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Suppose it is foreseeable that you will soon encounter a drowning child, whom you will only be able to rescue if you learn to swim. In this scenario we might think that you have a “prospective duty” to take swimming lessons given that this will be necessary to perform the future rescue. Cécile Fabre argues that, by parity of reasoning, states have a prospective duty to build and maintain military establishments. My argument in this essay pulls in the opposite direction. First, I emphasize that learning to swim is only a prospective duty under very specific circumstances. Normally there is no such duty; hence, we do not normally think that people deserve moral censure for choosing to forego swimming lessons. I then argue that, similarly, while a prospective duty to build a military can arise under some conceivable circumstances, these are not the circumstances that most states today find themselves in. I then suggest a more fitting domestic analogy to guide our thinking about this issue: Maintaining a standing army is less like learning to swim and more like keeping an assault weapon in the home “just in case.” This analogy supports a defeasible presumption against militarization.
One of the most controversial affirmations by the Human Rights Committee in its General Comment 36 on the right to life was that an act of aggression would violate the right to life. This chapter considers the extent to which the Committee’s holding is consistent with the right to life and practicable in the event aggression occurs. In describing the restrictions on inter-State use of force, the author rejects the assertion that application of the rules of jus ad bellum is either beyond the capability of human rights bodies or is inherently politicised.
Aggression and violent incidents are a major concern in psychiatric inpatient care, potentially leading to physical and psychological consequences for both patients and staff. Nutritional supplementation was found to reduce aggressive incidents and rule violations in forensic populations and children with behavioural problems.
To assess whether multivitamin, mineral and n-3 PUFA supplementation is effective in reducing the number of aggressive incidents among psychiatric patients who are chronically admitted.
In a pragmatic, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, psychiatric inpatients were randomized to receive either three supplements containing multivitamins, minerals, and n-3 PUFA or placebo. During the intervention period of six months, aggressive incidents were assessed using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale – Revised (SOAS-R). Secondary outcome parameters were the patients’ quality of life and affective symptoms. The trial was registered in the Clinical Trials Register (NCT02498106).
A total of 176 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive supplements (n=87) or placebo (n=89). They were on average 49.3 years old (SD=14.5), and 64.2% were male. Most patients had a psychotic disorder (60.8%). Supplementation versus placebo significantly increased circulating micronutrient levels. The primary outcome of SOAS-R incidents was similar in those assigned to supplements (1.03 incidents per month; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-1.37) and placebo (0.90; 95%CI: 0.65-1.19), with a rate ratio of 1.08 (95%CI: 0.67-1.74; p=0.75). Differential effects were neither found in sensitivity analyses on the SOAS-R, nor on secondary outcomes.
Six months of nutritional supplementation did not reduce aggressive incidents among chronically admitted psychiatric inpatients.
Road rage is a term used to describe driving usually extreme in nature. There seems to be a multifactorial relationship between the situational characteristics of an anger provoking road situation and the feelings of anger and road behaviour.
To examine driver anger with regards to various sociodemographic parameter.
282 participants completed an internet-based survey including sociodemographic profile, anger assessment while driving using the Deffenbacher Driver Anger Scale, details of the driving. Participants were recruited through networks of authors, institution. The survey was disseminated through social media applications and email by snowball sampling method.
Mean age of the sample was 26.1 years with age group 24-29 years making half of the population. Majority sample were males (62.1%), graduates (53.2%), professionals (45.7%), urban locality based, nuclear family type. People experienced greater anger on Defenbacher likert scale for the following situations, when Someone is driving very close to your rear bumper (mean= 3.09), Someone cuts in right in front of you on the motorway(mean= 3.44), Someone cuts in and takes the parking spot(mean= 3.19), Someone coming towards you does not dim headlights at night(mean= 3.26), driving behind a vehicle smoking badly or giving off fumes(mean= 3.38).
The results revealed a prevalence of high anger scores amongst Indian drivers. The rage didn’t vary significantly within gender, locality, type of vehicle, however the anger scores were significantly higher in younger population. Strategies targeting at driving safety and reducing road rage should be implemented by authorities with sensitization of the drivers.
Family caregivers of psychotic patients are exposed to violence and stress. However, associated psychological outcomes are poorly characterized in this population.
