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Chapter 7 is the final concluding chapter of the book, which draws together the various theoretical, empirical and normative arguments to make a case for why the CoP needs to be reimagined to better secure access to justice for those affected by its decisions. In short, the concluding chapter argues for a reimagined CoP in which the subject of proceedings is at the centre of its processes and institutional practices at every stage. Such a reimagining ought to be viewed as a mechanism through which to better secure access to the knowledge, expertise and forum in which to secure justice for the embodied subject of CoP proceedings. The chapter concludes by urging those who work in the CoP to think about how their own practices might be more attentive to the issues raised and to facilitate the subject of proceedings to give voice, participate in and shape the proceedings.
The chapter considers essential components of any effective treatment or intervention, and the need to adapt standard approaches for people seeking asylum, how this may be done, and the limitations of the ‘evidence base’. Barriers to accessing intervention are discussed, and the need for services that address the complexities of interpretation and cultural differences.
Therapeutic relationships are reviewed, and collaborative work is emphasised.
Therapeutic organisation is also important: early intervention, a conducive setting, continuity of care, and minimising pitfalls of onward referral. Mental and physical health care should be integrated as far as possible, with attention to communication with other professionals and feedback to the client. Consideration is given to how to identify starting points for an intervention. Interventions for specific groups are reviewed, including gender and sexuality, and related to torture, trafficking and sexual violence. Work in inpatient settings and immigration removal centres is considered. Remote working is reviewed, as is the possible therapeutic role of medicolegal assessment. Ways of ending treatment constructively are discussed.
Telepsychiatry is the best-documented e-Mental Health application. It refers to the use of videoconferencing in the provision of mental health services. During the COVID19 pandemic, in response to physical distancing, mental health services worldwide have turned to online consultations. For the vast majority of clinicians, it was the first time they use telepsychiatry, and very few have received training in how to do it.
- to present the main objectives and messages of the WPA Global Guidelines for Telepsychiatry related to competencies & skills, educational & legislative needs, and international collaboration.
A structured review of the main challenges, innovations, and settings in the first Global Telepsychiatry Guidelines, published by WPA in February 2021.
The benefits of increased access to telehealth services are apparent for telepsychiatry, but benefits can only be realized if the tools are used by clinicians who have the appropriate training and guidance. With proper preparation and thoughtful risk management, telepsychiatry can be an invaluable tool for allowing greater access to care. However, certain prerequisites must be fulfilled to achieve the desired goals. These prerequisites are e.g. choice of the technology, settings, patient/provider preferences as well as competencies and skills described in this document.
The need for training among health care professionals is the highest priority. The urgent need for clinical training and skills building around e-mental health inclusive telepsychiatry, will determine the influence that psychiatry can have in addressing the mental health sequelae of the COVID19 pandemic via competent practice and increased international collaboration.
I am the main author of “WPA Telepsychiatry Global Guidelines”
This chapter considers how star roles such as Shakespeare's Cleopatra were sculpted and scored by precisely the kind of physical virtuosity that is demanded in the scenes of skill instruction and sporting display discussed elsewhere in the book. The chapter offers sustained, in-depth readings of a number of leading female roles, placing Cleopatra within a broad theatrical context of corporeally virtuosic leading women including the titular heroine of Christopher Marlowe and Thomas Nashe's Dido, Queen of Carthage, Pandora in John Lyly's The Woman in the Moon, and Lucretia in Barnabe Barnes's The Devil's Charter. It also offers sustained, in-depth readings (partially informed by practice-based research) of particularly spectacular features of Cleopatra's stagecraft, demonstrating how specific acts of violence and physical collaboration redound widely across the early modern dramatic canon. These cross-repertorial readings create a complex network of physical feats and corporeal interactions between actors that centre on the dexterity of the leading boy player, further extending the concept of early modern theatrical culture’s shared investment in boys’ corporeal performances.
