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Current dietary guidelines in the US (2015-2020 (2020-2025 have not yet been published)) recommend too many portions of too many foods that are detrimental to both human health and the environment. The US-DGAs recommend relatively high intakes of meat, dairy, eggs, poultry, and fish, which are associated with an increase in the risk of several chronic diseases and also harm the environment (which was discussed more in depth in Chapter 1). Many Americans support having dietary guidelines that make recommendations concerning the environment and sustainability. The DGAC (Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee) did in fact provide sustainability and food security recommendations for the 2015-2020 US-DGAs, which were almost entirely left out. Reasons for these omissions are often politically motivated due to the lobbying of various industries. This chapter makes the argument that having sustainable dietary guidelines that support human health and the environment first and foremost is more important than lining the coffers of various food and agriculture industries.
Managerial economics, meaning the application of economic methods in the managerial decision-making process, is a fundamental part of any business or management course. The current business environment presents managers with increasingly difficult decisions, amidst the Covid-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns, as well as the digital revolution and improved technology. Now in its second edition, this textbook features a new focus on how managerial economics has been transformed by the increasing importance of digitization within both the workplace and wider economy. It also features a new chapter on consumer theory, which emphasizes psychological factors and behavioural economics. Wilkinson adapts a user-friendly problem-solving approach to take the reader in gradual steps from simple problems through increasingly difficult material to complex case studies, demonstrating how to apply the principles of managerial economics to real-life situations. This book will be invaluable to business and economics students at both undergraduate and graduate levels.
This chapter provides final thoughts and key takeaways from the book. It reminds you of what you have learned throughout this book – the problems – as well as encourages you to remain hopeful by taking action – through each recipe. This chapter asks you to review your past choices and behaviors in light of everything you learned from reading this book, and have a plan of action to make a difference, starting today, because you absolutely can do it. I know you can.
The future of food value chains has increasingly been reliant on the wider adoption of sustainable farming practices that include organic agriculture. Organic farming in developed countries is standardized and occupies a niche in agro-food systems. However, such a standard model, when transferred to developing countries, faces difficulty in implementation. This study aims to investigate the factors affecting the expansion of organic agriculture in Lebanon, a Middle Eastern context, and analyzes the economic performance of organic tomato among smallholder farmers. Accordingly, the study was able to determine the production costs, map the organic value chain and assess the profitability of organic tomato by comparing it with the conventional tomato in the same value chain. The study finds organic farming being increasingly expensive primarily due to the inherently high cost of production in Lebanon and the inefficient organization of the organic value chain. As a result, we suggest a blended approach of organic farming with other models, in particular agro-tourism, as a local solution to the sustainability of organic farming in developing countries with limited resources (land and labor) and characterized by long marketing channels. In countries such as Lebanon, a country endowed with rich cultural heritage and natural and beautiful landscapes, the agro-tourism model can harness organic farming and tourism activities. We also propose the adoption of local collective guarantee systems for organic production as a way to alleviate the costs of third-party auditing in Lebanon.
What can you do to improve your health and at the same time improve the health of our home planet? Do you want to be a healthier and more sustainable consumer? In this straightforward, easy-to-understand and entertaining book, dietitian and environmentalist Dr. Dana Ellis Hunnes outlines the actions we can all take. Many people feel overwhelmed by the scope of climate change and believe that only large, sweeping changes will make any difference. Yet the choices we make every day can have effects on climate change, the oceans, the land, and other species. This book outlines the problems we are facing, and then presents ideas or 'recipes' to empower us, to help us all make a difference. Recipe For Survival provides the guidance that you can use right now to improve your health, your family's health, and the health of the environment simultaneously.
Chapter 5 discusses actions to alter or remove shore protection structures to help restore landforms and habitats. The case is made for the need for sediment and space to sustain natural features, the need to connect landforms and habitats by sediment transfers, and the need to allow for migration of topographic features offshore, onshore, and alongshore. The importance of coastal erosion in providing sediment and space is highlighted as is the importance of erosional landforms (e.g., bluff faces) as threatened habitat. Managed retreat by removing shore protection structures is evaluated in terms of technical feasibility and stakeholder concerns. Decision support criteria and case studies are provided to assess feasibility of managed retreat. Suggestions are made for altering the dimensions or surface characteristics of protection structures to increase sediment transfers or favor habitat. Burial of hard shore protection structures and other nature-based solutions are evaluated as ways to reestablish some of the natural process-response relationships between waves and currents and faunal interactions and increase the aesthetic and recreational value of the shore.
