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Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a movement condition that affects three to five students in the average primary school classroom in Australia. If left untreated, it has long-term impacts on development: physically, socially, emotionally, and cognitively. This chapter is concerned with preparing teachers working across a range of schooling levels and contexts to understand DCD, appreciate the impact it has on the development of children, and to provide assistance for gaining appropriate diagnosis and intervention. Information provided in this chapter will assist generalist teachers, generalists/specialists and physical education specialists in identifying children suspected of having movement difficulties. Strategies are provided for teachers, both in the classroom and during physical education,to modify teaching and learning environments and to respond to and support the needs of children with movement difficulties.
Focusing in part on the distinction between action and performance, this chapter pursues the implications of post-Kantian metaphysics for our understanding of the nature of political endeavor, properly conceived.
Though Civil War battle reenactment is widely viewed as a set of regressive practices defined by a preoccupation with the past, African American-centered performances highlight its transformative potential in terms of offering counternarratives to dominant memories of the era and connecting the war and its legacies to the present. Traditional reenactment, as performed primarily by white men, focuses more on authenticity, masculine gunplay, and battle minutiae, which has the impact of divorcing the practice from its causes and consequences. Black reenactments focus more on the pedagogical goals of recentering visitors’ focus on slavery as the primary cause and emancipation as its most important consequence. This recovery of African American memory alters the meanings assigned to the sacred space of the battlefield and offers a critical interrogation of many of the core assumptions about contemporary Blackness, both of which further enhance the practice’s resistant potential.
A considerable historiography now details the racism upon which immigration restrictions are formed. My first argument here is that disabled people were also refused entry first to the colonies in the British empire and then to Britain itself, exclusions which have often continued to be naturalised. Secondly, I argue that exclusions of disabled peoples should not just be added onto our understanding of restrictive legislation on racial grounds, but that disability and race intersected. Disability was used to justify racial exclusions, and differences of disability were often raced. Particular kinds of bodies were being constructed as ‘valuable’ to the nation. These bodies were to be white and North European, but they were also to be mentally and physically ‘fit’ and that ‘fitness’ was defined in rigid terms. The values attached to race, ability and gender were mutually constituted. Masculine bodies were to be independent, working bodies. Whether or not a deaf or disabled person could work, their body was read as dependent, incapable and as a liability. Feminine bodies were read in terms of their reproductive value. Disabled women, infantilised and desexualised were not always read as capable of reproduction. And when they were, this too had frightening potential.
The knowledge of genetic parameters of performance traits is crucial for any breeding programme in dairy animals. The present study was conducted to use a Bayesian approach for estimation of genetic parameters of production and reproduction traits in Jersey crossbred cattle. Data of Jersey crossbred cattle maintained at Eastern Regional Station, National Dairy Research Institute, West Bengal spread over a span of 41 years were utilized. The marginal posterior medians of heritability for 305-day milk yield (305MY), total milk yield (TMY), peak yield (PY), lactation length (LL), calving interval (CI), total milk yield per day of lactation length (TMY/LL) and total milk yield per day of calving interval (TMY/CI) were 0.31 ± 0.07, 0.29 ± 0.07, 0.27 ± 0.06, 0.16 ± 0.05, 0.15 ± 0.05, 0.29 ± 0.06, 0.27 ± 0.06, respectively. Moderate heritability estimates for 305MY, TMY, PY and production efficiency traits indicate the presence of adequate additive genetic variance in these traits to respond to selection combined with better herd management. Repeatability estimates for 305MY, TMY, PY, LL, CI, TMY/LL and TMY/CI were 0.57 ± 0.08, 0.58 ± 0.08, 0.51 ± 0.07, 0.34 ± 0.06, 0.31 ± 0.06, 0.54 ± 0.07 and 0.49 ± 0.07, respectively. Repeatability estimates for 305MY, TMY and PY were high in the current study, suggesting the use of first lactation records for early evaluation of Jersey crossbred cattle for future selection. Genetic correlations varied from 0.21 to 0.97 and maximum genetic correlation was observed between 305MY and TMY indicating that consideration of 305MY instead of TMY in breeding programmes would suffice. Positive genetic correlations of CI with 305MY and TMY indicated the antagonistic association between production and reproduction traits.
