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This article discusses hearing disability in early modern Europe, focusing on medical ideas to demonstrate a profound shift in thinking about deafness over the course of the eighteenth century. Scholars have previously described changes in the social status of the deaf in the eighteenth century, pointing at clerics’ sympathy for the deaf and philosophers’ fascination with gestures as the origin of language, but there is remarkably little scholarship on the growing interest in deafness and hardness of hearing by physicians. From the seventeenth century onwards, however, medical men investigated earwax and mucus in the Eustachian Tube and developed theories about the propagation of sound waves via fluid airs and nervous juices in relation to hearing and deafness. This article argues that this focus on fluids brought about a new medical understanding of auditory perception, which viewed hearing and deafness not as dichotomous but as states along a continuous spectrum. As such, this article offers a new perspective on the study and treatment of hearing difficulties in early modern Europe, arguing that there was no solid dividing line between deafness and hearing; if anything, it was permeable and unstable.
Deaf readers may have larger perceptual spans than ability-matched hearing native English readers, allowing them to read more efficiently (Belanger & Rayner, 2015). To further test the hypothesis that deaf and hearing readers have different perceptual spans, the current study uses eye-movement data from two experiments in which deaf American Sign Language–English bilinguals, hearing native English speakers, and hearing Chinese–English bilinguals read semantically unrelated sentences and answered comprehension questions after a proportion of them. We analyzed skip rates, fixation times, and accuracy on comprehension questions. In addition, we analyzed how lexical properties of words affected skipping behavior and fixation durations. Deaf readers skipped words more often than native English speakers, who skipped words more often than Chinese–English bilinguals. Deaf readers had shorter first-pass fixation times than the other two groups. All groups’ skipping behaviors were affected by lexical frequency. Deaf readers’ comprehension did not differ from hearing Chinese–English bilinguals, despite greater skipping and shorter fixation times. Overall, the eye-tracking findings align with Belanger’s word processing efficiency hypothesis. Effects of lexical frequency on skipping behavior indicated further that eye movements during reading remain under cognitive control in deaf readers.
Contending with Kei Miller’s declaration in ‘A Smaller Sound, A Lesser Fury: A Eulogy for Dub Poetry’ that the genre has died, this essay uses the lens of transition to demonstrate the continued vitality of this Jamaican-rooted performance and neoliterary genre that serves political and aesthetic needs of the variously disempowered. The essay suggests Miller misconceives what dubpoetry is, threatening its vital social work and doing a disservice to the older generation of dubpoets and their inheritors. Providing evidence that the majority of first-generation dubpoets continue to create new work, collaborate, develop new subgenres, and teach, the essay offers close readings of work by dubpoetry’s heirs. Jamaican dubpoetry band The No-Maddz, Jamaican-British spoken word poet Raymond Antrobus and Canadian dub inheritors Klyde Broox, d’bi.young anitafrika and Kaie Kellough are shown to effect presentational, generic, thematic/political and media transitions in and from dubpoetry.
This essay takes a practice-based approach to the relationship between Beethoven’s Broadwood piano and the aural world of the last three piano sonatas. In order to maximize his residual hearing Beethoven had a ‘hearing machine’ constructed by Stein that rested on top of the piano in front of the player. With colleagues Tom Beghin has re-created that ‘hearing machine’ to simulate Beethoven’s experience as a deaf player and composer. As well as detailing this process the author explores some of the expressive consequences of this hearing experience in the last three piano sonatas.
To determine the prevalence and distribution of inner-ear malformations in congenital single-sided deafness cases, as details of malformation type are crucial for disease prognosis and management.
A retrospective study was conducted of 90 patients aged under 16 years with congenital single-sided deafness. Radiological findings were evaluated using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Inner-ear malformations were identified and cochlear nerve status was determined in affected ears.
Out of 90 ears, 42 (46.7 per cent) were found to have inner-ear malformation. Isolated cochlear aperture stenosis was the most common anomaly (n = 18, 20 per cent), followed by isolated cochlear aperture atresia (n = 11, 12.2 per cent) and cochlear hypoplasia (n = 7, 7.8 per cent). Cochlear nerve deficiency was encountered in 41 ears (45.6 per cent). The internal auditory canal was also stenotic in 49 ears (54.4 per cent).
Inner-ear malformations, especially cochlear aperture anomalies, are involved in the aetiology of single-sided deafness more than expected. The cause of single-sided deafness differs greatly between congenital and adult-onset cases. All children with single-sided deafness should undergo radiological evaluation, as the prognosis and management, as well as the aetiology, may be significantly influenced by inner-ear malformation type.