The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between violence directed towards caregivers of patients with psychosis and developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Participants were family caregivers of psychotic patients (n=95). They completed a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristics. Sociodemographic and clinical data of patients were collected from medical records. We used the perceptions of prevalence of aggression scale (POPAS) to measure the frequency and severity of aggression directed at the respondent in the past and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) to evaluate PTSD.
A rate of 75.8% of caregivers reported experiencing moderate to severe levels of aggression. Decreased contact with patient (p=0.00), male gender (p=0.00), older age (p=0.00) and parent relationship (p=0.01) of caregivers, diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (p=0,00) and poor adherence to treatment (p=0,00) in affected relatives were associated with experiences of moderate–severe aggression. More than a half of caregivers (54.7%) reported potentially significant levels of PTSD which correlated with the level of aggression (p=0.00).
Our findings suggest that a large proportion of family caregivers of patient-initiated violence in psychosis reported experiencing a great distress and a high level of PTSD symptomatology. So, more attention should be paid to the support needs of caregivers who are faced with potentially life threatening aggressive behaviour by psychotic family members.
A study, examined creativity and aggression in individuals suffering from mental disorders, will present.
Five groups: individuals suffering from mental disorders – with or without a history of aggression; creative individuals; aggressive individuals; and a control group
Different personality questionnaires: anxiety, absorption, schizotypy and humor and the microgenetic method – a projection technique, using visual stimulation by means of a computerized experiment. The stimuli that were presented in this study were two artworks. They were presented in a blurry manner that became clearer and the exposure time became longer.
An emotional process aroused, when exposed to the stimuli. The stimuli had an influence on the subject’s internal world, which was reflected back in the verbal reports, especially the aspects of creativity and aggression. Secondly, the pathological groups were the lowest in the expression of creativity. However, they expressed more aggressive expression than expected while exposed to the stimuli. Moreover, these groups were ranked high, in traits related to creativity, such as schizotypy, absorption and the P dimension.
The Microgenetic-method gave a better perspective of the participant’s personality and can be used as a diagnostic-tool. In addition, the research demonstrates that creativity and aggression are multi-dimensional traits and are noticeably present in the pathological groups. Therefore, a person coping with psychopathology should get assistance with controlling the expression of his urges. They should be directed towards a creative expression of their inner-world, allowing a full range of expression of his strengths and pains. This will sublimate the feelings of aggression.
The problem of coexistence of heteroaggression and autoaggression most clearly manifests itself in the field of forensic psychiatry. For example, in Russia, about 25% of criminals who committed aggressive actions had a history of suicide attempts.
Identification of specific personality traits in individuals with multidirectional aggression.
In a continuous one-step study, relatively sane adults of both sexes were examined: 38 persons undergoing forensic examination with multidirectional aggression and 34 violent criminals. A wide range of forensic psychological techniques is used to identify aggression, suicidogenic and inhibitors of aggression. Nonparametric statistical methods were used: Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r) and Mann-Whitney (U).
The leading role in the genesis of multidirectional aggression, in contrast to other types of aggression, playing the combination (p<0.01) to the presence of motivational aggressiveness (according to the Hand Test, U=556.6; p=0,046) and the willingness to show negative feelings at the slightest arousal (annoyance, irascibility according to BDHI, U=468.2; p=0,012), along with suicidal personal qualities, which is combined with the deficiency of auto- and heteroaggression inhibitors (value orientations; socio-normative, dispositional, communicative, emotional inhibitors, coping strategies, etc.). However, the psychological mechanisms of multidirectional aggression are relatively non-nosospecific and are similar in mentally healthy individuals and individuals with personality and organic mental disorders.
Multidirectional aggression in view of the increased risk of recidivism and personal and public danger should be taken into account by forensic experts when recommending psychocorrective measures in places of deprivation of liberty.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex condition with high comorbidity.
This study aims to verify whether patients with AN are more aggressive towards themselves than towards others; namely, we measure the levels of autoaggressive/aggressive ideation, negative emotions regarding self/others, as well as self-harm behavior.
10 female patients with AN (2 of them also had bulimia nervosa) and 20 female participants of the control group were presented with Structured Interview, Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Test (P‐F), Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, I-structural Test of Ammon, Boyko Communication Aggression Inventory, Boyko Self-directed Emotion Accumulation Inventory (BSEAI). Mann-Whitney U-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used.
