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This chapter outlines important theoretical and methodological facets of elite medicine in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and traces some developments in each, highlighting their significance for the history and philosophy of the Scientific Revolution. The chapter looks first at “theoretical” questions (centered on medical physiologia), tracing interactions between various Galenic, chymical, and mechanical streams of thought. It then turns to “methodological” issues, examining changing understandings of and roles for observation, experience, and experiment, with some special attention on method in anatomy. Throughout the Scientific Revolution, these theoretical and methodological developments interacted in complex and productive ways. Indeed, it is perhaps best to see medical efforts to develop the science of the living body in this period as an exploration of the changing space of possibilities defined by varying theoretical commitments and a broadening commitment to, expectation of, and attention to discovery by experience and experiment.
For centuries, the tympanum has remained the only visible structure of the organ of hearing. This study aimed to trace the understanding of the tympanic membrane from antiquity to the early twentieth century.
A review was conducted of primary and secondary historical and scientific literature describing the tympanic membrane anatomy.
Although ancient polymaths sensed that sounds were vibrations that could spread in the air and be perceived by the hearing organ, there were numerous misconceptions about the tympanum until human dissections performed during the Renaissance. The tympanum was correctly described only centuries later when technological advances enabled otologists to understand it as a fundamental part of the hearing organ.
The tympanic membrane history reflects key stages in medical knowledge; limited for centuries, a great technological leap was possible in the nineteenth century, contributing to the emergence of otologists and laying the foundations of modern otology.
This research reports for the first time the anatomical characteristics of all species belonging to Baccharis subgenus Coridifoliae (Asteraceae). The anatomy and micro-morphology of aerial vegetative organs of ten species: B. albilanosa, B. artemisioides, B. bicolor, B. coridifolia, B. erigeroides, B. napaea, B. ochracea, B. pluricapitulata, B. scabrifolia, and B. suberectifolia are investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. The number of secretory ducts, crystal morphology, presence or absence of conical nonglandular trichomes, leaves cross-section shape, margin morphology, anticlinal epidermal cell walls shape, and cuticle structure were identified as characters with diagnostic value for species. Similarity cluster analysis allows the formation of three groups based on a percentage of similarity between 45 and 84%. Some species showed differential characteristics as the presence of up to four secretory ducts in the midrib in B. albilanosa; smooth cuticles onboth sides of the leaf epidermis in B. erigeroides; flat midrib shape on both sides of the leaves in B. napaea; and convex–flat midrib shape in B. suberectifolia. The remaining species can be differentiated by a set of anatomical features. Anatomical and histochemical characteristics of stems and leaves provided data to support species identification.
Explores imaginative connections between boxes and selves, especially bodies. In George Herbert’s poem ‘Ungratefulness’, humanity’s relationship with God is figured by some of the many bodily boxes that strew The Temple, with their associations of intimacy, and interrogation of openness and closure. Herbert hints at the material similarities between the boxes of the household and those ‘of bone’. The noun ‘chest’ can refer to both, and as early modern poets recognised, there is a striking physical resemblance between the anatomy of a human chest with its enclosing ribcage, and that of a wooden chest framed by iron bars. The chapter offers close readings of sermons by John Donne, poems by George Herbert, and Shakespeare’s Cymbeline. Drawing together the pervasive material and imaginative interactions between boxes and bodies, these texts show how thinking inside the box is rooted in the materiality of bodily experience. Boxes of all kinds become transformative objects to think with, but writers reveal that although boxes point towards order, and the neatness of containment, they also constantly push at their own boundaries.
This paper provides detailed anatomy and histochemistry of the leaves and stems of Eucalyptus tereticornis illustrated with brightfield and scanning electron microscopy. The key microscopic features that can aid in the species identification include the presence of crust-like epicuticular waxes on the leaf surfaces, platy aggregations of cluster crystals in the epidermal cells, presence of prismatic crystals in the epidermal cells, in the parenchymatous sheath in the blade and petiole, and in the cortex and pith of the stems, and leaf homogenous mesophyll consisting of palisade cells. Histochemical analyses confirmed the presence of lipophilic and phenolic compounds in the contents of secretory cavities, starch grains in the xylem parenchyma of the stem, and lignified elements in the sclerenchymatous ring adjoining the phloem and in the xylem in the leaves and stems.
