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The social life of animals poses specific adaptive challenges that may be cognitively different to challenges from ecological adaptations to their physical environment. Social cognitive adaptations for dealing with other agents are evolutionarily remarkable in that they automatically become an adaptive challenge that may trigger counter- or co-adaptations. This chapter discusses three main problems in social cognition: first, the issue of mentalism or theory of mind, or whether social cognitive adaptations in animals are based on mentalistic attribution skills that may involve representing the intentions and knowledge of others; second, the cognitive underpinnings of animal communication, with a focus on referential and intentional communication; and third, the problem of how animals know and represent the social relations structuring their groups. There is widespread debate about how the social knowledge and reasoning demonstrated in animal social behavior are exactly implemented. The traditional debate in comparative psychology between reductionist behavioristic explanations and complex cognitive explanations has become especially pronounced in social cognition. A widespread proposal is that the type of knowledge demonstrated by animals is ‘implicit,’ distinct both from the verbally expressible knowledge evolved by humans, and from low-level, reflex-like associative behaviours and habits. However, the key notion of implicit knowledge remains elusive and ill-defined.
The ability to engage in some form of communication is essential for any social species. Communication generally relies on species-specific adaptations that provide animals with a cognitive tool to pass on messages from one conspecific to the other. This means that communication between members of different species is relatively rare and potentially requires qualitatively different cognitive abilities. This form of communication is not only challenging due to the fact that different species may rely on distinct sets of codes to convey messages but also because the primary modality used for this purpose may be different. Dogs represent a special case in the animal kingdom as they have been uniquely adapted to be receptive to the communicative signals of a species relatively distant in terms of their genome: humans. In this chapter, we will first focus on those characteristics of canids’ intraspecific communication that are shared between the dog and their phylogenetically closest relative, the wolf. Similarities in these forms of communication are likely the result of the common ancestry of the two species. Next, we turn to describing those attributes of canine communication that selectively pertain to how dogs communicate with their conspecifics. Finally, we discuss the ubiquitous nature of heterospecific communication between dogs and humans.
By responding to information gained through observing or interacting with other individuals, fish can learn about important aspects of their environment, including where to forage, how to recognize and avoid predators, and who to mate with. Social learning processes are often closely intertwined with the social environment; whether individuals engage in social learning, who they learn from, and what they learn frequently depend on complex, nonrandom patterns of social interaction. Social network analysis provides a sophisticated toolset for quantifying such elements of social structure. In this chapter, we discuss how integrating social network approaches with investigations into social learning have provided novel and important insights regarding the ways in which fish acquire and use social information in realistic social contexts.
The aim of the study was to explore the proportion of adult patients and next-of-kin who had end-of-life (EOL) discussions and associated factors.
A retrospective nationwide registry study was reported with data from the Swedish Register of Palliative Care. All patients in Sweden in hospitals, nursing homes, own homes, community, and palliative care units during 2015–2017 and their next-of-kin were included. Data were reported to the register by healthcare staff, based on diseased patients’ records regarding their last days of life, and were voluntary. Descriptive statistics illustrated the proportion of patients/next-of-kin who had EOL discussions and logistic regressions were used to examine associated factors.
About half of the patients (46%) did have an EOL discussion, but a third (32%) did not. Associated factors of those who did not have an EOL discussion were dementia (48.5%) or stroke (47.5%), older age (38.4%), being female (33.6%), being cared for in a nursing home (41.3%), or hospital (40.3%), having lost decision-making ability months before death (58.9%), and not having a documented decision to shift to EOL care (82.7%). Younger patients diagnosed with cancer and cared for at a palliative unit were more likely to have EOL discussions. The regression analysis showed similar results for next-of-kin.
Significance of results
The result shows that not all patients with palliative care needs have equal access to EOL discussions, despite efforts at a national level and the recognized benefits of timely communication about the EOL care. Further efforts must be made to achieve EOL discussions for all patients.
The objective of this training project is to develop and host Interprofessional Communication courses to improve interdisciplinary communication in oncology care. The initial national course was held in a virtual format and included pre- and post-course participant data. The curriculum was developed with support from the National Cancer Institute.