Over the past 20 years, collaboration has become an essential aspect of archaeological practice in North America. In paying increased attention to the voices of descendant and local communities, archaeologists have become aware of the persistent injustices these often marginalized groups face. Building on growing calls for a responsive and engaged cultural heritage praxis, this forum article brings together a group of Native and non-Native scholars working at the nexus of history, ethnography, archaeology, and law in order to grapple with the role of archaeology in advancing social justice. Contributors to this article touch on a diverse range of critical issues facing Indigenous communities in the United States, including heritage law, decolonization, foodways, community-based participatory research, and pedagogy. Uniting these commentaries is a shared emphasis on research practices that promote Indigenous sovereignty and self-determination. In drawing these case studies together, we articulate a sovereignty-based model of social justice that facilitates Indigenous control over cultural heritage in ways that address their contemporary needs and goals.
Focusing on human capacity to design, the volume's final chapter draws attention to the fascinating role imagination can play in human life. The relationship between human consciousness and the evolution of the species continues to captivate and puzzle scholars. By revisiting the dialogue between consciousness and evolution, the authors demonstrate how enigmas often necessitate dynamic collaboration between sciences, arts, and humanities. Archaeology provides evidence that the drive for diverse conscious experiences is no new phenomenon, while neuroscience illuminates the ways in which altered states of consciousness can enhance the variety of mental experience. Art, design, and cognitive technologies can build on this picture by providing innovative ways of exploring conscious experience. Inspired by insights from a range of academic disciplines and reflecting on personal experience, this chapter proposes the role of ‘harmony’ as another enigmatic angle of research with potential to shed further light on the functioning both of human society and of the human mind.
Collaboration-based approaches to healthcare improvement attract much attention. They involve networks of people coming together to cooperate around a common interest, with shared goals of improving care and mutual learning. Longstanding examples of collaborative approaches have been associated with some success in improving outcomes and reducing harm. The evidence for their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, however, remains inconsistent and contingent on the circumstances in which they are deployed and how they are used for what purpose. Several models for collaboration have been developed, varying in structure, format, and balance between internal leadership and external control. The authors focus on two approaches: quality improvement collaboratives and communities of practice. They explore evidence of their impact on health outcomes, and evidence about how best to organise and implement collaboration-based approaches. Using examples of more and less successful collaborations, they offer guidance on the key challenges involved in using collaboration-based approaches to improve healthcare. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Although cooperation is widespread from amoebas to humans, the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood, which precludes a full understanding of how cooperation evolved, particularly the complex forms seen in both nonhuman and human primates. The diversity of forms and expressions of cooperation seen across species complicates this, a challenge that has been addressed empirically with studies of cooperation into the lab, where similar methods can be used across species, allowing us to determine what mechanisms are, or are not, shared across species. In the case of cooperation, these methods include joint-action tasks (such as the cooperative barpull) and economic games. With data from standardized lab tests, we can make predictions about how each species should respond in more species-typical, natural contexts. This process allows us to understand not only when mechanisms are shared that might not be obvious (i.e., because they manifest in different ways), but when similar outcomes are underpinned by dissimilar mechanisms. For instance, many primates coordinate, but results from economic games suggest that they do so using a variety of different mechanisms. In addition, we can use these results to identify situations in which cognitive abilities are present, but may not manifest, and to look for the environmental pressures that may inhibit their expression. For example, chimpanzees show evidence of many of the mechanisms necessary for trade and barter, but they do not manifest in all contexts, possibly due to the absence of third-party enforcement mechanisms. Ultimately, understanding cooperation requires recognizing the interplay between cognitive mechanisms and ecology, such that we identify not only how and in what contexts other primates cooperate, but also those situations in which primates do not cooperate, but might be expected to. In so doing, we also move closer to understanding both how humans cooperate, and why it sometimes breaks down so spectacularly.
This chapter considers the close relationship between child rulership and innovative political and administrative adaptation between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. Cases of child kingship prompted adaptations to some of the tools of governance, but the boy king’s presence and active contribution were often still crucial. The chapter turns first to the documentary evidence and the diversity of administrative experimentation before focusing on the enduring significance of children’s participation in rule. The third and final section examines practical adjustments to and contemporary representations of counsel, a fundamental instrument of royal rule which could be even more crucial when a boy was king. Overall, the chapter presents an alternative narrative of child rulership which stresses aspects of innovation, adaptation and co-operation. Considering shifts in documentary culture, royal government and consilium by the thirteenth century also reveals the extent to which many of the practical solutions adopted during a period of child kingship differed much more profoundly across time than they did geographically.