We present the case, with tomographic three-dimensional reconstructions, of an adult patient affected by congenital absence of one pulmonary valve cusp with completely normal morphology of the other two cusps.
Hancornia speciosa Gomes is popularly known as mangabeira and occurs throughout Brazil. It belongs to the Apocynaceae family and is very important for its food and medicinal uses. The objective of this study was to perform the anatomical and histochemical characterization of the leaves of H. speciosa. Microscope slides were made containing cross sections of petiole and leaf blade, as well as paradermic sections of the leaf blade. The analyses were performed under light and polarized microscopy. For the histochemical analysis, different reagents were used, according to the targeted metabolite. Through microscopic analysis, it was possible to identify the anatomical structures that provide the detailed diagnosis of the studied species. Through histochemistry, the presence of phenolic compounds, tannins, alkaloids, triterpenes and steroids, lipophilic compounds, lignin, starch, and calcium oxalate crystals was evidenced in the leaf blade. Thus, the results presented contribute to the quality control of H. speciosa, as well as to bring unpublished data about the species and to increase knowledge about the Apocynaceae family.
In the nineteenth century the corpse became central to medical education. In Britain, a growing number of private medical schools opened throughout the country, involving the rise of the demand for dead bodies. It is exactly around the same time that Gothic fiction was revamped and offered insights into the debates around medical practice and education. This chapter explores the links between the field of anatomy and the development of Gothic fiction in Britain in the nineteenth century. It points out how the Gothic dealt with medical practitioners’ treatment of the corpse and how Gothic narratives dramatised the tension between the stealing, cutting up, preservation, and exhibition of human remains in medical collections and the central part played by anatomical knowledge in medical science. By looking at texts by John Galt, Mary Shelley, and Samuel Warren, as well as Wilkie Collins and Robert Louis Stevenson, this chapter not only shows how literary texts capitalised on the Gothic paraphernalia to foreground the regulation (or lack thereof) of the practice of anatomy before the passing of the 1832 Anatomy Act, but also highlights how the Gothic enabled authors to record cultural responses to medical practice throughout the century.
Anatomy museums were thoroughly scrutinised as institutions that potentially perverted public taste, exhibiting specimens of sexual disease, victims of vanity, and monstrous curiosities. Claims that museums might be sites of titillation were not entirely unfounded; visitors to La Specola in Florence were apt to touch the wax genitalia of the anatomical Venus, while Kahn’s Museum peddled quack cures to visitors’ sexual diseases. In an attempt to combat this, anatomy museums foregrounded the moral and educational aspects of their institutions, places that one could visit to ‘know thyself’. Sensation fiction suffered similar imprecations for exhibiting sexualised bodies. Wilkie Collins’s The Law and the Lady (1875) engages with the excesses and order of anatomical, medical, and museum culture, his novel populated by characters that are simultaneously represented as specimens and curators, with clues collected from worryingly instable pathology, collections of female hair, and sexualised objects. Working with nineteenth-century anxieties about the differences between reputable and contentious displays of anatomy, Collins’s textualised and substitute bodies negotiate the tensions of the anatomy museum. This chapter argues that museums and literature shared similar strategies to make these excessive bodies respectable; narrative was used to order anatomy, making displayed specimens educative instead of titillating.
This chapter reassesses characterisations of the long eighteenth century as one devoted to accumulating anatomies and constructing taxonomies. Scholars have traced a broad movement, across the sciences, politics, and wider culture, toward simplification and categorisation – against the threat of ambiguity and complexity. In particular, critics and historians have identified a drive to identify anatomical, physiological explanations for human character and behaviour. Yet, those other eighteenth-century cultural ‘revolutions’ – the culture of sensibility and the emergence of modern selfhood – indicate a growing emphasis on specificity, individuation, and personal identity, which would seem to oppose the trend toward simplification. How do we account, then, for these seemingly contradictory movements towards simplification on the one hand and complexity on the other? I address this question by focusing on the cultural resonances surrounding certain objects, which ‘perform’ identity at the broad and busy intersection of politics, medicine, literature, and visual culture. In doing so, I show how things and words became fused with bodies in the development of anatomical and physiological knowledge throughout the long eighteenth century.
