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Chapter 1 deals with the Municipal Council of Luanda and the politics of Portuguese governors in Angola in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, detailing how the Municipal Council of Luanda was involved in illegal wars , treachery and robbery in capturing and enslaving Angolans and shipping them to Brazil on behalf of Portugal. It demonstrates how the Municipal Council of Luanda became the site of political intrigue, jealousy, deceit and mutiny in a political landscape in which the main drive was for economic gain; the enslavement of Angolans was the key part of that package. The methods deployed to capture them – wars, pillage, treachery – formed the basis for Mendonça’s Vatican court case.
In Chapter 5, I explore Mendonça’s court case in the Vatican and argue that liberation of the enslaved Africans in Brazil, Portugal and Spain was part of a wider Atlantic question. By allying himself with these different constituencies in the Atlantic, Mendonça emphasised that his call for freedom was universal – abolition should go beyond the African frontier to include New Christians and Indigenous Americans. Mendonça’s evidence-based court case challenged the established assertion that Africa was a slaving society that already practised and willingly aided the European Atlantic slave trade. His evidence demonstrated how the mechanics of the Atlantic slave trade operated in Africa, and how violence was used as a strategy for maintaining the institution of slavery. The accused were the Vatican and the Italian, Portuguese, and the Spanish political governing authorities, and Mendonça brought together African accusers from different organisations, confraternities and interest groups. This is a significant reinterpretation of slavery and abolition, revealing a new understandings of Mendonça’s criminal court case in the Vatican as a Black Atlantic abolition movement.
This study seeks to empirically investigate how the changing eating habits affect health habits within three countries with entirely different cultures and diets to understand to what extent the pandemic may be responsible for these changes.
Specifically, a questionnaire was conducted in China, Portugal and Turkey in early 2021. A series of statistical analyses were performed to identify how changes in individuals’ eating habits have influenced their diets, considering the pandemic context and the varying cultural contexts where this research was performed.
A structured questionnaire form was developed and uploaded to an online platform with unique links for automatic distribution to respondents in each country. Data for the main survey were gathered between 3 January and 1 February 2021.
Using snowball sampling, the authors leveraged their social networks by asking friends and colleagues to distribute the survey to potentially interested individuals. This distribution was stratified accordingly to the distribution of the population. The authors ultimately collected 319 useable surveys from China, 351 from Portugal and 449 from Turkey.
The pandemic inspired healthier food habits, mostly because people have additional time to cook, shop differently for food and spend more money on groceries.
The study suggests that aside from cultural values and dietary habits, the available time and the fear of the pandemic most explained the new eating habits. Several implications are provided for researchers and overall society in these three countries.
This groundbreaking study tells the story of the highly organised, international legal court case for the abolition of slavery spearheaded by Prince Lourenço da Silva Mendonça in the seventeenth century. The case, presented before the Vatican, called for the freedom of all enslaved people and other oppressed groups. This included New Christians (Jews converted to Christianity) and Indigenous Americans in the Atlantic World, and Black Christians from confraternities in Angola, Brazil, Portugal and Spain. Abolition debate is generally believed to have been dominated by white Europeans in the eighteenth century. By centring African agency, José Lingna Nafafé offers a new perspective on the abolition movement, showing, for the first time, how the legal debate was begun not by Europeans, but by Africans. In the first book of its kind, Lingna Nafafé underscores the exceptionally complex nature of the African liberation struggle, and demystifies the common knowledge and accepted wisdom surrounding African slavery.
Spain and Portugal share the territory of the Iberian Peninsula at the southwestern end of the European continent. They are two countries with remarkable similarities but also with marked peculiarities of their own. They form two of the oldest states in Europe and both experienced a period of splendor and glory during the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries, as a result of the great maritime expeditions undertaken, and the vast territories first explored by European countries. Both Spain and Portugal suffered an extended period of decline from the eighteenth century onwards, from which they have only been able to recover in the second half of the twentieth century. This historical evolution has strongly conditioned, as it could not be otherwise, the development of economic and scientific activities in both countries, which logically also applies to the use of psychological assessment instruments. This chapter briefly describes the evolution of psychological assessment techniques in Spain and Portugal, following a chronological order, paying greater attention to the early days, which are generally less well known, and identifying the most outstanding milestones or those that have had the greatest impact in the scientific field and in professional practice.
