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Surrealism was indelibly linked to the idea of revolution. This is evident in the name of the two reviews closely linked to the movement – La Révolution surréaliste and Le Surréalisme au service de la revolution – and its long history of engagement with revolutionary political movements, from the French Communist Party in the 1920s to the student movement in the 1960s. This chapter explores the dynamic of Surrealism and politics to argue that a tension between politics and culture not only animates the history of the movement, but is in fact constitutive of Surrealism. In this context the demands of politics repeatedly interrupt Surrealism’s efforts on a cultural level; yet, as Surrealism is incorporated into the annals of art and literary history, the priority given to its cultural achievements can eclipse the demands of politics.
Gadamer has made a tremendous contribution to twentieth century thought, for he has proposed a new and different model of understanding and understanding in the human sciences that carries us beyond the dilemma of ethnocentrism and relativism. This model is not that of a “science” that grasps an object but rather one of speech-partners who come to an understanding together. Three important features of understanding are (1) it is bilateral in character, (2) it is party dependent, and (3) it involves revising goals. It follows that there is an important difference between the human sciences and the natural sciences. Important to Gadamer’s model of the human sciences is the “fusion of horizons.” This chapter discusses the proximity of Davidson and Gadamer and their differences.
The purpose of the discussion in this chapter is to suggest some cardinal changes to the practice of male circumcision in order to make it more humane and less painful to its subjects. Balancing between group rights and the rights of the child, it is essential to avoid unnecessary suffering. It is one of the liberal state’s obligations to protect the best interests of vulnerable third parties. The chapter opens with some preliminary data about male circumcision and then explains its importance in Judaism and in Islam. It examines the medical reasons for male circumcision and the risks involved in the practice; subsequently, it discusses the critique of male circumcision. The discussion also highlights the points of agreement and disagreement between those supporting and opposing the ritual and insists that male circumcision should be performed by using anaesthesia. The final part of the discussion includes a proposal for humane male circumcision that considers religious sentiments and the rights of the child, aiming to strike a reasonable balance between competing interests. The hope is that the proposal will be debated in parliaments in the Western world.
This is a review of Joel Mokyr's fascinating book entitled A Culture of Growth. The work is summarized, noting its focus on Darwin-style evolutionary explanations of cultural change. But Mokyr's emphasis on cultural entrepreneurs and positive feedbacks in the procreation of ideas is insufficient to explain the origins of modern economic growth. Too much explanatory weight is placed on too few extraordinary people. It is argued that Mokyr's analysis should be extended, to bring the evolution of institutions, as well as the evolution of culture, into the picture at an additional level. The role of inter-state rivalry and exogenous shocks has also to be underlined. This kind of analysis can be developed within the framework of generalized Darwinism, which Mokyr himself adopts. This is a major and highly stimulating book.
How can the classical Karnatik music of South India illuminate performers' and researchers' understanding of the art music of seventeenth-century Italy, and specifically Monteverdi's operas? Both art forms attach great value to the skill of vocal ornamentation, and by exploring the singer's practice moving between them, this Element reveals how intercultural approaches can enable the reconsideration of the history of Western music from a global perspective. Using methods from historical and comparative musicology, theory and practice-based research, Charulatha Mani analyses vocal ornamentation and technique and arrives at an innovative approach to studying musics from the past. Musical practice, the author argues, is an enactment of hybridity and the artistic product of plurality. Specifically, in early modern Europe the fluid movement of musicians from the East paved the way to a plurality of musical cultures. This finding holds deep implications for diversity in and decolonisation of current music performance and education.
Social learning, a type of information transmission in which individuals gain information by observing or interacting with another animal or the products of another animal’s actions, is an extensively studied subject in a wide array of species. Of particular interest is the ability of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to learn socially, especially given their extensive sociality and fission–fusion dynamics, which provides many opportunities for individuals to learn from each other in different contexts. Using observational and experimental approaches, researchers have explored how faithfully chimpanzees copy others, the type of information conveyed between individuals, and the extent to which social learning is influenced by external factors. In this chapter we review what is currently known about the mechanisms by which chimpanzees socially learn and the strategies they may employ when doing so. We also discuss the much-debated topic of chimpanzee "culture," and how this compares to our own culture. Last, we provide a comparative perspective for social learning in chimpanzees with other species, and discuss how understanding chimpanzee social learning can be useful in their captive care and aiding their conservation in the wild.
