first glance, administrative law in Canada, where courts regularly defer to administrative decision-makers’ interpretations of law and judicial review of administrative action is organised around the concept of reasonableness, is very different to administrative law in England, where courts do not defer to administrative interpretations of law and prefer to conceive of the justification for judicial oversight of administrative action in terms of grounds of review and jurisdictional error. One might think, based on this first glance, that the differences must be attributable to deep-seated disagreement about the nature of judicial power and the appropriate allocation of interpretive authority between the branches of government. One might even suspect that such disagreement must rest on long-settled historical foundations. I will argue, however, that the difference between Canadian and English administrative law is best explained by relatively recent accidents of history. Indeed, I will suggest, a prolonged period of divergence may be coming to an end, with the Transatlantic rise of reasonableness review ushering in a new era of convergence. I will develop this argument by tracing the pattern of divergence and convergence in Canadian and English administrative law from the 1970s to the present day. From the common starting point identified in Part I, the two jurisdictions diverged dramatically between the 1970s and 2000s, as I will explain in Part II. Since then, the administrative law of the two jurisdiction has converged to some extent, as outlined in Part III. One of the implications of my argument is, as I discuss in Part IV, is that further convergence in the future is possible. Moreover, a corollary of this argument is that there is room for fruitful comparisons of English and Canadian administrative law. My message, to those who fear – for whatever reason – that “there be dragons”, is that they can safely venture forward in an Anglo-Canadian comparative administrative law endeavour. A reader interested in undertaking comparative analysis might well conclude that the nature of judicial power, the appropriate allocation of interpretive authority and long-settled historical foundations are substantially similar in both jurisdictions.
Vector and matrix calculus provides a powerful set of tools for analying and manipulating scalars, vectors, and tensors in continuum mechanics. This includes transformations between coordinate systems and provides the foundation for optimization methods.
This chapter focuses on developments in governance in European higher education, with a focus on Western Europe. It presents an overview of the literature on this topic, including the various modes of governance as well as the changes in European higher education in recent decades. The chapter starts by describing different conceptual models used to address and analyse higher education governance. Next, it portrays general tendencies with regard to governance and shows that states have been delegating some of their powers to other levels in the higher education system in four directions: an upward shift to the supranational level, a horizontal shift to ‘independent’ agencies, a downward shift to the institutions (‘autonomy’), and an outward shift (‘privatization, contracting’). As a result of these shifts, often cited as a move from government to governance, the modes of system steering and coordination have become more complex and dynamic, including more stakeholders at different policy levels. The chapter then considers that governance configurations in European higher education not only have similarities, but also differ in various ways.
This chapter acts as a capstone to Part IV’s presentation of country reports. It presents the findings of a comparative analysis of arbitration laws in the different countries reported. This analysis focuses on the different issues presented in Parts I–III, including scope and interpretation of arbitration clauses, anti-arbitration laws and policies, arbitrator bias and misconduct, the public policy exception, and other limits on arbitrability. Thus, the country reports are reviewed here to determine areas of commonality and divergences across national laws relating to judicial intervention into the arbitration process. It will also assess possible trends in international commercial arbitration.
Cetacean fossils have been recorded from middle and late Eocene deposits on Seymour Island since the beginning of the twentieth century and include fully aquatic Basilosauridae and stem Neoceti. Here, we report a small cetacean vertebra tentatively referred to as Neoceti from the late Eocene of Seymour Island. It shows a mosaic of traits, some of which are characteristic of early Neoceti (anteroposteriorly long transverse processes; a ventral keel on the ventral side of the centrum; thin pedicles of the neural arch), whereas others are shared with Basilosauridae (low-placed bases of the transverse processes). However, some traits are unique and may be autapomorphic: presence of separate prezygapophyses on the vertebra at the thoracic/lumbar boundary and a proportionally short centrum. Both traits imply a fast swimming style, which is characteristic of modern dolphins rather than Eocene cetaceans. Thus, this specimen can be identified as Neoceti indet., with some hypothetical odontocete affinities. Along with a few other Eocene whale taxa, it seems to be among the earliest known members of Neoceti on Earth. The finding of small and fast-swimming Neoceti in Antarctica also demonstrates early diversification of cetaceans and ecological niche partitioning by them dating back as early as the late Eocene.