This chapter presents the organization of the Portuguese higher education system, defines the institutional context of undergraduate research (UR) in the country and present five cases of best practice that illustrate individual, departmental, and institutional efforts for promoting UR. The authors conclude by proposing four recommendations for further evolution of UR in Portugal.
Scholars of women and girls in African history, focusing on gender and power within religious or colonial (slavery) contexts, have drawn our attention to sexual violence against girls and women. Despite what historians of slavery and imperial violence have noted about their vulnerability and survival strategies in ‘colonial’ and ‘postcolonial’ contexts, questions remain about sexual predation and slavery in earlier periods. In the Mina (Gold) Coast, there is little known about the lived experiences of enslaved and ‘freed’ girls and women in the sixteenth century, and this is especially true for females held captive or in proximity to Portuguese slaving and gold trading bases of operation. Although only three inquisitional trials exist, sources which provide rare African female voices in the Portuguese colonial and evangelical world, their unprecedented baseline evidence for those under Portuguese slaving and religious authority tell us much about sexual violence, slavery, and religious orthodoxy.
Chapter 6 compares evidence from qualitative case studies of similar countries that did and did not adopt a quota law, shedding light on the mechanisms linking quotas to policy change and the conditions under which they hold. One of the unique features of quota laws compared to increases in the number of women in parliaments without quotas is that quotas tend to increase the share of women on the right in particular. Quotas thus lead to more women from across the political spectrum entering parliament and, over time, taking on leadership roles. I find that the mechanism of factions (women’s increased leverage within parties and parliament) played an important role in both Belgium and Portugal, as women pushed for greater gender equality in government and formed the majority of a new working group on parenting and gender equality. However, the importance of women as ministers depends on the institutional context: even when quotas increase women in parliaments, they might not increase women in governments. In the counterfactual (non-quota) cases of Austria and Italy, women were often key protagonists in policy reform, but there are fewer of them, especially on the right and far right. This can result in policy stasis or backsliding.
Nuno Castro Marques presents the Portuguese competition law framework. Portugal was one of those European countries opting to introduce a misdemeanour law, inspired by the German Ordnungswidrigkeit law, but this has now evolved a long way. EU and Portuguese competition laws establish the same potential sanction for all competition infringements: a fine up to 10% of the undertaking turnover. Not only companies but also natural persons may be liable for competition law infringements, and fines applicable to natural persons can go up to 10% of their annual income. Portuguese competition law is fully aligned with the European framework, with the Portuguese Competition Authority (PCA) armed with strong investigation powers, an experienced leniency regime and the full set of mechanisms for speeding up enforcement, such as the settlement or commitment procedures. The results are visible, with general deterrence also making an important contribution, and whenever the PCA adopts a sanctioning decision, especially in cartel cases, it makes front-page news. That was recently the case with a banking cartel, where fourteen banks were fined for exchanging sensitive business information and even the Parliament felt the need to openly condemn the situation in public hearings.