This chapter provides an overview of how to use focus groups in order to elicit language attitudes. Focus groups allow access to the collective discourse practices of a specified group of participants and can be used as a way of eliciting more natural and spontaneous responses. However, participants may feed off each other’s ideas rather than express their own original thoughts, and certain minority opinions may be downplayed, repressed, or withheld by the participants. Nevertheless, this method can be viewed as an attempt to analyse salient social representations in a communicative conversational situation and can yield otherwise unrevealed strands of research participants’ narratives. After an exploration of the advantages and disadvantages of using focus groups to investigate language attitudes, this chapter offers an overview of key practical issues of planning and research design. The analysis of the data resulting from focus group discussions is explored, particularly from a critical sociolinguistic perspective, involving mapping/categorisation of the data, tracing the circulation of people and resources over space and time, finding meaningful connections, and making valid claims. The chapter concludes with a case study of attitudes towards Breton and Yiddish in a variety of settings.
Between 1562 and 1579, the third Mughal emperor Akbar undertook 17 pilgrimages to the Sufi shrine of Muinuddin Chishti in Ajmer in western India. This article analyses them as a form of peripatetic kingship. It studies specific actions of the emperor in and around Ajmer to show how they articulated a specific understanding of monarchy, one that derived legitimacy from the spiritual authority of Sufi masters and sacred sites. It then shows how the strategic location of the town of Ajmer allowed the young emperor to use it as a base for military expansion and political consolidation in western and central India. It also discusses how the journeys allowed Akbar to carry out vital facets of imperial governance, like exploring the realms, forging alliances with local chieftains, and creating public infrastructure. They also served as a public site for the performance of kingship and sovereignty. The final portion of the article explains how a paradigmatic shift in the conceptualisation and performance of Mughal kingship—whereby the ideal of monarchy as a product of Sufi charisma and Islamic piety made way for more universalist and millenarian ideals—brought a sudden end to the pilgrimages after 1579.
In the decades of the 1960s and 1970s, sound recording technologies—including radio and cassettes—proliferated in Afghanistan and reached transnational lengths. While the state came to dominate these technologies, it could not prevent users from circumventing its censors with alternative perspectives and discourses. This article highlights the examples of Farīda ʿUsmān Anwarī, a noted radio announcer, producer, and journalist, and Aḥmad Ẓāhir, Afghanistan's most popular musical icon to date, to showcase the ways in which the Persianate literary canon served as the medium for sounding dissent amid the changing social and political dynamics of the time. Pushing the boundaries of recorded speech created an alternative space where dissent became possible and the strategic use of mass media paved the way for transnational sonic solidarities among a diverse community of listeners across the Persian-speaking world and beyond.
Seneca's Characters addresses one of the most enduring and least theorised elements of literature: fictional character and its relationship to actual, human selfhood. Where does the boundary between character and person lie? While the characters we encounter in texts are obviously not 'real' people, they still possess person-like qualities that stimulate our attention and engagement. How is this relationship formulated in contexts of theatrical performance, where characters are set in motion by actual people, actual bodies and voices? This book addresses such questions by focusing on issues of coherence, imitation, appearance and autonomous action. It argues for the plays' sophisticated treatment of character, their acknowledgement of its purely fictional ontology alongside deep – and often dark – appreciation of its quasi-human qualities. Seneca's Characters offers a fresh perspective on the playwright's powerful tragic aesthetics that will stimulate scholars and students alike.
This chapter explores cultural practices of reenacting the past in the present. How have understandings of reenactment, embodiment, and lived experience shaped, constrained, and misdirected interpretations of people’s actions in the present that purposefully reference the past? What is the state of this scholarship? What are the principal critiques and new directions?