The article provides the first description and analysis of the recently rediscovered manuscript titled Methodus anatomica by Girolamo Fabrici da Acquapendente (1533–1619). Acquapendente was one of the most important anatomists in late sixteenth-century Europe and played an instrumental role as Harvey’s teacher in Padua towards the latter’s discovery of the circulation of the blood. The manuscript provides first-hand testimony as to how anatomy was administered in Padua in the post-Vesalian era and sheds light on a number of otherwise unknown aspects of the development of the anatomical method. Chiefly among these is the attention devoted by Acquapendente to historia, as a way to order sensory data in a consistent way, which draws widely from the geometrical method and from the contemporary debate on the discretisation of continuous quantities.
Law by its very nature tends towards the constraint of the decision-making of individuals, and so has an inherent – but not inevitable – mythological disposition, especially when in combination with both the sovereign and regulatory power of the State. Thereby it reflects shifting forms of – most recently neoliberal – power and truth. A non-mythological law will need to be framed constitutionally but will also require a rethinking of the rule of law, which is currently mostly comprised of anatomical lists of preferred characteristics. There are alternative approaches in the form of teleological accounts – preferred here – and prominent amongst which is that of Krygier. However, he does not go far enough, settling for a critical exploration of social traditions and seeing the arbitrary use of force as the dominant target. This tends to ignore the spread of sovereign power into regulatory forms, which are as intrusive as arbitrary power, albeit in a different manner. An existential rule of law would be founded on purpose-based, fiduciary principles which committed agencies to promote the non-mythological interests of self-responsible individuals. Trust would play a valuable but secondary role in such arrangements.
In this volume, Rebekah Compton offers the first survey of Venus in the art, culture, and governance of Florence from 1300 to 1600. Organized chronologically, each of the six chapters investigates one of the goddess's alluring attributes – her golden splendor, rosy-hued complexion, enchanting fashions, green gardens, erotic anatomy, and gifts from the sea. By examining these attributes in the context of the visual arts, Compton uncovers an array of materials and techniques employed by artists, patrons, rulers, and lovers to manifest Venusian virtues. Her book explores technical art history in the context of love's protean iconography, showing how different discourses and disciplines can interact in the creation and reception of art. Venus and the Arts of Love in Renaissance Florence offers new insights on sight, seduction, and desire, as well as concepts of gender, sexuality, and viewership from both male and female perspectives in the early modern era.
Among the offspring of humans and other animals are occasional individuals that are malformed in whole or in part. The most grossly abnormal of these have been referred to from ancient times as monsters, because their birth was thought to foretell doom; the less severely affected are usually known as anomalies. This volume digs deeply into the cellular and molecular processes of embryonic development that go awry in such exceptional situations. It focuses on the physical mechanisms of how genes instruct cells to build anatomy, as well as the underlying forces of evolution that shaped these mechanisms over eons of geologic time. The narrative is framed in a historical perspective that should help students trying to make sense of these complex subjects. Each chapter is written in the style of a Sherlock Holmes story, starting with the clues and ending with a solution to the mystery.
This fourth chapter analyses the first of our body categories: the implicit dispute. An implicit dispute is what happens when a person dies, their body enters a medical research and teaching culture, but informed consent is implied, never documented in full for the bereaved. A lot is therefore left unsaid, and deliberately so. It is normal for these sorts of bureaucratic processes to be very light touch, and to have audit procedures that look robust, but are the opposite. The aim being to make it a difficult logistical task to track at the time, or retrace later, exactly what is happening, or has happened, to human material once it enters a system of body supply. Even an insider might not know who exactly had shared a body and body parts, and what scientific studies these relate to. Those grieving thus never got an opportunity to make an informed choice. They are given the impression at the time of a loved one’s death that informed consent existed, when it did not. Instead, it was often implied, particularly by those staffing large teaching hospitals like St Bartholomew’s Hospital in London: our central focus.