Structured interview indicator
There were no significant differences in aggression levels between groups. However, patients with AN showed less extrapunitive reactions: blaming others, requiring others to resolve the situation (P-F, р=0.013) and more intropunitive reactions: self-blame, feeling responsible/guilty for the situation (P-F, р=0.031). AN patients had more self-directed negative emotions and impulses (BSEAI, р=0.01), more self-harm behavior (see table 1). There were no correlations between autoaggression and aggression scales in the control group, but there were 9 correlations between them in the AN group (p<0.05, r>0.76).
Patients with AN are more inclined to self-blame, negative ideas about themselves, self-harm behavior, but have the same aggression level as the control group. The interconnection of aggression and autoaggression is different in patients with anorexia nervosa compared to the control group.
Some researchers believe that an increased level of aggression and cruelty towards others in delinquent adolescents is due to impaired recognition of emotions and empathy.
The aim of our study was to study the recognition of emotions in deviant adolescents.
As a material, 156 juvenile offenders from 13 to 19 years old were selected who were in the camp for delinquent adolescents “Sibextrem”. All of them committed any offenses, they were registered with the social welfare authorities and the police. The adolescents were trained to reduce aggressiveness. During the training, several exercises were carried out. In the first exercise, the teenagers were asked to identify the emotions depicted in the photographs. In the second, determine what emotional state their peers portray
During the training process, 78% of adolescents could not identify the emotions presented. This was typical not only for the recognition of standard images, but also for the presentation of emotions by peers. As a result of the training, most adolescents, 64.2%, learned to quite accurately recognize nonverbal emotions. As a result, the number of aggressive manifestations decreased by 31.6%. Mutual understanding and communication improved.
The results obtained indicate that deviant adolescents have impaired emotional perception of others. Difficulty in assessing emotions creates tension in interpersonal relationships and can contribute to the manifestation of various forms of aggressive behavior. The vector of research we have chosen shows the need for further study of the emotional sphere of adolescents and its relationship with deviant forms of behavior.
An association can be found between patient with psychosis and perpetrating acts of violence. So, the caregiving role can impact negatively on psychosis carer psychological health and wellbeing.
The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in family caregivers of psychotic patients following exposure to aggression.
This cross-sectional study was carried out involving 95 family caregivers of psychotic patients followed in psychiatry. Data were gathered from caregivers about their experiences in providing care. Sociodemographic and clinical data of patients were collected from medical records.We used the perceptions of prevalence of aggression scale (POPAS) to measure the frequency and severity of aggression directed at the respondent in the past and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) to evaluate PTSD.
The caregivers were male in 51.6% and with low educational level in 46.3% of cases. A rate of 75.8% of caregivers reported experiencing moderate to severe levels of aggression. More than a half of caregivers (54.7%) reported potentially significant levels of PTSD. Decreased contact with patient (p=0.01), male gender (p=0.00), older age (p=0.00), living far from patient (p=0.00), parent relationship of caregivers (p=0.00), diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (p=0.00) and poor adherence to treatment (p=0.00) in affected relatives were associated with the presence of PTSD following exposure to moderate to severe aggression.
These findings highlight the need for interventions to promote family psychoeducation and to provide psychosocial support for caregivers of patients in order to prevent the traumatic impact of violence on them.
Experimental studies applying cognitive bias modification of attention (CBM-A) and interpretation (CBM-I) to reduce aggression have examined the effect of modifying each cognitive bias in isolation. In order to maximise the potential impact on both biases and symptom reduction, we examined whether a combined bias training procedure targeting both attention and interpretation biases (CBM-AI) in combination would be more effective than targeting interpretation bias (CBM-I) alone. University students (17–35 years) were randomly assigned to either a single session of CBM-AI training (n = 40), CBM-I training (n = 40), or a control condition (n = 40). Contrary to our expectations, participants showed an increase in adaptive attention and pro-social interpretation bias in all training conditions. Additionally, in none of the conditions, we found a significant change on self-reported or behavioural aggression. These findings suggest: (1) that the combined training did not have added effect over single interpretation bias training, (2) that training interpretation bias may lead to changes in attention bias, (3) that elements of the control condition unexpectedly, but interestingly, also affected attention and interpretation biases, and (4) single-session CBM procedures do not produce robust effects on self-report or behavioural measures of aggression in unselected samples.