A virtual two-day course was held to equip nurses, social workers, and chaplains with vital communication skills in oncology practice, so that they could return to their home institutions and teach communication skills to other healthcare professionals, with the intention of making improved communication a quality improvement goal. Fifty-two participants were selected through an application process to attend the virtual course in two-person interprofessional teams (e.g., nurse and chaplain, or social worker and nurse). The Interprofessional Communication Curriculum was based on the National Consensus Project for Quality Palliative Care's eight domains of quality palliative care. The six online modules developed by the investigators were presented in lectures, supplemented by discussion groups, role plays, and other methods of experiential learning.
Pre- and post-course results identified areas of communication, which are a priority for improvement by oncology clinicians. Participant goals identified specific strategies to be implemented by participants in their settings.
Significance of results
The need for communication training was clearly demonstrated across professions in this national training course. Participants were able to apply course content to their goals for quality improvement in cancer settings.
There is a lack of qualitative research developing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) warning labels with their intended end users. We sought to identify promising SSB warning elements for improving label effectiveness and for future testing in policy and institutional settings.
Mixed methods design using ten focus groups, a design task and a survey. The design task was used to generate ideas for an icon that would dissuade SSB consumption. The survey and focus group guide assessed participant perceptions of SSB warning label mock-ups of text (loss frame, gain frame and loss frame with attribution), colour and icon options.
Three large public universities in California from February to March 2018.
Young adult SSB consumers (n 86) enrolled in one of three diverse California public universities.
Participants perceived the following elements as most effective for reducing SSB consumption: loss-frame text with attribution to a credible source, yellow and red colour for label background and an image or icon to accompany the text. Preferred images included sugar near or inside of an SSB, intuitive shapes like a triangle with exclamation mark or octagon and a visual indicator of SSB sugar content compared with recommended limits. Support was high for using SSB warning labels in university cafeterias and on bottles/cans.
Loss-frame text with a credible source, yellow or red label colour and icons could potentially enhance effectiveness of SSB warning labels and warrant further testing.
I comment on a new overview of the treatment of delusional infestation. I focus on the challenges of communicating with a patient who has delusions and evaluate practical advice. I look at philosophical models to explain those communication problems as well as theories of delusional formation, and examine how these may help clinicians to understand and overcome those challenges.
This paper argues that Kant endorses a distinction between rational and natural sympathy, and it presents an interpretation of rational sympathy as a power of voluntary a posteriori productive imagination. In rational sympathy we draw on the imagination’s voluntary powers (a) to subjectively unify the contents of intuition, in order to imaginatively put ourselves in others’ places, and (b) to associate imagined intuitional contents with the concepts others use to convey their feelings, in such a way that those contents prompt feelings in us that are like their feelings.
This systematic review synthesizes the empirical literature examining pragmatic language in children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using a taxonomy of pragmatic language, we compared the pragmatic language profiles of children with ADHD to those of typically developing (TD) children and children with autism. Three databases were searched up to October 2019: PsychInfo; PubMed; and CSA Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts. We included 34 studies reporting on 2,845 children (ADHD = 1,407; TD = 1,058; autism = 380). Quality and risk of bias assessments included sample size and representativeness; measure reliability and validity; and missing data management. Children with ADHD were found to have higher rates of pragmatic difficulties than their TD peers. Specific difficulties were identified with inappropriate initiation, presupposition, social discourse, and narrative coherence. Children with ADHD appear to differ from those with autism in the degree of their pragmatic language impairments. General language skills contribute to, but do not explain, pragmatic difficulties in samples of children with ADHD. Though the extant evidence is limited, a preliminary profile of the pragmatic language impairments in children with ADHD is indicated. This supports a call for evidence-based interventions that include pragmatic language skills training.
Preserving personal dignity is an important aim of palliative care. Little is known about how physicians perceive and preserve dignity of patients from non-western migration backgrounds. Insight in this is important given the increased demand for culturally sensitive palliative care.
To gain insight in how Dutch physicians perceive and preserve dignity in the last phase of life for patients from non-western migration backgrounds.
Qualitative thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews.
Fifteen physicians experienced in palliative care.
