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This chapter examines the development of digital business. It commences with a reflection on the huge benefits arising from digitalisation, including greater productivity, more competition, greater choice and convenience, innovation and profitability. It also notes that it is extremely difficult to separate the digital economy from the rest of the economy. The key features of digital businesses include direct and indirect network effects, economies of scale, anti-competitive lock-in effects, the importance of data and complementarity. The four most significant new types of business models are explained: multi-sided platforms, resellers, vertically integrated firms and input suppliers. Lastly, there are observations made about the key characteristics of highly digitalised business models which have significance and importance in the context of looking at the challenges to the international tax system.
Working from a database of over 1,700 printed circulars, this article explores the significance of the commercial innovations that took place during the second half of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth. Studying the chronology of the introduction of printed circulars and their use in mercantile practices, we demonstrate that commercial innovation can be interpreted as the mobilization of new tools and old practices to solve the traditional problems of long-distance trade, in a context where circulars were used to communicate information on trade houses, to search for new commercial partners, and to display one's socioprofessional identity.
This chapter reviews the use of chess in business, health, and education. In business, chess has been used with educational purposes, and as a model to evaluate game-theory aspects of the game. In health, there are applications of chess to address problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), neurodegenerative disorders, or schizophrenia. In education, chess has become widely used as a pedagogical method thought to entail education al benefits for languages, mathematics, concentration, self-control, or the development of socio-affective competences. Some recent studies suggest significant higher levels of academic performance for schoolchildren and adolescents into chess-based teaching or who practice chess on a regular basis, when compared with students uninvolved in chess playing or chess instruction. Another set of studies, however, question the purported benefits of chess training for formal education. According with this latter point of view, there are both conceptual and methodological concerns that hinder in a great extent the available evidence about the association of chess training with academic achievement. Two of these issues relate with the transfer of abilities across domains, and with the concept of statistical power, which are addressed in greater depth within this chapter.
This chapter analyzes Brazil’s 500 largest firms and financial institutions in the mid-2010s to evaluate how well corporate life fit into a Latin American variety of capitalism that Schneider (2013) termed “hierarchical market capitalism.” While Brazil adhered to the general characteristics of the hierarchical market economy (HME), Brazilian firm life differed from other HMEs in the region due to significant state activity, the presence of large but relatively undiversified business groups, and credit and equity markets with a large dose of state participation that enabled firms to behave and organize in ways that differed from their regional peers. Five characteristics of Brazilian firm life stood out: the segmented firm structure; the muscular influence of developmentalist policy tools on firms; the segmentation of labor markets; the segmentation of skills; and the segmentation of social policy provision. This segmentation had a variety of implications for firms’ incentives to participate in politics.
This article focuses upon the provisions and underlying policy of the Landlord and Tenant Acts of 1927 and 1954. It surveys the mischief that each Act was designed to address and, from the perspective of compensation for business tenants, examines critically the legislative response. It demonstrates that the safeguards afforded by the 1927 Act were poorly conceived, ill-constructed and ineffectual. Although the 1954 Act was intended to instil simplicity, certainty and fairness, it fails on all counts. The law remains highly technical, unduly complex, arbitrary in operation and in need of major overhaul.
Many books that aspire to go beyond descriptions of motivational processes to address the question of how to motivate self and others adopt a tactical approach that is overly mechanical and often limited to a narrow range of change pathways and targets of intervention. To avoid these pitfalls, this chapter focuses on broad principles for enhancing optimal human functioning rather than offering simplistic “prescriptions” for motivating self and others. In doing so, we also explain why the uniqueness of individual motivational patterns – psychologically, developmentally, and contextually – makes it impossible to offer formulaic advice for motivating self and others. To engage the reader’s interest, we use a novel Q&A format after the initial presentation of overarching principles to illustrate how a “principled” approach to motivating self and others can be used to diagnosis motivational problems, identify multiple targets of intervention, and envision a variety of pathways to more optimal functioning.
This Element discusses the concept and applications of strategy tools. Strategy tools are frameworks, techniques, and methods that help individuals and organizations to create their strategies. After a brief overview of different ideas on strategy and strategic thinking, we move on to define and discuss what strategy tools are and elaborate on the promise and perils of using them to implement strategic management. We review the most commonly used, classic tools and techniques, but also less well-known tools of the strategy trade, as proposed by scholars writing in the leading strategy journals. We conclude by offering suggestions on how to improve strategic design and the effectiveness of the resultant strategy through the selective use of the most appropriate tools. Overall, this Element provides a quick overview of the tools that are available to those tasked with creating organizational strategies and making strategic decisions.
The number of transnational corporations - including parent companies and subsidiaries - has exploded over the last forty years, which has led to a correlating rise of corporate violations of international human rights and environmental laws, either directly or in conjunction with government security forces, local police, state-run businesses, or other businesses. In this work, Gwynne Skinner details the harms of business-related human rights violations on local communities and describes the barriers, both functional and institutional, that victims face in seeking remedies. She concludes by offering solutions to these barriers, with a focus on measures designed to improve judicial remedies, which are the heart of international human rights law but often fail to deliver justice to victims. This work should be read by anyone concerned with the role of corporations in our increasingly globalized society.
The number of transnational corporations (TNCs) – including parent companies and subsidiaries – has exploded over the last forty years. In 1970, there were approximately 7,000 TNCs in the world; today, there are more than 100,000 with over 900,000 foreign affiliates.1 TNCs are now so complex and amorphous in their structure – even compared to ten years ago – that it is difficult for even the most sophisticated legal systems to adequately hold TNCs accountable for the harms they create in countries where they operate, even as the TNCs make enormous profits at the expense of often vulnerable communities. The truth is, certain legal doctrines, often devised nearly a century ago or longer, are too outdated to sufficiently assure that TNCs are held accountable for harms they create in today’s world, where TNCs operate globally, and often have structures that transcend a single country or jurisdiction.