This chapter considers the Nordic record on the environment and global warming, one of the region’s key appeals. While the Nordics have an admirable record of “sustainable development,” it is not without glitches. Norway’s export of petroleum and the Nordics’ penchant for flying are two examples. The School Strike led by Greta Thunberg captures both the strengths and weaknesses of the Nordic approach, and has had a major influence on US environmental policy.
The transition toward sustainable energy systems poses a most prominent societal challenge for decades to come. We demonstrate that the alignment framework provides a set of rich instruments for exploring this field of research. It allows us to disentangle the complex interrelations between the technologies and institutions required to provide expected services and safeguard the critical functions at the core of network infrastructures. Since the energy transition requires structural changes in the technological architecture and the macro-institutions, this chapter focuses on this most generic layer of analysis. In order to illustrate our approach, we compare and analyze three archetypes, namely, traditional, contemporary, and future energy systems. Using a comparative static approach, we identify (in)compatibilities between the technological and institutional characteristics of different coordination arrangements when it comes to safeguarding the critical functions throughout the energy transition. We show that the alignment framework provides an innovative approach for understanding and analyzing these complex changes. This analysis of future energy systems represents an important step toward understanding the consequences of the energy transition and the possible evolution of existing energy systems.
With an annual growth in travel demand of about 5% globally, managing the environmental impact is a challenge. In 2019, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) issued emission reduction targets, including well-to-wake greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduced at least 50% from 2005 levels by 2050. This discusses several technologies from an aircraft design perspective that can contribute to achieving these targets. One thing is certain: aircraft will look different in the future. The Transonic Truss-Braced Wing and Flying V configurations are promising significant efficiency improvements over conventional configurations. Electric propulsion, in various architectures, is becoming a feasible option for general aviation and commuter aircraft. It will be a growing field of aviation with zero-emissions flight and opportunities for special missions. Lastly, this paper discusses methods and design processes that include all relevant disciplines to ensure that the aircraft is optimised as a complete system. While empirical methods are essential for initial design, Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) incorporates models and simulations integrated in an optimisation environment to capture critical trade-offs. Concurrent design places domain experts in one site to facilitate collaboration, interaction, and joint decision-making, and to ensure all disciplines are equally considered. It is supported by a Collaborative Design Facility (CDF), an information technology facility with connected hardware and software tools for design analysis.
This study examines how the climate litigation approach builds pathways to face climate emergency. In light of recent jurisdictional developments, this article underlines the links between legislation, litigation, and public policies to trace ways, progress and obstacles to face it. Those emergent dynamics contribute to build a lasting and sustainable climate change legal regime. Intertwining the different climate disputes in the world and the progress made through the elaboration of different climate laws allow to have a panoramic visibility on this new mode of climate governance which appears in filigree today all over the world and especially in France.
Community-supported agriculture (CSA) is an alternative food marketing model in which community members subscribe to receive regular shares of a farm's harvest. Although CSA has the potential to improve access to fresh produce, certain features of CSA membership may prohibit low-income families from participating. A ‘cost-offset’ CSA (CO-CSA) model provides low-income families with purchasing support with the goal of making CSA more affordable. As a first step toward understanding the potential of CO-CSA to improve access to healthy foods among low-income households, we interviewed 24 CSA farmers and 20 full-pay CSA members about their experiences and perceptions of the cost-offset model and specific mechanisms for offsetting the cost of CSA. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and coded using a thematic approach. Ensuring that healthy food was accessible to everyone, regardless of income level, was a major theme expressed by both farmers and members. In general, CSA farmers and CSA members favored member donations over other mechanisms for funding the CO-CSA. The potential time burden that could affect CSA farmers when administering a cost-offset was a commonly-mentioned barrier. Future research should investigate various CO-CSA operational models in order to determine which models are most economically viable and sustainable.