Physicians experienced dilemmas in preserving dignity of non-western patients in three situations: (a) relief of suffering in the terminal phase, (b) termination of interventions and treatment, and (c) disclosure of diagnosis. Physicians wanted to grant the needs of patients in the last phase of their lives, which was central to physicians’ view on dignity, but dilemmas arose when this conflicted with physicians’ other personal and professional values. To make the dilemmas manageable, physicians assessed whether needs of patients were authentic, but due to linguistic, cultural, and communication barriers, this was difficult with non-western patients. To find a way out of the dilemmas, physicians had three strategies: accept and go along with patient's wishes, convince or overrule the patient or family, or seek solutions that were acceptable for all.
Physicians encounter dilemmas providing palliative care for people from non-western backgrounds. Future physicians can be trained in connective strategies and seeking middle grounds to optimally preserve patients’ dignity while being in concordance with their personal and professional values.
After the translating of the worldwide pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease from South East Asia to Europe, North African countries accelerate their steps to follow WHO guidelines to prepare the outbreak response. In March 2020, the Tunisian Ministry of Health switched Abderrahmen Mami Hospital to a COVID-19 center. The main objectives were management of patients but also setting-up new rules to permit enough safety for the staff members and harmony between medical, nonmedical, and administrative departments within the facility. Organization and communication during the fast-paced preparation process were crucial to get enough qualified human resources, material resources, and clear procedural texts in place before cases arrived in huge numbers. A group of medical and administrative experts within a central crisis unit brought this challenge into reality.
This chapter is centered upon the section of the “Critique of Aesthetic Judgment” that Kant calls the “key” to the critique of taste and in which he elaborates the judgment of taste in terms that are striking yet scant, familiar yet elusive: a “state of mind” of “free play” of the cognitive powers, in which they are in “harmony” or “attunement” and are mutually “animated,” and in which their “subjective relation” corresponds to a “subjective condition” of cognition. I propose that a key to Kant’s thought is to be found in the notion of “universal communicability,” which this section introduces. The sense of “communication” on which it depends is, I argue, to be understood robustly, as having to do with the imparting of something to someone. I then argue that the judgment of taste turns on an experience of wanting to render communicable, or explore and articulate, one’s encounter with the extra-factual aesthetic character of the object. My interpretation reorients the role and significance of pleasure, and of feeling more generally, in the judgment of taste. The pleasure of the judgment of taste is in the object and in one’s state of mind, which the object is felt to awaken.
This chapter addresses the legitimation of the judgment of taste, the task of its deduction. Kant claims that judgments of taste may be argued about but not disputed. Is there room for a mode of supporting one’s judgment that is distinct from proof (on the one side) and from persuasion (on the other)? This chapter shows that, on Kant’s view, there is, and that aesthetic arguing occupies it. Aesthetic arguing is undertaken with the aim, or in the hope, of opening the way for the other person’s animation: helping the object bring the other person to life, or helping bring her to life for it. The free play of the cognitive faculties expresses or constitutes a caring for the object. To care for or about something or someone is to commit to ongoing engagement with it and to the furthering of one’s care itself. Caring projects an open-ended commitment and looks to the future. It is in this sense that the free play of the cognitive faculties seeks its own indefinite perpetuation. The principle of judgment entails an imperative to care about the world for its own sake, and the judgment of taste models such care.
In 2009, the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) and the 16 German federal state public health authorities (PHAs) established a weekly epidemiological teleconference (EpiLag) to discuss infectious disease (ID) events and foster horizontal and vertical information exchange. We present the procedure, discussed ID topics and evaluation results of EpiLag after 10 years. We analysed attendance, duration of EpiLag and the frequency of reported events. Participants (RKI and state PHA) were surveyed regarding their satisfaction with logistics, contents and usefulness of EpiLag (Likert scales). Between 2009 and 2018, RKI hosted 484 EpiLag conferences with a mean duration of 25 min (range: 4–60) and high participation (range: 9–16; mean: 15 PHAs). Overall, 2975 ID events (39% international, 9% national and 52% subnational) were presented (mean: 6.1 per EpiLag), most frequently on measles (18%), salmonellosis (8%) and influenza (5%). All responding participants (14/16 PHAs and 9/9 at RKI) were satisfied with the EpiLag's organization and minutes and deemed EpiLag useful for an overview and information distribution on ID events relevant to Germany. EpiLag is time efficient, easily applicable and useful for a low-threshold event communication. It supports PHAs in crises and strengthens the network of surveillance stakeholders. We recommend its implementation to other countries or sectors.