Capuchins are highly encephalized New World monkeys (family Cebidae, subfamily Cebinae) living in a variety of forest and savannah habitats, from Central to South America, and currently classified as “gracile” (the Cebus genus) or “robust” (the Sapajus genus). The literature on behavioural plasticity in this taxon highlights purported traditions in the social domain (as the dyadic “games” of Cebus capucinus) and in foraging techniques (notably, the use of tools by Sapajus spp.). Behavioural innovations (sensu “process”) are more easily detected in the social realm, while technological traditions seem to result from [inferred] innovations (sensu “product”) facilitated by innate predispositions and environmental affordances and perpetuated by means of socially biased learning. Constraints related to simpler forms of social learning (like “stimulus enhancement”) may limit the potential for cumulative cultural processes, resulting in conservative traditions, as may be the case of percussive stone tools’ use. On the other hand, the degrees of “niche construction” and “observability” associated to different forms of tool use may explain the difference between the widespread stone tool use traditions and the rarer cases of customary probe use (where individual innovations may occur, but seldom spread by socially mediated learning), in terms of different opportunities for socially mediated learning.
Why do men go to such trouble to shave off their facial hair? A man’s beard represents an especially salient secondary sexual characteristic: a physical feature that develops at puberty and distinguishes men from women. In nature, such sexual dimorphism has been believed, since Charles Darwin, to participate in so-called sexual selection – females choosing the fittest males based on such characteristics. Thus, according to Darwin’s account, a lion cropping his mane would be tantamount to committing evolutionary suicide. But, that’s exactly what human males do. Why and when they do so raises interesting questions concerning the origins of shaving equipment and technique as well as the changing tastes of both women and men. Cultural change can be a matter of both function and fancy; such change can even trump the physical results of nature itself.
Birds have contributed a great deal to our understanding of social learning. In this chapter we briefly review this extensive body of research, describing the contexts in which birds use social information to make behavioral decisions. We discuss the ecological factors that promote social learning, and the mechanisms by which social learning occurs. We consider individual differences in social learning, focusing on how learning strategies and biases influence when, how and from whom birds will learn. We examine the consequences of social learning for evolutionary processes, from the emergence of culture to speciation and adaptation to environmental change. Finally, we highlight how knowledge of social learning processes can be applied in the conservation and management of threatened bird species.
When Richard Wright read deeply in the social sciences, he became informally trained in the Chicago school of sociology led by Robert Park. Chicago sociology was an antidote to the idea of race. It replaced the dominant view of group-based identity as determined by race with a truer view of group-based identity determined by culture and environment: a paradigm of culture as not immutable, genetically inherited, natural, and hierarchical, but rather as malleable, learned, conventionally arbitrary, and relative. This social science vision undergirded his fiction, especially his most famous novel Native Son. But while Chicago sociology denied white racial superiority, it tended to accept white cultural supremacy, a contention shared by the legal strategy that led to Brown v. Board of Education and desegregation. Critics have frequently misunderstood Wright as a progenitor of late twentieth-century multicultural literature. That recognition more properly belongs to Wright’s rival Zora Neale Hurston, who had a different social-science-inspired model of minority culture that allowed her to see African American culture as healthy, continually creative, adaptive, and long-enduring.
In this integrative chapter, we summarize insights emerging from the volume as a whole with respect to the main propositions outlined in the introduction, namely, that (a) revenge is part and parcel of children’s and adolescents’ lives, manifesting various normative forms and functions, and (b) throughout childhood and adolescence, revenge can be both a consequence and a predictor of adverse psychological and social processes. In addressing the ways in which these two overarching concerns are woven throughout the chapters in this book, we summarize the contributions of individual, interpersonal, and institutional-level influences on the development of revenge. We conclude with proposed future directions and implications for intervention.