This introductory article foregrounds the articles in this special issue, “Professional–Collector Collaboration: Global Challenges and Solutions,” complementing the special issue “Professional–Collector Collaboration Moving beyond Debate to Best Practice,” also published in Advances in Archaeological Practice. The articles that we introduce here cover examples and case studies from European settings such as Norway, the Czech Republic, England, Wales, Finland, and Belgium—places that have been exploring how to respond to the challenge of working meaningfully with collectors and finders of archaeological artifacts, especially metal detectorists. These are joined by examples from Australia, Mexico, Uruguay, and even the United States, in the context of handling—at first glance—problematic collections originating from elsewhere. The articles are diverse in their settings and the challenges they describe, but they point to the need for participatory and democratic approaches to archaeological heritage and the different publics that engage with it.
Global perspectives on the pathways for developing capacity for conservation remain limited. Hindering the robustness of solutions is a dearth of opportunities to foster discussion and dialogue among capacity development practitioners, academics, partners, beneficiaries and donors. Additionally, little is known about donor perspectives on capacity development, and about pathways to developing a more sustainable investment in capacity development for conservation. The 2019 Capacity Building for Conservation Conference in London, UK, provided a unique opportunity to convene more than 150 capacity development practitioners from the global conservation community. The Conference included structured opportunities to hear donor perspectives on strengthening capacity development. Session leaders took detailed notes to document donor perspectives and the discussions around them. A thematic analysis of this empirical evidence resulted in the identification of four key themes with corresponding recommendations, consisting of (1) collaborative design of capacity development initiatives, (2) monitoring and evaluation, (3) longer-term and flexible investments, and (4) building strong relationships between donors and grantees. Given the Convention on Biological Diversity is currently drafting the long-term strategic framework for capacity development post-2020, and global calls to protect significant portions of our land- and seascapes, our recommendations are timely and may inform a way forward.
An ultimate outcome of leading a team well and fostering real collaboration is the establishment of a positive team culture. A positive team culture is marked by core values and norms of behavior that value collaboration, top performance, shared goals, and mutual support. Healthcare teams with a positive culture consistently produce better results for their members and the patients they serve. Members of such teams are less likely to experience burnout. Strategies that foster a positive team culture and strategies that undermine a positive team culture, that is, “dos” and “don’ts,” are identified and explained in this chapter. The risk of “groupthink” that highly cohesive teams may experience is real and must be avoided. The pandemic has put a premium on teams’ ability to quickly establish and maintain a positive culture.
This chapter examines Operation Torch, the 1942 British-American invasion of North Africa and the subsequent Allied decision to work with collaborationist Admiral François Darlan. America’s entrance into the conflict complicated the rhetoric of the Franco-British relationship. Historic imagery focussing on Franco-American collaboration marginalised Britain while American promises to protect the integrity of the French empire recalled Franco-British imperial rivalries. American letters, leaflets, statements and broadcasts conceptualised Torch using heroic and emotional sentiments. They played on historic sensibilities, such as the relationship forged between France and the United States during the Revolutionary War. And they promised to safeguard the French Empire, promises that Britain found offensive in light of their own assurances. After the invasions, the decision to work with Darlan was criticised by the British press and public. For the first time, de Gaulle’s movement enjoyed a significant rise in popularity amongst the British public, articulated through cultural sentiments such as fair play and support for the underdog. Public objections were linked to perceptions of morality. The debates that surrounded Operation Torch and its aftermath highlighted questions of military expediency and moral compromise and the role that the public played in defining acceptable wartime behaviour.
A critical individual-level solution involves increasing self-awareness and greater understanding in terms of one’s personality traits, especially in terms of how one reacts to stressful circumstances. Some personality traits, such as moderately strong extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, hardiness/resilience, and generalized self-efficacy are associated with reduced stress reaction. Individuals with those personality dimensions are dispositionally able to handle stressful situations better than others. Their personality buffers the stress reaction. By the same token, individuals with some forms of “Type A” personality, or who are strong in neuroticism, for example, are more likely to show strong reactions to stressful situations. It is helpful for individuals to identify their personality factors, especially the strong ones, to understand their capacities to endure stress without experiencing burnout. It is also important for them to identify personality traits that might predispose them to experiencing a strong stress reaction and to identify what are called “work-around” strategies to help buffer them from the deleterious, undoing effects of stress.