Chapter 6: This chapter discusses how, as scientific medicine gained ascendancy in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, theatre became an important site for the examination of scientific medicine’s aspirations, achievements, limitations, and dangers. Early twentieth-century plays celebrated the pioneers of modern disease research and their accomplishments, while later twentieth- and early twenty-first century plays display a growing critique of scientific medicine and its conception of the body as an object of medical knowledge. David Feldshuh’s Miss Evers’ Boys considers the human and ethical stakes of the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study, and Suzan-Lori Parks’s Venus addresses the historical objectification of anomalous bodies. Margaret Edson’s Wit, given extensive discussion here, explores the conflict between scientism and subjectivity in the context of the modern research hospital. The medium of theatre is central to these dramatic critiques; medical science may formulate the human body as an object of knowledge, but theatre’s bodies look back in the midst of their display.
Ignore anatomy at your peril, and your patients’: a knowledge of relevant anatomy frequently makes procedures more comfortable and safer for patients and easier for their clinicians. This chapter therefore surveys the structures relevant to the rest of the book. It covers the mouth, tongue and teeth, nasal spaces, pharynx, glottis and epiglottis, trachea and more distal airway, as well as the cervical spine. Its emphasis throughout is determinedly practical, rather than obsessively topological.
Galen attempts to define the Timaeus as a medical resource to justify medicine’s right to comment on issues regarding the soul and the nature of life, to which philosophers had long laid claim. I call attention to Galen’s commentary On the Medical Statements in Plato’s Timaeus and the Arabo-Latin prologue to the Synopsis of Plato’s Timaeus to illustrate how his assertions that the dialogue contains ‘medical’ information allow him to draw more expansive boundaries for medicine. My analyses of On the Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato and The Faculties of the Soul Follow the Mixtures of the Body reveal that Galen advances more monopolistic claims on the soul for medicine by appealing to his anatomical expertise and the dialogue's link between bodily and psychic disease to show the pertinence of his medical expertise to psychological controversies and ethics. I conclude with a discussion of Galen's interpretation of the Timaeus' account of vegetative sensation, which posits a homology between plants and humans that he exploits to extend medicine's boundaries beyond the world of the body.
Chapter five concentrates on the Rabbi Moses Maimonides' reformist project to rid Galenism of its Timaean elements. As I establish, while Maimonides' affiliation with Aristotelianism put him in conflict with Galen, the Platonic lines in Galen's thought also generated problems for his own conception of Jewish belief. I show that Maimonides rejected Galen's reading of the Timaeus' cosmogony as heterodox in the Guide for the Perplexed and Medical Aphorisms because of its denial of creation ex nihilo and the omnipotence of God. Therefore, Maimonides had theological reasons for wishing to curtail Galen's philosophical reach. Giving special attention to the Medical Aphorisms, I uncover the various polemical tactics that Maimonides employs, which include giving more limited meanings to Galen's philosophically loaded terminology and mobilizing his own anatomical experience to dispute Galen's brain-centred theory of sensation, to dephilosophize Galenism and recentre it on the body.
The Late Triassic fauna of the Lossiemouth Sandstone Formation (LSF) from the Elgin area, Scotland, has been pivotal in expanding our understanding of Triassic terrestrial tetrapods. Frustratingly, due to their odd preservation, interpretations of the Elgin Triassic specimens have relied on destructive moulding techniques, which only provide incomplete, and potentially distorted, information. Here, we show that micro-computed tomography (μCT) could revitalise the study of this important assemblage. We describe a long-neglected specimen that was originally identified as a pseudosuchian archosaur, Ornithosuchus woodwardi. μCT scans revealed dozens of bones belonging to at least two taxa: a small-bodied pseudosuchian and a specimen of the procolophonid Leptopleuron lacertinum. The pseudosuchian skeleton possesses a combination of characters that are unique to the clade Erpetosuchidae. As a basis for investigating the phylogenetic relationships of this new specimen, we reviewed the anatomy, taxonomy and systematics of other erpetosuchid specimens from the LSF (all previously referred to Erpetosuchus). Unfortunately, due to the differing representation of the skeleton in the available Erpetosuchus specimens, we cannot determine whether the erpetosuchid specimen we describe here belongs to Erpetosuchus granti (to which we show it is closely related) or if it represents a distinct new taxon. Nevertheless, our results shed light on rarely preserved details of erpetosuchid anatomy. Finally, the unanticipated new information extracted from both previously studied and neglected specimens suggests that fossil remains may be much more widely distributed in the Elgin quarries than previously recognised, and that the richness of the LSF might have been underestimated.