Many festivals and celebrations take place worldwide on a regular basis. What is of special interest to us is not only the nature of those diverse festivities but also their origin and evolution. How did those festivals begin? How and why might they have changed over time? Several intriguing festivals in Spain provide fertile material for attempting to answer these questions. Four Spanish festivals stand out for their uniqueness and audacity: the Running of the Bulls in Pamplona, made famous by Ernest Hemingway in his 1926 novel The Sun Also Rises; the tomato-throwing festival (La Tomatina) in Buñol; the construction of Human Towers in Catalonia; and, the Baby Jumping festival in Castrillo de Murcia. To one degree or another, the origins of these unforgettable celebrations involve religion, color, risk, and serendipity.
Eating behaviours have been associated both with being underweight or overweight and poor growth. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a widely used measure of child eating behaviours. The instrument is, however, mostly validated in high-income countries, with a scarcity of evidence among developing countries such as Ethiopia. The present study aims to assess the cultural adaptability and validity of the CEBQ to be used in Ethiopia. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional study among 542 caregivers of children aged 3–6 years in selected preschools. Tests of factorial validity, convergent validity and reliability were performed. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis model indicated that eight subscales provided the best fit (root-mean-square error of approximation = 0⋅05 (90 % CI 0⋅045, 0⋅055); Comparative Fit Index = 0⋅92 and Tucker–Lewis Index = 0⋅90) after seven items from the original CEBQ were removed. Convergent validity with child's weight status was found for emotional overeating, food fussiness, satiety responsiveness and slowness in eating subscales. Reliability, measured using Cronbach's α, provided values between 0⋅50 and 0⋅79. The eight-factor structure of the CEBQ showed adequate content validity and provided factorial, discriminant and convergent validity among preschool children. Further replication of the study among low-income countries is essential to improve the literature on children's eating behaviours.
This chapter looks at ‘Twin Peaks’, not as distinct supervisory entities with reasonably well-defined responsibilities, as this is covered elsewhere in this book. Rather, it looks at the supervision of a concept ‘that must be considered by both ‘peaks’ – that of ‘culture’ and, in particular, ‘macro-culture’. The chapter concludes by pointing out that the ‘Twin Peaks’ are not independent but sit on shared foothills, beset by common problems – in this case, the need to understand the various ‘cultures’ of the individual firms that both peaks supervise. It makes little sense for one regulator to measure and try to ‘influence’ cultures in one way in a firm if another supervisor uses different definitions, measures and influencing mechanisms for the same firm. At the very least, there is a need for regulators to come to a shared understanding of problems that they have in common, such as how to influence the cultures of firms that they supervise. The chapter proposes a novel approach to addressing this quite complex problem.
The long-term refrigerated storage of melted snow and/or ice samples for analyses of insoluble microparticles (hereafter, microparticles) may be limited by increases in the biological particle concentration caused by microbial growth after ~1–2 weeks. In this study, we examined an ultraviolet (UV) disinfection method for the storage of melted snow and/or ice samples and determined the effects of this method on microparticles. Surface snow obtained from Glacier No. 31 in the Suntar-Khayata Range, eastern Siberia, Russia was divided into two portions for UV treatment and untreated controls. Microparticle concentrations and size distributions (in the range of 0.52–12.0 μm) in the samples were measured using a Coulter counter. Whereas the microparticle concentration in untreated samples increased, no obvious increase was observed over 53 d in the samples subjected to UV treatment. Microbial growth was detected in only untreated samples using a viable particle counter. In addition, the original microparticle concentrations and size distributions were unaffected by UV treatment. Our results demonstrated that the microparticle size distribution in untreated melted water samples reflects the growth, decomposition and succession of microorganisms over time and further indicate that UV irradiation is effective for long-term storage for microparticle analysis.
