To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The western Antarctic Peninsula is facing rapid environmental changes and many recent publications stress the need to gain new knowledge regarding ecosystems responses to these changes. In the framework of the Belgica 121 expedition, we tested the use of a nimble vessel with a moderate environmental footprint as an approach to tackle the urgent needs of the Southern Ocean research community in terms of knowledge regarding the levels of marine biodiversity in shallow areas and the potential impacts of retreating glaciers on this biodiversity in combination with increasing tourism pressure. We discuss the strengths and drawbacks of using a 75’ (23 m) sailboat in this research framework, as well as its sampling and environmental efficiency. We propose that the scientific community considers this approach to 1) fill specific knowledge gaps and 2) improve the general coherence of the research objectives of the Antarctic scientific community in terms of biodiversity conservation and the image that such conservation conveys to the general public.
This chapter considers the observation, comparison and visual representation of a range of altitudinal limits in the Himalaya: plants, animals, crops and human habitation. These limits were addressed especially through the lens plant geography. The chapter begins by examining the absolute limits of vegetation and attempts to divide up the Himalaya using a vocabulary of verticality borrowed from the horizontal (tropical, temperate and arctic). The second section extends these debates to animals. The third section examines debates over the ‘tropicality’ of the Himalaya, and inconsistences in the line of perpetual snow. The fourth section considers the altitude limits of cultivation, firewood and human habitation. The final section considers attempts to represent and understand these altitude limits visually by considering charts made by William Griffith and Richard Strachey. The chapter argues that as much as from abstract scientific interests, observations of altitude thresholds were wrapped up with the concerns of empire. Ultimately, applying existing horizontal divisions meant simultaneously overwriting pre-existing local cosmologies, and broader South Asian imaginings.
Of the monkeys in Africa, the colobines comprise 19% of the 16 genera and 30% of the 79 species. They occur all across tropical African from sea level to 3,400 m above sea level, and where temperatures range from -7°C to 41°C and mean annual rainfall ranges from 50 cm to 1,100 cm. Ninety-six percent of the 24 species of Africa’s colobines are threatened with extinction, whereas 68% of the subspecies are threatened with extinction. Six of the species are ‘Critically Endangered’, including one that is probably already extinct. The two primary proximate threats to colobines in Africa are forest loss and hunting by humans, while the ultimate threat is humans and their widespread over-exploitation of natural resources. This chapter reviews the biological traits that make Africa’s colobines especially susceptible to extinction through forest loss and hunting, the threats they face, and the impacts of those threats. Predictions are presented concerning which species of African colobine will be among the first extinctions and where Africa’s colobines are expected to persist for at least the coming 30 years. Finally, this chapter presents an overview of the main conservation actions that Africa’s colobines require and gives priorities for research that will support their conservation.
In order to assemble an ecological community it may be helpful to know not only how many parts there are, but what kinds of parts there are. Communities require at least two classification systems that provide simultaneous and somewhat contradictory lists of parts: phylogenetic and functional. These two classification systems can be arranged hierarchically so that many parts (species) are nested within a smaller number of groups (functional types). Even with objective classification techniques, it is difficult to know how many groups exist, and the number selected may be somewhat arbitrary. There does not seem to be a way to tell, a priori, how many functional types we can expect to find in a specified landscape or habitat. This raises difficult questions about the nature of fitness landscapes and the geometry of n-dimensional trait space.
Nineteenth-Century American Literature and the Discourse of Natural History illuminates how literary experimentation with natural history provides penumbral views of environmental survival. The book brings together feminist revisions of scientific objectivity and critical race theory on diaspora to show how biogeography influenced material and metaphorical concepts of species and race. It also highlights how lesser known writers of color like Simon Pokagon and James McCune Smith connected species migration and mutability to forms of racial uplift. The book situates these literary visions of environmental fragility and survival amidst the development of Darwinian theories of evolution and against a westward expanding American settler colonialism.