Matters of sustainability are frequently given media attention, including Australia’s experience of major catastrophic weather events from droughts to floods and bushfires, to issues of climate change and how we can live more sustainably. Students, having either experienced natural disasters first-hand or seen them reported in the media, will most likely have an interest in the topic of sustainability. With science identifying climate change as the greatest risk to humanity, issues of sustainability need to be covered at some level by schools. The Australian Curriculum has identified Sustainability as one of three cross-curriculum priorities to be integrated across all learning areas. This chapter provides contextual information about Sustainability and examples of how to link this cross-curriculum priority to the Humanities and Social Sciences learning area with a specific focus on history. Through increasing awareness of the need to live sustainable lives, critiquing debates around climate change and linking this to impacts on students’ lives in the present and into the future, the curriculum can be mapped to ensure children and young people can exercise agency in making decisions about how they will respond to issues of sustainability - for example, choice in product consumption.
This paper aims to assess young farmers' willingness to adopt sustainable agriculture (SA) by implementing the expanded theory of planned behavior (TPB) within the northern region of Bangladesh. The outcomes attained specified that attitudes toward SA, perceived behavior control and perceived self-identity have progressive and fundamental impacts on adoption behavior and affect farmers' intentions to adopt SA's particular production mechanism. On the other hand, the social interface view toward SA is not significantly associated with the Bangladeshi farmer's adoption intention. The results also show that interconnections between social and familial pressure are not significant for sustainable farming practice adoption intentions. However, the interconnections among the psychosocial factors have a crucial role in formulating the TPB to forecast the intentional behavior for adopting SA practices. Thus, the government should highlight the advantages of several sustainable agricultural practices and circulate more detailed information regarding SA tactics to improve the knowledge gap of smallholder farmers. Furthermore, training facilities should be extended to improve the attitude and perceived self-identity of young farmers. Moreover, the formulation of structural information sharing platforms and agricultural value chain facilities should also help shape young farmers' interpersonal behavior in adopting SA practices.
Using a socioecological metabolism approach to analyze data from the Census of Agriculture, this article examines the underlying soil fertility of two case study areas in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan through the calculation of soil nitrogen balances. The Rural Municipalities of Wise Creek and Livingston are 300 miles apart and therefore have different topography, soil types, and rainfall levels, even though both are within the northern Great Plains. Over 85 years, from first settlement in the 1910s until the beginning of the twenty-first century, Wise Creek agriculture focused increasingly on livestock production while in Livingston farmers began to grow a greater variety of crops, most notably incorporating canola into rotations. Despite the differences between the two case studies, the pattern of soil nitrogen losses was remarkably similar, with biomass yields declining along with soil nitrogen. The addition of chemical nitrogen fertilizers since the 1960s did not produce yields matching historic highs, nor did a renewed focus on livestock. Wise Creek and Livingston showed two different responses to declining yields, but neither one ultimately provided a long-term solution to the problem of soil nutrient depletion and consequent productivity declines.
This article discusses closed-loop systems, namely Cradle to Cradle and circular economy, in the context of sustainable education. These circular models, at least ideally, promise absolute decoupling of resource consumption from the economy. This article presents student assignments applying these models to Hennes & Mauritz, a clothing retail company, and insect food producer, Protix.
While the discussion of circular economy revolves around the economic benefits of closed-loop systems, it rarely addresses posthumanism. Posthumanism is related to postqualitative theory, inspired by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari. Deleuze and Guattari emphasize that nature has become intertwined with technology and culture. In the cases discussed, combining both techno- and organic materials produces ‘monstrous hybrids’. It appears that fully circular solutions are rare as absolute decoupling is limited by thermodynamic (im)possibilities. This realization still has to be developed in environmental education. Within this posthumanist inquiry, the larger lesson from the case studies is the necessity of teaching about degrowth in production, consumption and corporate strategy. In pedagogical terms, this article aims to generate a more critical discussion within the environmental education community about how postqualitative inquiry can provide different and distinct perspectives from qualitative inquiry in the context of the circular economy.