Three Anglo–German Edwardian novels of Elizabeth von Arnim, Adventures of Elizabeth in Rügen (1904), Princess Priscilla’s Fortnight (1905), and Fräulein Schmidt and Mr Anstruther (1907), perform expatriate identity as theorised by Edward Said. Elizabeth and Her German Garden (1898), in contrast, is the most English of early novels by English-born German citizen von Arnim. The restlessness and contrapuntal perspectives of expatriate consciousness generate humour in the 1904 and 1905 novels, and in-depth adoption of an alternate German–Anglo subjectivity in Rose-Marie Schmidt. Fräulein Schmidt, von Arnim’s most sophisticated novel to that point, adopts the first-person epistolary narrative of a German professor’s daughter reared in a lower-middle-class home as she finds independence, self-respect, and a writer’s voice after being proposed to, then jilted, by a young Englishman. A subliminal narrative coursing beneath the surface of Rose-Marie’s letters limn the protagonist’s underlying psychological processes.
Recently, researchers have argued that strategic planning (SP) can be considered a dynamic capability (DC) in organizations – known as dynamic SP. However, the literature that discusses both SP and DCs supports different comprehensions of how both interact, resulting in different sets of research with contradictory findings. This theoretical effort presents a brief review and argues that SP is one of the microfoundations of DCs because it supports the seizing and continuous alignment of assets and resources. Under this perspective, SP has a role in the development and implementation of all organizational DCs and is not restricted to a DC specifically. It is argued that the interactions between DCs, SP and performance over time can lead to the learning needed for better DCs, SP and performance in a virtuous and mutually reinforcing cycle.
Chapter 3 dissects the role of black skin color in Aeschylus’s Suppliants (c. 463 BCE). In this tragedy, Danaus’s black daughters, the Danaids, flee from Egypt to Argos to escape a forced marriage to their Egyptian cousins. Their knowledge of Greek religious rites convinces the Argive ruler, Pelasgus, that they are distant kin even though this Greek identity is seemingly contradicted by their black skin. This chapter asserts that the Danaids are sophisticated performers who successfully reduce the relevance of their physical alterity and declare their hybrid identity as black Egyptian Greeks. They are versatile and subtle ethnographers of the Argive Greeks to whom they supplicate. Conversely, their Argive audience – the intra-dramatic spectators of the Danaids’ difference – prove less able to comprehend their hybridized identity. An exploration of political resonances, particularly in relation to metics, draws the fifth-century BCE audience away from the distant mythical realm and towards their own political reality. Altogether, the drama speaks to the complicated exteriority of race in an ancient Greek tragedy.
In this special issue, we have collected 13 articles that offer new vantage points for research on dynamic capabilities. We offer a selection of thought-provoking papers that advance current thinking on dynamic capabilities and provide directions for new inquiries using the dynamic capability framework. The microfoundations of dynamic capabilities have increasingly received interest. This special issue offers a range of conceptual methodological approaches to deepen our understanding of the issues surrounding the microfoundations of dynamic capabilities.
For most British composers active in the twentieth century, the actual writing of music was only one of many skills they were obliged to develop. Many composers were also actively engaged in the fields of teaching, performance, and administration, and could supplement their income with a variety of other jobs, ranging from adjudication and private tutoring to broadcasting and music criticism. Additionally, the growth in popularity of radio, television, and film opened up new opportunities for composers in lighter genres that had hitherto not been available, either to supplement their contributions to more traditional concert hall repertory, or as dedicated positions in their own right. This chapter will examine these various career paths and responsibilities, looking at how British composers’ training, abilities, interests, and sociocultural status shaped and directed their vocational trajectories.
Britten’s diaries and letters between the wars reveal a profound irritation with what he saw as the parochialism and amateurishness of British music making, especially in comparison with the standards he admired in Europe. So it is perhaps not surprising that the first singer with whom he worked closely was not British, but the Swiss-born Sophie Wyss. It is clear that by 1942, on his return from America, and with Peter Pears installed as his permanent partner, Britten’s expectations had developed radically. Unique to this volume and building on Roger Vignoles’s career as an internationally recognised collaborative pianist, this chapter continues with discussions of Joan Cross (after her departure from Sadler’s Wells Opera), as well as Jennifer Vyvyan, Arda Mandikian, Heather Harper, Alfred Deller, David Hemmings, Galina Vishnevskaya, Janet Baker, Kathleen Ferrier, Nancy Evans, Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, Owen Brannigan, Robert Tear, Theodore Uppman, and John Shirley-Quirk.