Recently, Penn World Tables include new data that enable calculation of total factor productivity in addition to output for a large set of countries. We use these new data to examine convergence and divergence across countries by applying a new approach, which differentiates between the dynamics of output and of productivity. Our empirical results lead to two main new contributions to the literature. The first is on the interpretation of “β-convergence” in “growth regressions.” It means that output per worker in each country converges to productivity but does not imply convergence across countries, since productivity tends to diverge from the global frontier. The second contribution is to the literature, which finds that income gaps across countries are due mainly to differential technology adoption. This paper shows that the gaps in technology are not only large but keep growing over time.
Recent trends suggest that international economic law may be witnessing a renaissance of convergence – both parallel and intersectional. The adjudicative process also reveals signs of convergence. These diverse claims of convergence are of legal, empirical and normative interest. Yet, convergence discourse also warrants scepticism. This volume therefore aims to contribute to both the general debate on the fragmentation of international law and the discourse concerning the interplay between international trade and investment, with a particular focus on dispute settlement. It especially seeks to move beyond broad observations or singular case studies to provide an informed and wide-reaching assessment by investigating multiple standards, processes, mechanisms and behaviours. Methodologically, a normative stance is largely eschewed in favour of a range of ‘doctrinal,’ quantitative and qualitative methods that are used to address the research questions. Furthermore, in determining the extent of convergence, it is important to recognize that there is no bright line or clear yardstick for determining its nature or degree.
Since the tragedy of September 11, 2001 (9/11) there have been a growing awareness and recognition of the expanding threat presented by the transmutation and convergence of international organized crime and terrorist groups. There is a semantic debate on whether these organizations are “converging” or “transforming.” Regardless, this worrisome development is complicated and progressively difficult to combat and calls for law enforcement, intelligence and military interventions. While the United States and other countries have been dealing with the post-9/11 world of persistent problems like Iraq, Afghanistan, al Qaeda, “Islamic State in Iraq and Syria” (ISIS), Syria, and more, the links between organized crime and terrorism could prolong these challenges and generate further disruptions and menace to global security and development. There are strong operational needs and requirements that bring organized crime and terrorists together for collaboration and even seamless transitions within the same general operation. However, there are substantial hurdles that make a total teamwork between the two groups not so easily achievable. For example, organized crime normally avoids the publicity and the indiscriminate killings often used by terrorists. However, it is clear that the merging of international organized crime and terrorist groups is growing and presents unique challenges and opportunities. This paper examines this ongoing transmutation, convergence and cooperation between transnational organized crime and terrorism, and offers examples and recommendations on how to prevent it and defeat it.
Agreements about reciprocal recognition of patent rights between nations were at the heart of discussions at the International Union for the Protection of Industrial Property held in Paris in 1883. Yet while some treat the so-called “Paris Union” as a starting point for the subsequent globalization in patent rights, the context of early attempts at patent law harmonization was international tension and disagreements. Divergences in patent laws have their roots in the strong heterogeneity manifest among national patent systems developing before 1883. The sheer diversity of patent systems available was indeed highlighted by those critics who sought the abolition of patents rights. The project of harmonization should thus be seen as a defensive response to critics of patenting per se, rather than as the advent of a natural process of legislative convergence. In looking at the 1883 Convention in this light, we see that negotiations there can only be understood in terms of a strong rivalry between the French and German models. Such rivalries continued to characterize the membership of the Paris Union even into the interwar period, raising major doubts about whether the project of harmonization could ever be completed.