In a time of climate change, environmental degradation, and social injustice, the question of the value and purpose of human life has become urgent. What are the grounds for hope in a wounded world? This Sacred Life gives a deep philosophical and religious articulation of humanity's identity and vocation by rooting people in a symbiotic, meshwork world that is saturated with sacred gifts. The benefits of artificial intelligence and genetic enhancement notwithstanding, Norman Wirzba shows how an account of humans as interdependent and vulnerable creatures orients people to be a creative, healing presence in a world punctuated by wounds. He argues that the commodification of places and creatures needs to be resisted so that all life can be cherished and celebrated. Humanity's fundamental vocation is to bear witness to God's love for creaturely life, and to commit to the construction of a hospitable and beautiful world.
Land-use change is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Large-scale disturbances such as habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are known to have negative consequences for native biota, but the effects of small-scale disturbances such as selective logging are less well known. We compared three sites with different regimes of selective logging performed by Indigenous communities in the South American temperate rainforest, to assess effects on the density and habitat selection patterns of the Near Threatened endemic arboreal marsupial Dromiciops gliroides. We used structured interviews to identify patterns of wood extraction, which was 0.22–2.55 m3 per ha per year. In the less disturbed site only two tree species were logged, in the intermediately disturbed sites eight species were logged at low intensity, and in the most disturbed site seven species were logged intensively. The site with intermediate disturbance had the highest fleshy-fruited plant diversity and fruit biomass values as a result of the proliferation of shade-intolerant plants. This site also had the highest density of D. gliroides. These findings are consistent with Connell's intermediate disturbance hypothesis, suggesting that coexistence of people with nature is possible if wood extraction volumes are moderate, increasing plant diversity. Indigenous communities have sustainably used natural resources for centuries, but current rates of land-use change are becoming a significant threat to both them and their natural resources.
It is not only worth talking about the chances of survival in the fight against emerging environmental and socio-economic threats, but it is necessary to use all possible means to influence public awareness. It is awareness that shapes our attitudes and literacy. The core of these tools is cross-sectoral place-based education. This raises the question of the role of new energy actors in the education process. As ‘first movers’, they have enormous power in the local community. Are they therefore merely energy producers, or perhaps, using their position, are they actively involved in creating local energy behaviours? A combination of social research methods including qualitative studies helped respond to this question. As the study shows, an opportunity for effective education is contextualisation, embedding educators in the local social structure and including first movers – energy producers – in this process. Biogas entrepreneurs transpose the knowledge of renewable energy – a globally known issue – to the local level. The provision of comprehensive education requires institutional support focused on building partnerships between policy makers, teachers and practitioners, enabling not only trans-sectoral contact but also the exchange of experience.
This volume analyzes past, current, and future conditions in ten river basins from six continents, each located in arid or semi-arid climates, equipped with engineered dams designed to increase year-round water availability for irrigated agriculture, cities, and environmental flow; and each important for world food production and basin economies. This introductory chapter details the history of the inquiry and the research project. In the Challenge section of the book, we ask how water supply and demand are changing as a result of climate change, reservoir sedimentation, depletion of groundwater, and declining environmental flows. We then present case studies of each of the selected rivers: How do they recognize challenges and how do they deal with them? In the Response section, we discuss three important options for improved water management: water-wise irrigated agriculture, carefully designed inter-basin water transfers, and strong stakeholder participation.
This interdisciplinary volume examines how nine arid or semi-arid river basins with thriving irrigated agriculture are doing now and how they may change between now and mid-century. The rivers studied are the Colorado, Euphrates-Tigris, Jucar, Limarí, Murray-Darling, Nile, Rio Grande, São Francisco, and Yellow. Engineered dams and distribution networks brought large benefits to farmers and cities, but now the water systems face multiple challenges, above all climate change, reservoir siltation, and decreased water flows. Unchecked, they will see reduced food production and endanger the economic livelihood of basin populations. The authors suggest how to respond to these challenges without loss of food production, drinking water, or environmental health. The analysis of the political, hydrological, and environmental conditions within each basin gives policymakers, engineers, and researchers interested in the water/sustainability nexus a better understanding of engineered rivers in arid lands.