Inspired by the reinvigorating theory of Wai-Chee Dimok and Rita Felski, I argue that The Tempest resonates with current theory and performance of Indigenous resurgence in North America. With reference to the work of Indigenous performance theorist Floyd Favel, political thinkers Leanne Simpson and Glen Sean Coulthard, and to plays and performances by Yvette Nolan, Monique Mojica, Kevin Loring, and Spiderwoman Theatre, I describe resurgence as culturally recuperative practices of movement on the land that make it feel more comfortable, establish an Indigenous sense of sovereignty, and diminish shame. I emphasize the ways in which the physical and imaginative mobilities of Shakespeare’s Boatswain and Gonzalo anticipate the comforting—and insurgent—land-oriented movements of Caliban. I argue that Caliban’s sense of natural sovereignty is understood better in terms of free and secure mobility than in terms of rule or possession.
Chapter 2 is concerned with how the calendrically oriented refrain song repertoire outlined in Chapter 1 plays out in the moment of performance; namely, how singers and listeners might have understood songs and refrains as a form of religious narrative and how the refrain interacts with the experience of narrative time in performance. Chapter 2 considers the temporality of strophic Latin song itself and ways in which the refrain interacts with the linearity and circularity of poetic and musical time both separately and together. Songs that most compellingly bring together the experience of calendrical time with the musical and poetic experience of time in song are narrative works that paraphrase or retell familiar biblical and hagiographic stories, the focus of a series of case studies in Chapter 2. The case studies in this chapter These case studies, which showcase songs about the Nativity, the Resurrection, and saints’ lives (specifically those of St. Katherine and St. Nicholas), emphasize how the refrain operates within the devotional temporalities articulated in each individual work, at times interjecting or interrupting, and at other times integrating musically, poetically, and grammatically into the narrative flow.
It is often said that in the Republic Plato proposes to ban art and poetry from his ideal society. The truth is that poetry – the right sort of poetry – will be a pervasive presence in the life of the warrior class whose upbringing and education are discussed in Books 2 and 3 of the Republic. What Plato develops here is a systematic anti-democratic programme for reforming music, i.e. musical poetry, incorporating dance as well as song. There are four stages in the programme: first, purging poetic content; second, placing severe restrictions on the manner of performance and on those permitted to engage in it, and particularly on the extent of mimesis or impersonation deemed allowable in performance, on account of its influence on character; third, placing similarly severe restrictions on musical technique, particular on the musical modes composers are allowed to employ in constructing melodies; and fourth, ensuring that the material and social settings in which musical poetry is performed are also designed with a gracefulness and beauty that will work their appropriate effect on the performers, providing the ideal conditions for them to fall in love, homoerotically conceived.
The Introduction defines the refrain in medieval Latin song and distinguishes it from the intertextual French refrain by virtue of its necessary repetition within and across songs. Identifying the refrain as a formal feature of Latin song across genre (conductus, versus, cantilena, etc.) that inflects manuscript transmission, function, and interpretation, the Introduction also considers the historiography of the Latin refrain and refrain song, including its long-standing connection to clerical dance. The Introduction provides an overview of manuscript sources for Latin refrain songs, revealing approaches to compilation and ordering in manuscript sources that foreground the refrain. This is followed by a section on theoretical approaches to the refrain from the perspective of music and rhetoric, offering which offers a broader repertorial and cultural contextualization. The Introduction also considers questions of authorship and performance in relation to the Latin refrain song, looking to manuscript evidence and the internal evidence of the songs themselves for information on who created, copied, sang, listened to, and potentially danced to this repertoire. The Introduction concludes with outlines for Chapters 1-5.