The purpose of this chapter is to set the stage for the book and for the upcoming chapters. We first overview classical information-theoretic problems and solutions. We then discuss emerging applications of information-theoretic methods in various data-science problems and, where applicable, refer the reader to related chapters in the book. Throughout this chapter, we highlight the perspectives, tools, and methods that play important roles in classic information-theoretic paradigms and in emerging areas of data science. Table 1.1 provides a summary of the different topics covered in this chapter and highlights the different chapters that can be read as a follow-up to these topics.
In this paper I first worry that Rorty’s attack on various conceptions of “the world” has an alarming tendency to veer from opposition to the kind of realism that he associates with various philosophers, such as Plato, Descartes, or even Kant, into skepticism about ordinary activities including those of observing things and referring to them. I try to uncover the roots of this slide in various semantic doctrines, and explore the distinction between minimalist or deflationist theories of truth, and any wider, and less plausible general doctrine of semantic minimalism.
To investigate the influence of care place and diagnosis on care communication during the last 3 months of life for people with advanced illness, from the bereaved family members’ perspective.
A retrospective survey design using the VOICES(SF) questionnaire with a sample of 485 bereaved family members (aged: 20−90 years old, 70% women) of people who died in hospital was employed to meet the study aim.
Of the deceased people, 79.2% had at some point received care at home, provided by general practitioners (GPs) (52%), district nurses (36.7%), or specialized palliative home care (17.9%), 27.4% were cared for in a nursing home and 15.7% in a specialized palliative care unit. The likelihood of bereaved family members reporting that the deceased person was treated with dignity and respect by the staff was lowest in nursing homes (OR: 0.21) and for GPs (OR: 0.37). A cancer diagnosis (OR: 2.36) or if cared for at home (OR: 2.17) increased the likelihood of bereaved family members reporting that the deceased person had been involved in decision making regarding care and less likely if cared for in a specialized palliative care unit (OR: 0.41). The likelihood of reports of unwanted decisions about the care was higher if cared for in a nursing home (OR: 1.85) or if the deceased person had a higher education (OR: 2.40).
Significance of results
This study confirms previous research about potential inequalities in care at the end of life. The place of care and diagnosis influenced the bereaved family members’ reports on whether the deceased person was treated with respect and dignity and how involved the deceased person was in decision making regarding care.
The Arctic Contaminants Action Programme (ACAP), originally intended to follow up the work of AMAP (the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme) on identifying the sources of pollution, became an official working group under the Arctic Council in 2006. ACAP has focussed on pollution from Russian sources, the main objective being to accelerate the reduction of national emissions of various environmental pollutants and climate forcers. Basically, ACAP initiates projects with a scientific basis in AMAP assessments of the health of the Arctic. The idea behind the creation of ACAP was to channel the work of the Arctic Council in a more practical direction and to improve the use of the knowledge produced by AMAP. ACAP is one of only two Council working groups not to have been specifically evaluated and analysed by external bodies and academics. This article undertakes a critical analysis of ACAP and argues that there are great potentials for improving its work. ACAP has established a forum where it has been possible to facilitate pilot projects aimed at limiting harmful emissions; this work should be strengthened.
Ernst Mach’s Die Geschichte und die Wurzel des Satzes von der Erhaltung der Arbeit is now widely regarded as occupying a pivotal position in his oeuvre. Erik C. Banks called it a ‘roman à clef’. More generally, it is safe to say that the law of energy conservation played a central role in Mach’s thought. He frequently referred to it in his publications to illustrate how science works. This chapter has a two-fold aim. First, it sets his reflections on energy conservation against the background of its nineteenth-century history. Mach appears as a particularly astute observer of his own time. Second, it relates Mach’s comments on the law to his overall philosophy. Although in the second half of the nineteenth century the importance of the law of energy conservation was generally acknowledged, there was no consensus on what the law actually meant. Its name, discoverer, formulation, justification, and implications were all subject to debate. Mach was at the same time a participant in this debate (interpreting the law of energy conservation) and a commentator on it (interpreting debates on the law of energy conservation). In the process, he developed a new understanding of scientific meaning as grounded in communication, practice, and history.