The present study described the gametogenesis and assessed the pattern of energy storage throughout the reproductive cycle of the golden carpet shell (Polititapes aureus) from the Ria Formosa lagoon (southern Portugal). Monthly sampling was performed for two years (March 2016–February 2018) and the study was based on gonad histology, complemented by the estimation of the mean gonadal index, body condition index and biochemical composition. The species’ reproductive cycle presented a seasonal pattern, with a resting period mainly between October and January and gametogenesis beginning around February–March. The spawning season of P. aureus was shorter in 2016 (June–September) than in 2017 (May–October). Furthermore, ripe individuals were very scarce (1.3%) in 2017 compared with the previous year (11.4%). Mean gonadal index (GI) reflected the species’ reproductive cycle and the body condition index (CI) and biochemical composition of the individuals exhibited high variation between years. Regarding the biochemical composition, proteins ranged between 190.6 and 595.2 μg mg−1, glycogen from 5.7 to 102.6 μg mg−1 and total lipids between 31.6 and 80.7 μg mg−1. The reproduction of P. aureus was strongly influenced by fluctuations in both seawater temperature and chlorophyll a, as reflected through the temporal variation in the gonadal cycle, condition index and biochemical composition. Overall, the information gathered in this study is valuable to propose scientifically based harvesting management measures for the long-term sustainable exploitation of this shellfish resource, further reinforcing the importance of implementing adaptive fishery management strategies to cope with global climate change.
In a sort of conceptual history in action, this chapter looks at the labels attached to the settlers-turned-migrants that were hotly contested. The most prominent among them, retornados (returnees) and refugiados (refugees), inferred conflicting views about the nature of their mobility and belonging and thus evoked divergent emotional and political responses. By disentangling how domestic, foreign, and international actors, notably the UNHCR, fought over these labels, the chapter demonstrates how the mechanisms of the international postwar refugee regime were compatible with and helped reinforce an ethnic reordering of citizenship and the postcolonial nation in Portugal. Conceptually, the chapter argues that historicizing these battles over how to name, interpret, and handle those who were leaving the colonies can provide fresh vistas for the broader scholarly discussion about coerced migration.
This chapter looks at the migrants not as objects of the state’s integration measures but as political subjects making claims in demonstrations, migrant associations, the parliament, and media outlets. It discusses how the government defused much of the returnees’ protest, initially perceived as a serious menace, through a pervasive rhetoric of national integration and the framing of migrant mobilization as a form of "apolitical politics." It further asks how migrants built their own associations, to what degree they were bound up with the political right, and why they ultimately proved to be politically weak and short-lived. In short, the chapter looks at how the voices of the returnees, while distinctly present directly after their arrival, were coopted, absorbed, and covered up by the emerging institutions of Portugal’s representative democracy, the kind of concessions the political class was ready to make along the way, and some of the legacies of this process.
This chapter introduces and contextualizes the book's focus on the Portuguese retornados or returnees and argues that by spotlighting their history, we illuminate the remaking of the Portuguese nation in a world after empire. Via Portugal’s returnees, we grasp how decolonization reshaped Western European societies – their demographic makeup, their laws and institutions, their notions of the national community, their political communication, and their public memories.
Through a focus on memories, Chapter 4 continues the story of migrant integration and postimperial nation-building from the mid-1970s and 1980s up to the present day. Since the turn of the millennium, the returnees have become much more visible again in the public sphere. This final chapter analyzes this return of "the return" in a memorial boom of sorts, its nostalgia, its use of markers of authenticity, and its narrative frameworks. It contextualizes these memories within the current worldwide battles over the legacies of empire, but also within the Portuguese context of the fortieth anniversary of the Carnation Revolution in 2014, which coincided with a severe economic crisis and harsh austerity measures. The chapter maintains that the recent upsurge of memorial activities on and by retornados that tend toward identity building should be challenged by historical thinking that looks toward truth.
The conclusion synthesizes the book's main findings and argues that a complex and truthful history of Portugal's returnees potentially matters to many of us today – not so much because they will be widely remembered and studied for a long time, but because they can help us comprehend something about the recent past that is fundamental for our present-day societies in Europe – and possibly even for our global future.
Shifting gears toward a social history of decolonization in the metropole, Chapter 2 looks at the housing provided for the refugee-like groups of returnees that depended on public welfare to put a roof over their heads. Bringing to light both the achievements and the limits of the state’s deliberate policy of integration, the chapter argues that the aid provided to the returnees served as laboratory for building a new welfare state aligned with the Western European model that Portuguese elites wished to espouse. Zooming in on the living conditions of residents, it also shows, however, that a lack of adequate facilities and resources frequently led to considerable hardships for the returnees. What is more, state-fostered integration was starkly unequal and tendentially racialized: Migrants who were non-Portuguese, nonwhite, or both were overrepresented in the housing facilities that offered the most difficult conditions. The success story of integration that dominates some academic and most popular accounts of the returnees’ history so far is in urgent need of qualification.