We surveyed the shallow-water sponges of Ascension Island using scuba diving. In total, we collected 58 sponge specimens from 17 locations at depths of 0.5–30 m. In addition, we compiled historical records of sponges. We describe nine species new to science: Niphates verityae sp. nov., Petrosia (Petrosia) ernesti sp. nov., Monanchora downesae sp. nov., Svenzea weberorum sp. nov., Erylus williamsae sp. nov., Ircinia nolanae sp. nov., Ircinia richardsoni sp. nov., Ircinia simae sp. nov. and Chondrosia browningorum sp. nov. We provide molecular sequences for three of the new species. We have added 50% to the number of known species and added two new genera and one family to the known Ascension Island sponge fauna. Twenty-six species, from 16 genera, and 13 families, are now reported from Ascension's shallow waters. Many of these may be endemic to the island. We discuss the biogeographic affinities of Ascension Island and emphasize the need for additional survey of the sponge fauna of remote islands such as Ascension.
Chapter 3 is devoted to the biology of soil biogeochemistry. This is a rapidly evolving field. The chapter begins with our present understanding of the tree of life, and how little of it we have been able to detect. The second section examines the role of biology, its enzymatic impacts on the nature of chemistry over geological time, and the impacts it has had via oxidation-reduction pathways. The section considers how minerals and compounds that are now common on Earth are present largely (or only) because of biological processes. The next section examines what is presently known about the geography of soil microbiology, and what that means for the spatial diversity of metabolic capabilities. The chapter considers the challenges and emerging opportunities of explicitly embedding microbial parameters into biogeochemical models. Finally, the role and impact of vascular plants on nutrient cycling, distributions, and weathering are introduced.
Burmese amber continues to provide unique insights into the terrestrial biota inhabiting tropical equatorial forests during mid-Cretaceous time. In contrast to the large amount and great diversity of terrestrial species retrieved so far, aquatic biota constitute rare inclusions. Here we describe the first freshwater snail ever preserved in amber. The new species Galba prima sp. nov. belongs in the family Lymnaeidae, today a diverse and near globally distributed family. Its inclusion in terrestrial amber is probably a result of the amphibious lifestyle typical of modern representatives of the genus. The finding of a freshwater snail on the Burma Terrane, back then an island situated at some 1500 km from mainland Asia, has implications for the dispersal mechanisms of Mesozoic lymnaeids. The Cenomanian species precedes the evolution of waterfowl, which are today considered a main vector for long-distance dispersal. In their absence, we discuss several hypotheses to explain the disjunct occurrence of the new species.
The species–area relationship (SAR) describes a range of related phenomena that are fundamental to the study of biogeography, macroecology and community ecology. While the subject of ongoing debate for a century, surprisingly, no previous book has focused specifically on the SAR. This volume addresses this shortfall by providing a synthesis of the development of SAR typologies and theory, as well as empirical research and application to biodiversity conservation problems. It also includes a compilation of recent advances in SAR research, comprising novel SAR-related theories and findings from the leading authors in the field. The chapters feature specific knowledge relating to terrestrial, marine and freshwater realms, ensuring a comprehensive volume relevant to a wide range of fields, with a mix of review and novel material and with clear recommendations for further research and application.
The beta-diversity of interactions between communities does not necessarily correspond to the differences related to their species composition because interactions show greater variability than species co-occurrence. Additionally, the structure of species interaction networks can itself vary over spatial gradients, thereby adding constraints on the dissimilarity of communities in space. We used published data on the parasitism interaction between fleas and small mammals in 51 regions of the Palearctic to investigate how beta-diversity of networks and phylogenetic diversity are related. The networks could be separated in groups based on the metrics that best described the differences between them, and these groups were also geographically structured. We also found that each network beta-diversity index relates in a particular way with phylogenetically community dissimilarity, reinforcing that some of these indexes have a strong phylogenetic component. Our results clarify important aspects of the biogeography of hosts and parasites communities in Eurasia, while suggesting that networks beta-diversity and phylogenetic dissimilarity interact with the environment in different ways.