To present our data evaluating the feasibility of simultaneous cochlear implantation with resection of acoustic neuroma.
This paper describes a case series of eight adult patients with a radiologically suspected acoustic neuroma, treated at a tertiary referral centre in Newcastle, Australia, between 2012 and 2015. Patients underwent cochlear implantation concurrently with removal of an acoustic neuroma. The approach was translabyrinthine, with facial nerve monitoring and electrically evoked auditory brainstem response testing. Standard post-implant rehabilitation was employed, with three and six months’ follow-up data collected. The main outcome measures were: hearing, subjective benefit of implant, operative complications and tumour recurrence.
Eight patients underwent simultaneous cochlear implantation with resection of acoustic neuroma over a 3-year period, and had 25–63 months’ follow up. There were no major complications. All patients except one gained usable hearing and were daily implant users.
Simultaneous cochlear implantation with resection of acoustic neuroma has been shown to be a safe treatment option, which will be applicable in a wide range of clinical scenarios as the indications for cochlear implantation continue to expand.
This chapter presents empirical studies that have tested children’s ability to understand implicatures. It starts with the category of relevance implicatures, before moving to scalar implicatures. In both cases, the conclusion is that even young children during the preschool years have the ability to derive implicatures when the task is kept simple enough. The chapter then presents studies that have focused on cases of atypical development, such as autism spectrum disorders, SLI and deafness.
This chapter starts by summarizing the predictions made by various theories of implicature that have consequences for language processing. It then presents empirical evidence bearing on a number of questions related to the processing of implicatures, namely: their processing cost, the difference between particularized and generalized implicatures, the role of mental state attribution for the derivation of implicatures, the role of politeness for the derivation of implicatures.
The transmastoid pre-sigmoid approach is always the preferred choice for implantation of the Bonebridge active bone conduction system in patients with a normal anatomy. When an anatomical variant exists or a previous surgery has been performed, a retrosigmoid approach or middle fossa approach can be performed.
The preferred surgical technique for a middle fossa approach is described. A 14 mm drill head (Neuro Drill) was used to create the bed at the squamous portion of the temporal bone. Surgical time and complication rate were analysed.
The surgical time was shorter than 30 minutes in all cases, and only 14 seconds were needed to create a 14 mm bone bed. No complications were observed during the follow-up period (6–45 months).
Use of the Neuro Drill for the middle fossa approach is an easy technique. It significantly decreases the surgical time, without increasing the complication rate.
GJB2 gene mutations are highly prevalent in pre-lingual hearing loss patients from China. Pre-lingual deafness is a sensorineural disorder that can only be treated with cochlear implantation.
The prevalence of GJB2 gene mutations was examined in 330 randomly selected patients treated with cochlear implantation.
Overall, 276 patients (83.64 per cent) carried variations in the GJB2 gene. Seventeen different genotypes were identified, including 10 confirmed pathogenic mutations (c.235delC, c.299delAT, c.176del16, p.E47X, p.T123N, p.V167M, p.C218Y, p.T86R, p.V63L and p.R184Q), 3 polymorphisms (p.V27I, p.E114 G and p.I203 T) and 2 unidentified mutations (p.V37I and c.571 T > C).
A total of 103 patients (31.2 per cent) carried 2 confirmed pathogenic mutations. The frequency of c.235delC was higher than that reported previously in the Jiangsu province. The two novel mutations identified, 69C > G and 501G > A, are likely to be polymorphisms.
Good outcomes have been reported regarding the use of cochlear implants for mumps deafness. The mumps virus induces meningitis and/or encephalitis, which can cause central nervous system damage resulting in retrolabyrinthine hearing loss, for which a cochlear implant would be less effective.
We installed a cochlear implant in two patients with bilateral mumps deafness; one achieved a good result with the cochlear implant, but the other did not. We discuss two possible reasons for the different outcomes. Case 1 was a three-year-old girl with bilateral parotid swelling, vomiting and walking disorder. One year after cochlear implant insertion, speech perception did not develop despite of good pure tone thresholds. Case 2 was an eight-year-old girl with bilateral parotid swelling. A cochlear implant enabled her to improve hearing perception.
Although cochlear implants have been reported to be helpful for mumps deafness, cases that involve central nervous system damage may not achieve good results.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hearing impairment in Bangladeshi people of all ages.