It has been argued that science diplomacy (SD) helps avoid or mitigate conflicts among stakeholders in the Arctic. Yet underlying some of these well-intended and sometimes successful initiatives is a one-sided understanding of SD. The most recent literature takes a more differentiated approach towards the means and ends of SD. It shows that international scientific interaction is shaped by the twofold logic of competition and collaboration. Instruments of SD can be meant to serve national interests, collective regional goals or global agendas. The present paper disentangles these confounding discourses of collaboration and competition based on a conceptually enhanced SD framework. It analyses Arctic strategies and two cases of Arctic SD, the Agreement on Enhancing International Arctic Scientific Cooperation and research activities on Svalbard, to reveal the mechanisms of collaboration and competition in the sphere of international science in relation to security, environment and economy. By pointing out where and how science is currently being used in the Arctic, this article provides (a) a systematic overview of the state of SD in the region and (b) a tool for policy-makers and scientists to assess what impact different facets of SD have in Arctic politics.
Although health science disciplines may implement an element of research in the curriculum, the primary focus has been on learning clinical practice and the creation of safe practitioners. Examples of best practice include early implementation of research in the undergraduate curriculum, scaffolding, and collaboration. In order to improve practices related to undergraduate research in the health sciences, it is important to address the needs and developments required. These needs include changing the perceptions of the value of undergraduate research for both students and faculty, finding ways to add undergraduate research to an already full and potentially overwhelming curriculum, addressing the institutional barriers that prevent undergraduate research from occurring, and reducing barriers related to faculty experience and time constraints.
Research is increasingly international. There is a rising awareness that sharing knowledge and perspectives contributes to finding solutions to global challenges. It thus seems logical for researchers involved in teaching to share this international experience with students and offer them an international research-based learning opportunity. In this chapter, we look at undergraduate research projects organized in cooperation with partner universities abroad. We ask what form these collaborations take, what challenges they meet in crosscultural teaching and learning settings, and what we can learn from their experience.
The inquiry-based approach to learning has been successfully applied in science education. Inquiry-based learning is defined as an approach involving active, research-based learning in the classroom to acquire new knowledge and competences, either individually or collaboratively, in self-regulated learning settings. In this chapter five general inquiry phases are being discussed: Orientation, Conceptualization, Investigation, Conclusion, and Discussion. These phases and their corresponding sub-phases are interlinked in an inquiry cycle. While experiencing each phase the students will acquire research-based skills and further develop a wide range of soft skills as long as instructors provide adequate guidance and support.
This short essay, prepared on the occasion of the conferral of the Distinguished Service Award of the Conference on Latin American History, uses various examples to illustrate the pleasure to be drawn from the day-to-day work of academic history. It opens with reflections on the practice of transcription, the act of bringing recognizable syllables and words out of the often baffling strokes of the pen that have left ink on paper. Although the wave of digitization has increased the sum total of material easily available to us, it is when we do the work of paleography, reducing the continuous lines of manuscript to something close to the discontinuities of type, that we find that our brains can hold on to the words and carry the interpretation forward. After transcription often comes translation, converting the formulas, idioms, and idiosyncrasies of past speech into language intelligible to our readers. As we translate, we are forced to acknowledge our own uncertainties about the meaning of texts, and to make the provisional choices that resolve ambiguity. Across both of these tasks we are nourished by collaboration, the talking and writing together that makes the study of the past into a social activity. Eager collaboration turns the practice of history into a double dialogue, with the documents and with our colleagues, engaging the mind and the spirit and bringing what can only be called joy.
In recent years, an important goal of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) has been to answer the question of how international collaboration and student mobility can be enhanced through digitalisation. The following chapter consists of a combination of desk research with insights from the work of the DAAD’s Digitalisation Section. It will provide both an overview of current trends and debates of the digitalisation of higher education as well as critical considerations for the future. The chapter will contribute to the debate on new dynamics of internationalisation of higher education through digitalisation before and during the recent COVID-19 pandemic. It will shed light on the flexibility of higher education systems in adapting to unexpected change. Furthermore, it will reflect on the likely impacts of the current crisis for the further development of higher education internationalisation with its opportunities, challenges and open questions.