This chapter provides a general contextual setting for the subsequent analysis of Simmel’s work. It discusses the emergence and significance of a particular perception of modernity that became very common among German intellectuals in the last third of the nineteenth century. They believed that the central conflict of modernity lay in the tension between two polar imperatives: those of general culture and specialisation, or universality and particularity. In Germany, this particular tension acquired a high degree of significance and was often accompanied by strong feelings of urgency and even despair. The chapter offers a brief history of this issue as well as a genealogy of the related conceptual apparatus that included notions such as Bildung, Cultur, Beruf and Civilisation. The final section of the chapter introduces the central aspects of Simmel’s philosophy of culture that may elucidate this general context and are in turn elucidated by it.
The significance of the German philosopher and social thinker, Georg Simmel (1858–1918), is only now being recognised by intellectual historians. Through penetrating readings of Simmel's thought, taken as a series of reflections on the essence of modernity and modern civilisation, Efraim Podoksik places his ideas within the context of intellectual life in Germany, and especially Berlin, under the Kaiserreich. Modernity, characterised by the growing differentiation and fragmentation of culture and society, was a fundamental issue during Simmel's life, underpinning central intellectual debates in Imperial Germany. Simmel's thought is depicted here as an attempt at transforming the complexity of these debates into a coherent worldview that can serve as an effective guide to understanding their main parameters. Paying particular attention to the genealogy and usage of the concepts of Bildung, culture and civilisation in Germany, this study offers contextual analyses of Simmel's philosophies of culture, society, art, religion and the feminine, as well as his interpretations of Dante, Kant, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer, Goethe and Rembrandt.
Automatic deception detection is a crucial task that has many applications both in direct physical and in computer-mediated human communication. Our focus is on automatic deception detection in text across cultures. In this context, we view culture through the prism of the individualism/collectivism dimension, and we approximate culture by using country as a proxy. Having as a starting point recent conclusions drawn from the social psychology discipline, we explore if differences in the usage of specific linguistic features of deception across cultures can be confirmed and attributed to cultural norms in respect to the individualism/collectivism divide. In addition, we investigate if a universal feature set for cross-cultural text deception detection tasks exists. We evaluate the predictive power of different feature sets and approaches. We create culture/language-aware classifiers by experimenting with a wide range of n-gram features from several levels of linguistic analysis, namely phonology, morphology and syntax, other linguistic cues like word and phoneme counts, pronouns use, etc., and token embeddings. We conducted our experiments over eleven data sets from five languages (English, Dutch, Russian, Spanish, and Romanian), from six countries (United States of America, Belgium, India, Russia, Mexico, and Romania), and we applied two classification methods, namely logistic regression and fine-tuned BERT models. The results showed that the undertaken task is fairly complex and demanding. Furthermore, there are indications that some linguistic cues of deception have cultural origins and are consistent in the context of diverse domains and data set settings for the same language. This is more evident for the usage of pronouns and the expression of sentiment in deceptive language. The results of this work show that the automatic deception detection across cultures and languages cannot be handled in unified manners and that such approaches should be augmented with knowledge about cultural differences and the domains of interest.
Principally, corruption is the willingness to gain or the act of gaining, what one is reasonably not in the position to earn or has not earned legally. It is as good a practice as it is a phenomenon that boils down to human actions and consequences. Truthfully, no human society is totally immune to this phenomenon, the question is only in matter of magnitude; both in practice and effects on the state. In all, corruption on a prebendal scale and sustained by a rentier/patrimonial system has been noted to be the worst of all. Exploring the culture and anatomy of corruption in Nigeria, the chapter presents new insights and interpretations to this phenomenon through the lens of the sociopolitical morphology of the country. This comes with the view of expanding the debate on corruption in Nigeria and contributing to the wide array of extant literature on the interesting, but unfortunate topic. Meanwhile, hardly anything is more talked about in the current Nigeria than this discourse. This provides this chapter with a plethora of sources to tap in addition to existing relevant literature.