Lecanora s. lat. is a genus of crustose, rarely placodioid lichens comprising c. 1000 recognized species and subdivided into several morphology-based groups. Some of these groups have been supported in phylogenetic analyses and segregated as new genera. One of the remaining groups that has not been previously studied by molecular methods in much detail, the L. saligna-group, includes corticolous and lignicolous crustose lichens, usually containing isousnic or usnic acid (or both) as major secondary metabolites. As part of our ongoing project ‘Lecanomics’, a phylogenetic analysis based on two loci was conducted and found the L. saligna-group to be divided into two main clades and several well-supported minor clades. The L. varia clade, chosen as one of the outgroups, emerged within the L. saligna-group. The majority of the clades are characterized by phenotypic differences. However, several well-supported clades share similarities with their sister groups, suggesting that species circumscriptions based solely on phenotypic characters may be too conservative to characterize the true species diversity present within the group. Also, there is evidence for some geographical separation of lineages; for example, most North American individuals, previously known as Lecanora saligna and L. albellula, form two clades separate from their European namesakes and are here preliminarily called ‘Lecanora sp. B’, ‘Lecanora sp. C’ and ‘Lecanora sp. D’. However, L. saligna and L. albellula also appear to occur in North America, and some specimens from the Caucasus and Iran cluster within the North American clades. Lecanora anopta and L. subravida are reported for the first time from Iran.
An examination of collections from Japan has increased the number of Brianaria and Micarea species known from that country from eight to 19, including one new species, M. rubioides Coppins (also from Malaysia and the Philippines). Eleven species are reported as new to Japan (M. botryoides (Nyl.) Coppins, M. denigrata (Fr.) Hedl., M. erratica (Körb.) Hertel et al., M. hedlundii Coppins, M. lithinella (Nyl.) Hedl., M. micrococca (Körb.) Gams ex Coppins and M. misella (Nyl.) Hedl.) or new to Asia: M. byssacea (Th. Fr.) Czarnota et al., M. deminuta Coppins and M. xanthonica Coppins & Tønsberg (new to Asia; Japan); M. nitschkeana (J. Lahm ex Rabenh.) Harm. (new to Asia; South Korea). The presence of Micarea prasina s. str. from Japan needs to be confirmed; no collection was found in this study. Additional collections from South Korea and Sri Lanka are also reported, including the new species M. ceylanica Coppins from Sri Lanka. The identity of M. synotheoides (Nyl.) Coppins, originally described from Japan, has been resolved, resulting in the renaming of Western European material, previously under that name, as M. longispora Coppins. Micarea coreana Lőkös et al. is reported here as a synonym of M. erratica. The type of Lecidea inopinula Nyl. requires the new combination Micarea inopinula (Nyl.) Coppins & T. Sprib. to replace Micarea prasinella (Jatta) I. M. Lamb.
Three potentially competing bear species inhabit tropical Asia: the sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus). Sun bears (30–80 kg), the smallest species of bear in the world, are about half the size of black bears (65–150 kg) and sloth bears (55–145 kg). What factors generate the separation of sloth bears geographically from black and sun bears? What factors facilitate the extensive sympatry of black bears and sun bears? How are these patterns structured by evolutionary history and competition between bear species, and what mechanisms facilitate their coexistence or maintain their separation? Has current forest loss and degradation benefited one species over another? If so, has interspecific competition played a part? These questions are the focus of this chapter.
The coastline of the Korean Peninsula is influenced by three major oceanographic ecoregions, including the estuarine Yellow Sea ecoregion on the west coast, the warmer and saline East China Sea ecoregion on the south coast, and the cold East Sea ecoregion on the east coast. The influence of these marine ecoregions on the distribution of intertidal barnacles has not been extensively studied. The present study examines the biogeography of thoracican barnacles from intertidal and shallow subtidal zones, along the coasts of Korea. Twenty-one species in seven families were identified, including three species of coral-associated barnacles. Species composition varied significantly in the three marine ecoregions. Multivariate analysis showed barnacle assemblages were significant among the three ecoregions, although there are large overlaps of clusters between the Yellow Sea and East China Sea ecoregions. The estuarine species, Fistulobalanus albicostatus, occurred mainly in the Yellow Sea ecoregion; warm-water species, Tetraclita japonica, and sponge inhabiting barnacles Euacasta dofleini were observed in the East China Sea ecoregion; and cold-water species, Balanus rostratus and Perforatus perforatus, were found in the East Sea ecoregion. Four invasive barnacle species were recorded and the European barnacle Perforatus perforatus expanded its range northward from its recorded distribution nine years earlier. The cold-water species, Chthamalus dalli and Semibalanus cariosus, previously recorded in the East Sea ecoregion, were absent in the present survey. A trend of increasing seawater temperatures in Korean waters may have a significant impact on the distribution of cold-water species and enhance the northward invasion of P. perforatus.