This article discusses three questions. First, what drives business to ignore human rights, or even worse, consciously undermine the achievement of human rights? Second, given the state of affairs of business and human rights, why is there not a quick regulatory fix to the problems that we see? Third, in light of the failure of business and of regulation so far, what can be done? The article posits that reform of company law is key to ensuring business respect for human rights, as an intrinsic element of the transition to sustainability. The article outlines how company law can facilitate sustainable business. It concludes with some reflections on the drivers for change that make it possible to envisage that the necessary reform of company law will be enacted.
This chapter provides an overview of the book in terms of concepts and content. It introduces the reader to the questions of what accountability for corporate complicity in human rights violations is, why they take place, and when, where, and how they unfold. It also explores obstacles that have blocked accountability efforts. The chapter sets out the concepts of “corporate,” “complicity,” “accountability,” and “transitional justice.” It examines when and why there is need for accountability for these types of violations. It further considers where corporate accountability could take place, in courts and in truth commissions. The chapter sets out the argument for how accountability processes have occurred, their reliance on civil society demand and institutional innovators to overcome the absence of international pressure and the obstacles posed by a powerful business veto. It uses these factors to present the “justice from below” model used in the book. It suggests that the model functions like Archimedes’ Lever in putting the right tools in weak hands to lift the weight of international human rights accountability. A chapter outline is also provided.
This chapter explores how accountability barriers can be overcome. First, it contrasts transitional justice accountability efforts with regard to state and rebel actors with corporate accountability efforts. It explores why the same international pressure that played such a crucial role in advancing accountability in such contexts has not emerged in corporate accountability efforts. It also looks at veto players and examine why their power was reduced in those efforts, and are so strong in corporate accountability.
Second, it examines conceptually when and why local efforts can overcome the absence of international pressure and the power of the corporate veto to advance accountability. It discusses the significance of domestic actors over international ones bridging two previously unconnected literatures: transitional justice and business and human rights approaches.
The concluding section develops the Archimedes’ lever analogy for corporate accountability from below, establishing scope conditions, key actors and factors at work. It contends that corporate accountability from below is not merely an abstract analytical exercise. It is one grounded in, and in dialogue with, empirical, comparative, and historical analyses. It further aims to sharpen, refine, adapt, and make accessible to corporate accountability advocates, a set of tools to advance corporate accountability.
This chapter summarizes the key arguments in the book. The chapter explains why a specific children’s rights focus is granted within the broader business and human rights debates and seeks to move beyond legal fiction to situate businesses as children’s rights duty-bearers. The chapter summarizes the arguments and analysis on how children and their rights are treated within existing normative frameworks on business and human rights. The legalization of business duties and norms specifically related to children’s rights within that context are sketched out. Insights from the four case illustrations are used in refining and defining the need for a forward-looking proposal on duty-bearing, which concludes the chapter.
− ESG–Agency scholarship highlights the fragmented, expanding, and complex forms of authority that prescribe, steer, and govern behaviour on environmental issues. − Agency scholarship on earth system governance covers interdisciplinary debates in four broad areas: the types of agents, the ways authority is exercised, the nature of agents’ influence, and the varieties of governance structures or architectures within which agents act.− Even with increasing scholarship into the fragmentation of authority and multiplication of the types agents to include nonstate, transnational, and subnational actors, states continue to be the centre of agency scholarship. Future research is needed on agency theory and the theoretical nature of relationships between actors and within differing geographic, economic, and political contexts.
In addition to being a writer, Mark Twain was a businessman, although almost always a failure. He was an inventor who tried to market his ideas, with mixed results. He founded his own publishing company when he grew tired of dealing with publishers, and for a time he was successful, although that too ended in bankruptcy. Like others in the Gilded Age, which he named, he was an investor, again with mixed and finally disastrous results. Although he criticized his age as one of monetary grasping, he himself was fully inculcated in his age. He lived in an age of great economic change, and his works reflect a tortured relationship with money and economics.
The third edition of Managing Employee Performance and Reward: Systems, Practices and Prospects has been thoroughly revised and updated by a new four-member author team. The text introduces a new conceptual framework based on systems thinking and a dual model of strategic alignment and psychological engagement. Coverage of chapter topics provides a balance between research evidence and practice and, in this new edition, is enhanced with a more applied and technical approach. The text also includes chapters dedicated to conceptual framing, base pay and individual recognition and reward; 'reality check' breakout boxes with practical examples and current problems on each of strategic alignment, employee engagement, organisation justice and workforce diversity; and a new chapter exploring new horizons in performance and reward practice and research with a focus on the mega-trends of technological transformation under 'Industry 4.0', new economic forms and relationships arising from the 'gig' economy, and generational change.
As the fastest growing economy in the world, India is uniquely placed to deliver on its commitments to inclusive and sustainable development and ensuring the balance among its three pillars – economic, social and environmental. Since partnerships by companies are expected in this endeavour, a need for companies to consider long-term corporate sustainability arises. In this respect, the chapter covers issues relating to corporate India’s willingness and capacity for such participation, including whether the business environment is facilitative for such participation and whether the experience to date provides reason for optimism. As there are conflicting policy objectives, it becomes imperative to take account of the governance mechanisms that affect corporate sustainability in India and highlight the seemingly unconnected issues that underpin the business environment. The chapter discusses current business practices and impacts of business operations, as well as recent legal and regulatory reforms impacting corporate sustainability.