Children and youth who grow up in violent contexts often learn and reproduce aggressive attitudes and behaviors, which leads to a perpetuation of cycles of violence in their societies. School-based initiatives may contribute to stopping these cycles using, at least, two approaches. First, schools can facilitate the development of the social and emotional competencies students need to establish peaceful relationships with others. Second, schools can become caring and safe environments where processes of forgiveness and reconciliation are possible. Based on these two approaches, this chapter describes examples of pedagogical alternatives aimed at preventing revenge as a form of reactive aggression and promoting reconciliation. The chapter focuses on initiatives that have been designed and implemented in Colombia, a country that has suffered many decades of armed conflict. The multiple challenges of implementation and recommendations that may apply to other contexts with similar characteristics are discussed.
This chapter addresses several central issues in the study of revenge during childhood and adolescence, focusing specifically on moral evaluations of retaliation and retributive justice. We begin by distinguishing among relevant concepts and consider their respective moral status by discussing their moral-philosophical foundations. Next, we summarize and critique classic developmental psychology research on children’s reasoning about retaliation, focusing on Piaget’s (1932) early work but also addressing Kohlberg’s (1981) account when appropriate. This is followed by a discussion of social-cognitive domain theory (SCDT), a constructivist developmental perspective that we assert is better able than earlier psychological approaches to address the ambiguities of provocation, retaliation, and revenge. Consistent with recent trends in SCDT research, we also consider individual differences in children’s evaluations and responses to provocation, focusing on research investigating the social and psychological correlates of retaliatory aggression. Finally, the chapter concludes with a review of key findings and suggestions for future research.
This chapter presents a framework for considering contextual, intraindividual, and interindividual processes that may predict variation in children’s tendency to seek revenge. Drawing on research with adults and aggression to inform hypotheses, the chapter outlines and reviews theory and evidence about the social-cognitive and affective predictors of revenge-seeking. Additionally, individual differences in information processing patterns, emotional regulation, and physiological responses that are likely to increase or decrease desires for revenge are discussed. Contextual and situational features that may affect individuals’ likelihood of seeking revenge or retaliating for harm are also briefly explored.
This study investigated the effect of a mindfulness-based intervention on pathological symptoms in boys with externalised disorders. A total of 24 elementary school students with externalising disorders, diagnosed by completing the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), were randomly assigned to a mindfulness-based intervention for two months. One session per week was offered and each session lasted one hour (n = 12) or as a wait-list control group (n = 12). Data were analysed via a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) test. Students from the intervention group showed greater reductions in rule-breaking behaviours than those in the wait-list control group. Also, there was clear superiority of the intervention relative to the wait-list control group for reducing both aggression and rule-breaking behaviours (effect size differences were d = −2.52 and d = −1.88 respectively). These positive results on outcome measures provide initial evidence for a mindfulness-based intervention as a treatment option for boys with externalising disorders.
This study explores the relationship between temperature and the number of aggressive incidents and coercive interventions in the years 2007–2019 in six psychiatric hospitals in the south of the Germany with a total of 1007 beds. The number of aggressive incidents among 164 435 admissions was significantly higher on ‘heat days’ (≥30°C). Furthermore, there was a dose–response relationship between the number of aggressive incidents and increasing temperature. In contrast, the number of coercive interventions was not related to temperature. Considering the background of global warming, rising temperature could result in more frequent aggressive behaviour during in-patient treatment of psychiatric patients.
Violent criminal offenders with personality disorders (PD's) can cause immense harm, but are often deemed untreatable. This study aimed to conduct a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of long-term psychotherapy for rehabilitating offenders with PDs.
We compared schema therapy (ST), an evidence-based psychotherapy for PDs, to treatment-as-usual (TAU) at eight high-security forensic hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients in both conditions received multiple treatment modalities and differed only in the individual, study-specific therapy they received. One-hundred-three male offenders with antisocial, narcissistic, borderline, or paranoid PDs, or Cluster B PD-not-otherwise-specified, were assigned to 3 years of ST or TAU and assessed every 6 months. Primary outcomes were rehabilitation, involving gradual reintegration into the community, and PD symptoms.