The species of the Parmelia saxatilis complex occurring in the Iberian Peninsula were revised. Eight species are accepted, including a new species found in southern Spain, described as P. rojoi A. Crespo, V. J. Rico & Divakar. The new species, which forms a sister-group relationship with P. saxatilis s. str., is rare in the Iberian Peninsula and is restricted to higher altitudes of northern and central Spain. Parmelia rojoi differs from P. saxatilis by generally narrower isidia and a more fragile thallus. The segregation of the new species is also supported by ITS (rDNA) and Mcm7 (MS456) phylogeny and multispecies coalescent-based approaches, including StarBEAST and BP&P. Furthermore, the divergence of P. rojoi is dated back to the Pleistocene, c. 2.13 Ma. A key to the identification of species from the P. saxatilis complex with their diagnostic features is provided. All species of the complex known from Europe are also found in the Iberian Peninsula. We hypothesize that P. rojoi is a relict species that survived the Pleistocene glaciations in refugia in Spain and has been unable to extend its distributional range in postglacial periods.
The directions of strong winds are important for the distribution of marine salt spray, rock weathering, lake chemistry and the distribution of vegetation in Bunger Hills, a coastal ice-free oasis in East Antarctica. Present-day strong winds (> 10 m s−1) dominantly blow from 118 ± 21 degrees true (°T; ± 1 SD). Orientated tafoni (weathering pits) might form in bedrock surfaces by salt and ice crystallization, thermal stress and saltating sand particles, recording the orientation of a strongly directional wind field since the last deglaciation, which commenced > 30 000 years ago. The orientations of these tafoni, at 101 ± 18°T for 686 measurements at 28 sites, are indistinguishable from the direction of modern-day strong winds (> 10 m s−1), indicating that the orientation of the slope of the ice sheet has been stable throughout the last 10 000 years during the Holocene.
Terrestrial environments at Bunger Hills, East Antarctica, vary from vegetation-rich, little-weathered rock surfaces retaining glacial polish and striations near the glacier and ice-sheet margins to salty, vegetation-poor, extensively weathered regions near to and downwind of marine bays and inlets. Weathering forms include tafoni and orientated pits, which record former wind directions. Although salts are found all over Bunger Hills, the strongly weathered area is coincident with the distribution of halite (NaCl) and thenardite (Na2SO4), both of which are derived from seawater and marine salt spray. Salts elsewhere in Bunger Hills are either subglacial calcium carbonates or rock weathering products including gypsum (CaSO4⋅2H2O) and a range of rarer minerals. These other salt minerals do not weather rocks and sediment. The distribution of halite and thenardite acts as a major control on the geomorphology, sediment geochemistry and biogeography of Bunger Hills.
In this paper, we synthesize recorded observations of moss, lichen and bird species in Bunger Hills, East Antarctica, and assess the role of environmental controls, including sediment, salinity, moisture and geology, on species' distributions. The distribution of snow petrels (Pagodroma nivea) appears to be associated with geology; they nest by preference in crevices in bedrock outcrops around the margins of the hills or wherever jointed cliffs are found. South polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki) are seen throughout Bunger Hills, where they nest and prey on snow petrels. Mosses and lichens were most abundant around the ice margins where fresh snow and ice meltwater are abundant. In the central area of Bunger Hills, where the highest salt concentration in sediments is found and exposure to abrasion by wind-driven mineral sand grains and ice particles is greatest, mosses and lichens are reduced in abundance and diversity. Exposure of parts of Bunger Hills from the ice sheet throughout the Last Glacial Maximum, c. 20 ka bp, means that some land and lakes could have acted as regional refugia and as a locus of recolonization of other ice-free areas.