Changes in the item order of the US Household Food Security Survey Module (USHFSSM) were performed throughout time. This study aimed to compare the psychometric properties of the general and specific factors of the 2000 and 2012 versions of the USHFSSM to measure the construct of food insecurity in two Portuguese samples of households with children.
An adaptation of the 2000 version was applied to 839 adults (from households with children aged 7–17 years) from the National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2015–2016, while the 2012 version was used among 2855 families from the Generation XXI birth cohort.
The 2000 version showed to have a stronger ωh than the 2012 version (0·89 v. 0·78 for the general factor), as well as eigenvalues higher than 1 for the general factor (eigenvalues equal to 9·54, 0·97 and 0·80, for the general factor, specific factor 1 and specific factor 2, respectively), while the 2012 version had also the contribution of specific factors to explain food insecurity (eigenvalues equal to 9·40, 2·40 and 1·20, for general factor and specific factors 1 and 2, respectively). Good internal consistency (ωt = 0·99, for both versions) was obtained.
In conclusion, the 2000 and 2012 versions of the USHFSSM showed good psychometric properties; however, the 2000 version has stronger general factor, while the 2012 version also has the contribution of specific factors.
Having built much of their wealth, power, and identities on imperial expansion, how did the Portuguese and, by extension, Europeans deal with the end of empire? Postcolonial People explores the processes and consequences of decolonization through the histories of over half a million Portuguese settlers who 'returned' following the 1974 Carnation Revolution from Angola, Mozambique, and other parts of Portugal's crumbling empire to their country of origin and citizenship, itself undergoing significant upheaval. Looking comprehensively at the returnees' history and memory for the first time, this book contributes to debates about colonial racism and its afterlives. It studies migration, 'refugeeness,' and integration to expose an apparent paradox: The end of empire and the return migrations it triggered belong to a global history of the twentieth century and are shaped by transnational dynamics. However, they have done nothing to dethrone the primacy of the nation-state. If anything, they have reinforced it.
Organizations characterized by a climate and culture of competition and overwork facilitate the emergence of the workaholism phenomenon, as they provide favorable conditions for employees to spend more time in the workplace. Many of these employees are successful in their careers both in financial terms and in job satisfaction. This article aims to study the influence of workaholism on the perception of career success. The sample consists of 234 Portuguese individuals who were working in a professional context. The results reveal that pleasure at work influences career success perception in both objective and subjective dimensions and that work involvement influences only the subjective dimension of the career success perception. The findings of this study will contribute to the increase of knowledge in the workaholism and career success areas in light of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic so that companies are able to adopt strategies in order to optimize their resources and increase their productivity.
In the 1820s, a stable company of Italian singers was in charge of the operatic performances staged at the Imperial Theatre in Rio de Janeiro. Working together with a French ballet troupe, those soloists joined forces to present their repertoire before a heterogeneous audience. Works by Rossini and his contemporaries were sung in the original language, subscriptions were sold for annual seasons and Italian masterpieces crowned the theatrical festivities offered to the Emperor. The chapter examines this recently independent country’s attraction for foreign singers and looks at how these artists were able to pursue their careers in a totally different milieu to that to which they had been accustomed, living in a city that offered great opportunities, but also considerable challenges to newcomers. A small group of Italian singers were employed by a local impresario, with the aim of making opera a viable cultural activity at an Imperial Court that was proud of its connections with Europe, yet they also struggled with economic difficulties and the country’s political instability. The press assumed a central role in negotiating the relationship between artists and their audiences, revealing a growing public interest in opera, its backstage and the lives of its protagonists.