Patients in both conditions showed moderate to large improvements in outcomes. ST was superior to TAU on both primary outcomes – rehabilitation (i.e. attaining supervised and unsupervised leave) and PD symptoms – and six of nine secondary outcomes, with small to moderate advantages over TAU. ST patients moved more rapidly through rehabilitation (supervised leave, treatment*time: F(5308) = 9.40, p < 0.001; unsupervised leave, treatment*time: F(5472) = 3.45, p = 0.004), and showed faster improvements on PD scales (treatment*time: t(1387) = −2.85, p = 0.005).
These findings contradict pessimistic views on the treatability of violent offenders with PDs, and support the effectiveness of long-term psychotherapy for rehabilitating these patients, facilitating their re-entry into the community.
Vitamin D insufficiency and child antisocial behavior are public health concerns. It is unknown whether vitamin D plays a role in antisocial outcomes. This study examines whether higher levels of vitamin D can act as a protective factor against antisocial behavior for children who are exposed to early social adversity.
In a community sample of 300 children aged 11–12 years (151 females, 149 males), serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were assessed alongside early social adversity, and both parent and child-reported antisocial behavior.
Vitamin D moderated the association between early social adversity and multiple antisocial outcomes. Higher social adversity was associated with greater antisocial behavior among vitamin D-insufficient [25(OH)D < 30 ng/mL], but not vitamin D-sufficient children [25(OH)D ⩾ 30 ng/mL], after adjusting for other variables. Results from child reports of antisocial behavior were replicated with parent reports, providing support for the robustness of the findings. At serum 25(OH)D concentrations above 27.16–30.69 ng/mL (close to 30 ng/mL, the recommended optimal vitamin D level for pediatric populations), the effect of social adversity on antisocial behavior outcomes was nullified.
To our knowledge, this study is the first to document that a nutritional factor, vitamin D, can potentially confer resilience to antisocial behavior. Our findings in a pediatric population suggest a possible role of vitamin D supplementation in interventions to reduce antisocial behavior, which may be further investigated in future randomized controlled trials.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and impulsive aggression are linked to transdiagnostic neurocognitive deficits. This includes impaired inhibitory control over inappropriate responses. Prior studies showed that inhibitory control can be improved by modulating the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in combination with inhibitory control training. However, its clinical potential remains unclear. We therefore aimed to replicate a tDCS-enhanced inhibitory control training in a clinical sample and test whether this reduces stress-related mental health symptoms.
In a preregistered double-blind randomized-controlled trial, 100 active-duty military personnel and post-active veterans with PTSD, anxiety, or impulsive aggression symptoms underwent a 5-session intervention where a stop-signal response inhibition training was combined with anodal tDCS over the right IFG for 20 min at 1.25 mA. Inhibitory control was evaluated with the emotional go/no-go task and implicit association test. Stress-related symptoms were assessed by self-report at baseline, post-intervention, and after 3-months and 1-year follow-ups.
Active relative to sham tDCS neither influenced performance during inhibitory control training nor on assessment tasks, and did also not significantly influence self-reported symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, impulsive aggression, or depression at post-assessment or follow-up.
Our results do not support the idea that anodal tDCS over the right IFG at 1.25 mA enhances response inhibition training in a clinical sample, or that this tDCS-training combination can reduce stress-related symptoms. Applying different tDCS parameters or combining tDCS with more challenging tasks might provide better conditions to modulate cognitive functioning and stress-related symptoms.
Incremental prediction of aggression from callous–unemotional (CU) traits is well established, but cross-cultural replication and studies of young children are needed. Little is understood about the contribution of CU traits in children who are already aggressive. We addressed these issues in prospective studies in the United Kingdom and Colombia. In a UK epidemiological cohort, CU traits and aggression were assessed at age 3.5 years, and aggression at 5.0 years by mothers (N = 687) and partners (N = 397). In a Colombian general population sample, CU traits were assessed at age 3.5 years and aggression at 3.5 and 5.0 years by mother report (N = 220). Analyses consistently showed prediction of age-5.0 aggression by age-3.5 CU traits controlling for age-3.5 aggression. Associations between age-3.5 CU traits and age-5.0 aggression were moderated by aggression at 3.5 years, with UK interaction terms, same informant, β = .07 p = .014 cross-informant, β = .14 p = .002, and in Colombia, β = .09 p = .128. The interactions arose from stronger associations between CU traits and later aggression in those already aggressive. Our findings with preschoolers replicated across culturally diverse settings imply a major role for CU traits in the maintenance and amplification of already established aggression, and cast doubt on their contribution to its origins.