The sudden changes and new problems of the Anthropocene, viewed through evolutionary theory, highlight issues of social fitness: who is benefited by an institution? Anthropocene growth – in economy, population, waste, and inequality – fostered midcentury social confrontations and ideological conflict. Capitalism, now paired with empire, won global dominion. Further institutional change led, after two great wars, to contesting racial categorization, emancipating large and small nations, and demanding post-imperial regulation of economic inequality. Should institutions respond to social and environmental needs – or regulate themselves? The chapter contrasts theories: social evolution in trade unions and cultural evolution as applied to an urban ethnic community. Neoliberal visionaries proposed a postwar solution, treating markets as devices for governing not only economic but social behavior. From 1980, authorities in the USA, UK, and IMF encouraged divergence in wealth holdings and opposed regulation of private firms. With Soviet collapse and Chinese reforms, neoliberalism led the world economy, placing social inequality and ecological degradation as low priorities.
This chapter discusses how and why emotions affect other people’s actions, appraisals and emotions. One popular explanation of interpersonal influence is primitive emotional contagion. According to this account, people arrive at similar emotional states because they copy one another’s gestures and expressions (mimicry). The feelings and sensations produced by these gestures and expressions then produce convergent emotional experiences (interoceptive feedback). However, mimicry effects are too selective and feedback effects too weak to make this process work consistently. An alternative process is social appraisal, which involves calibrating emotional orientations to objects or events in the shared environment. Most studies of social appraisal present participants with verbal or facial information about someone else’s emotion and assess their inferences about that information. However, relation alignment may also operate at a more implicit level when people adjust to each other’s developing object-directed signals and movements. Similar processes may also produce divergent or conflicting emotional orientations when two people approach the same event from different angles or interpret its consequences in different ways.
We construct a family of right-angled Coxeter groups which provide counter-examples to questions about the stable boundary of a group, one-endedness of stable subgroups, and the commensurability types of right-angled Coxeter groups.
With a growing interest in heritage languages from researchers of bilingualism and linguistic theory, the field of heritage-language studies has begun to build on its empirical foundations, moving toward a deeper understanding of the nature of language competence under unbalanced bilingualism. In furtherance of this trend, the current work synthesizes pertinent empirical observations and theoretical claims about vulnerable and robust areas of heritage language competence into early steps toward a model of heritage-language grammar. We highlight two key triggers for deviation from the relevant baseline: the quantity and quality of the input from which the heritage grammar is acquired, and the economy of online resources when operating in a less dominant language. In response to these triggers, we identify three outcomes of deviation in the heritage grammar: an avoidance of ambiguity, a resistance to irregularity, and a shrinking of structure. While we are still a ways away from a level of understanding that allows us to predict those aspects of heritage grammar that will be robust and those that will deviate from the relevant baselines, our hope is that the current work will spur the continued development of a predictive model of heritage language competence.
Continuity equations are derived first for extensive scalar quantities, then extended to vectorial quantities. Thus, material derivatives, source densities and current densities are introduced. The formalism is applied to express the conservation of mass and charge. The continuity equation for linear momentum corresponds to Newton’s second law with a stress tensor included to account for deformations in continuous media. Evolution equations for energy are obtained. This approch yields a local Gibbs relation, the relationship betwen intenal energy current density, conductive and convective heat currents and an expression for the entropy source density in terms of generalised currents and forces. This presentation of the thermodynamics of continuous media ends with volume integrations formalises the conceptual link between the local description of continuous media with the description of simple systems subjected to thermal and mechanical processes.
The stability behavior of the Leipholz’s type of laminated box columns with nonsymmetric lay-ups resting on elastic foundation is investigated using the finite element method. Based on the kinematic assumptions consistent with the Vlasov beam theory, a formal engineering approach of the mechanics of the laminated box columns with symmetric and nonsymmetric lay-ups is presented. The extended Hamilton’s principle is employed to obtain the elastic stiffness and mass matrices, the Rayleigh damping and elastic foundation matrices, the geometric stiffness matrix due to distributed axial force, and the load correction stiffness matrix accounting for the uniformly distributed nonconservative forces. The evaluation procedures for the critical values of divergence and flutter loads with/without internal and external damping effects are briefly presented. Numerical examples are carried out to validate the present theory with respect to the previously published results. Especially, the influences of the fiber angle change and damping on the divergence and flutter loads of the laminated box columns are parametrically investigated.