A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2013. A total of 4260 subjects (1774 males and 2486 females), with a mean age of 32 years, participated. Hearing impairment was determined by pure tone audiometry and otoacoustic emissions testing.
Disabling hearing loss (greater than 40 dB loss in adults, and greater than 30 dB loss in children younger than 15 years, in their better hearing ears) was present in 9.6 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval, 8.5–10.8 per cent) of the respondents. Hearing loss was more prevalent in socio-economically deprived people and in those older than 60 years. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified age, socio-economic deprivation, family history, impacted ear wax, chronic suppurative otitis media, otitis media with effusion, and otitis externa as the significant predictors of disabling hearing loss.
Deafness prevention should focus mainly on chronic suppurative otitis media, otitis media with effusion, and impacted ear wax prevention, integrated within the primary healthcare system and addressing the equity issue.
To compare the effect of right- or left-sided cochlear implantation on listening skills in a paediatric population.
A retrospective analysis was conducted on the listening skills performance data of children who were operated on and followed up at the Çukurova University Department of Otorhinolaryngology between 2007 and 2011. Sixty-three patients were included in the study. Patients were evaluated using the Listening Progress Profile, the Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale and the littlEARS test.
The mean age of the children was two years (range of one to five years). Twenty-nine patients were male and 34 were female. Twenty-eight patients were implanted in the right ear and 35 in the left ear. There were no statistically significant differences between right and left ear implantees in terms of listening skills performance.
This study indicates that the choice of cochlear implant side is not crucial for the development of listening skills.
We report a missed case of otosyphilis presenting as otic capsule lucencies on temporal bone computed tomography.
A 58-year-old woman presented with a 15-year history of bilateral, mixed hearing loss together with otic capsule lucencies, subsequently confirmed as otosyphilis. A literature review of otosyphilis was undertaken based on a PubMed search of studies published between 1988 and 2012, using the key words ‘otosyphilis’, ‘otodystrophy’, ‘otic capsule lucencies’ and ‘luetic osteitis’.
Results and conclusion:
Although rare, otosyphilis is important to recognise as it is one of the few treatable causes of deafness when diagnosed early. The differentiating computed tomography features of luetic osteitis (otosyphilis) of the temporal bone have only rarely been described. We emphasise how these imaging features can be used to distinguish the rare but treatable condition of luetic osteitis from other, more common conditions with similar imaging findings.
Except for a single case report, musical ear syndrome in cochlear implantees has not been studied. We aimed to study the prevalence and nature of musical ear syndrome among adult cochlear implant patients, as well as the effect on their emotional well-being.
Study design, patients and intervention:
A cross-sectional survey of patients aged 18 years and above who had received cochlear implants for profound hearing loss between 1997 and 2010.
Of the 82 patients studied, 18 (22 per cent) were found to have experienced musical ear syndrome. Seven and 11 patients had musical ear syndrome prior to and after cochlear implantation, respectively. The character of musical ear syndrome symptoms was described as instrumental music (n = 2), singing (6) or both (10). Fourteen patients reported an adverse emotional effect, with three expressing ‘intolerance’.
In this study, 22 per cent of cochlear implantees experienced musical ear syndrome. These symptoms affected patients' emotional state, but most coped well. Musical ear syndrome can occur prior to and after cochlear implantation.
We report the first use in Australia of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for sudden hearing loss following head trauma in a child with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.
A 12-year-old boy with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome presented with significant hearing loss following head trauma. He was treated with steroids and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, with good improvement of hearing thresholds on audiography. This case represents the first reported use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for this indication in Australia, following a few previous reports of patients in Japan. We review the literature on management of acute sensorineural hearing loss in large vestibular aqueduct syndrome. The reported case demonstrates a potentially beneficial therapy for a rare condition that usually results in an inevitable decline in hearing.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can be tolerated well by children, and may represent a potential treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.
Deafness may be one of the factors that leads to a change in sexual function. This study aimed to assess sexual function, in particular erectile dysfunction, in male patients with hearing loss.
Materials and methods:
We studied two groups: (1) adult men with acquired, bilateral, sensorineural hearing loss, and (2) healthy, adult, married men demonstrated to have normal hearing levels, as the control group. Sexual function was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Functions questionnaire, and quality of life using the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey.
There was a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the International Index of Erectile Functions questionnaire results (p <0.001), both for each of the five questionnaire domain scores and for the total score.
Our results indicate that men with mild or moderate sensorineural hearing loss have poorer sexual health.