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This chapter covers three situations of vocabulary learning, all of which can occur outside the classroom. The first situation has been called extramural English or extramural learning, and could be called learning through entertainment. It involves largely incidental learning through watching TV or movies, surfing the Internet, online social interaction, playing online games, listening to songs, or reading or listening for pleasure. It can also include social interactions with native speakers. Extramural learning is not a part of a regular English course and is not under the control of a classroom teacher. The second situation is supplementary learning. This involves learning outside the classroom which is related to a course occurring inside the classroom. It is largely directed by the classroom teacher. It may involve extensive reading, extensive listening, interacting with others, and writing, and could also involve the deliberate learning of vocabulary and other language features. The third situation has been called self-directed learning and involves the learner organising their own language course without the help of a teacher.
Where is the line between virtual and real? This chapter introduces readers to the complex components, physical and virtual, which constitute our rapidly changing digital world. It examines how digital forms of representation blur the boundaries between what is considered material. The chapter addresses issues of transcendence and transgression in virtual space.
With the rise of digital technologies the number and diversity of related tools (such as phones, computers, 3-D printers, etc.) have markedly increased. This chapter examines how digital objects and other new technologies alter human experiences with the material world.
The internet has become the prime channel for distribution of antisemitic propaganda today. This chapter traces the history of antisemitism online, with an emphasis on current memes prevalent on social media, as well as some of the impact of that propaganda. It also grounds antisemitism in cyberspace in a historical perspective, demonstrating links between prior print and current electronic antisemitic discourse.
Perhaps more than any other single context, technology is the concept most frequently associated with DeLillo's fiction. Over the five decades since DeLillo published his first novel, technological innovations have played an increasingly prominent role in establishing the pace and rhythm of life in the Western world, and DeLillo's fiction reflects that, including concomitant ambivalences toward technology and technological change.
Reading DeLillo’s work as a whole, readers can trace the trends that shape internet culture: from the very beginning, DeLillo has concerned himself with the connectiveness, surveillance, and information overload that characterize the contemporary Internet. While the Internet provides only a small role in a few of DeLillo's novels, the idea of the Internet, and its various ways of creating both connection and distance, loom large throughout DeLillo's fiction.
Sub-Saharan Africa has seen an extraordinary technological take-up. As recently as a decade ago, fewer than 5 per cent of sub-Saharan Africans had access to the Internet but by December 2020, approximately 85 per cent of Kenyans and 73 per cent of Nigerians had internet access. Growing connectivity is empowering a generation with opportunities that would have been unthinkable a little as 10 years ago. Young sub-Saharan Africans are using tech-based solutions across agriculture, education, finance, healthcare and infrastructure, to develop African economies at lower cost and faster speed. The use of smartphones, which enable greater use of mobile technology, is also growing. Nigeria’s mobile economy is set to grow by 19 per cent between 2019 and 2025 – the highest rate in Sub-Saharan Africa, which is the fastest-growing mobile technology region in the world. Mobile technologies and services generated 9 per cent of GDP in sub-Saharan Africa in 2019 – a contribution that amounted to more than US$155 billion of economic value and supported almost 3.8 million jobs. This reflects the fact that in some areas – such as the mobile financial sector – sub-Saharan Africa has become a global leader.
Researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention monitor unplanned school closure (USC) reports through online systematic searches (OSS) to assist public health emergency responses. We counted the additional reports identified through social media along with OSS to improve USC monitoring.
Facebook and Twitter data of public-school districts and private schools in counties affected by California wildfires in October and December of 2017 and January of 2018 were retrieved. We computed descriptive statistics and performed multivariable logistic regression for both OSS and social media data.
Among the 362 public-school districts in wildfire-affected counties, USCs were identified for 115 (32%) districts, of which OSS identified 104 (90%), Facebook, 59 (52%), and Twitter, 37 (32%). These data correspond to 4622 public schools, among which USCs were identified for 888 (19.2%) schools, of which OSS identified 722 (81.3%), Facebook, 496 (55.9%), and Twitter, 312 (35.1%). Among 1289 private schools, USCs were identified for 104 schools, of which OSS identified 47 (45.2%), Facebook, 67 (64.4%), and Twitter, 29 (27.9%). USC announcements identified via social media, in addition to those via OSS, were 11 public school districts, 166 public schools, and 57 private schools.
Social media complements OSS as additional resources for USC monitoring during disasters.
This chapter focuses on the inner workings of networked services – what technologies they use and how they work – which will enable a deeper understanding of the methods used for corporate surveillance. The chapter first introduces the internet protocol suite and its most important protocols, and then explains the systems and languages used to deliver web-based content and mobile content.
Historical accounts of the Internet's origins tend to emphasize U.S. government investment and university-based researchers. In contrast, this article introduces actors who have been overlooked: the entrepreneurs and private firms that developed standards, evaluated competing standards, educated consumers about the value of new products, and built products to sell. Start-up companies such as 3Com and Cisco Systems succeeded because they met rapidly rising demand from users, particularly those in large organizations, who were connecting computers into networks and networks into internetworks. We consider a relatively brief yet dynamic period, from the late 1960s to the late 1980s, when regulators attacked incumbent American firms, entrepreneurs flourished in new market niches, and engineers set industry standards for networking and internetworking. As a consequence, their combined efforts forged new processes and institutions for so-called open standards that, in turn, created the conditions favorable for the “network effects” that sustained the formative years of the digital economy.
This chapter considers whether the Internet alters the relationship between protesters’ resources and legislative behavior. Gause argues that digital technologies reduce costs more for online protests than offline protests, making online protests less likely to receive legislative support. Moreover, digital technologies decrease protest costs; however, they do so primarily for high-resource groups. Nevertheless, digital technologies have changed the role of formal interest groups. In the past, formal interest groups provided resources that made it hard for legislators to detect issue salience. Online, viral collective action is more indicative of social media stimuli and influencers than high issue salience. Formal interest groups are now vital to legislative behavior.
To assess these arguments, Gause collects data on protests covered in 2012 in newspapers across the United States. Gause finds that legislators are more likely to support online protests than in-person protests. Whether online or offline, legislators are more likely to support costlier protests. Consequently, protest costs continue to dictate how legislators respond to protest demands.
As internet penetration rapidly expanded throughout the world, press freedom and government accountability improved in some countries but backslid in others. We propose a formal model that provides a mechanism that explains the observed divergent paths of countries. We argue that increased access to social media makes partial capture, where governments allow limited freedom of the press, an untenable strategy. By amplifying the influence of small traditional media outlets, higher internet access increases both the costs of capture and the risk that a critical mass of citizens will become informed and overturn the incumbent. Depending on the incentives to retain office, greater internet access thus either forces an incumbent to extend capture to small outlets, further undermining press freedom; or relieve pressure from others. We relate our findings to the cases of Turkey and Tunisia.
Determining whom to trust and whom not to trust has been critical since the early days of ancient civilizations. However, with the increasing use of digital technologies, trust situations have changed. We communicate less face-to-face. Rather, we communicate with other people over the Internet (e.g., Facebook) or we interact with technological artifacts (e.g., chatbots on the Internet or autonomous vehicles). This trend towards digitalization has major implications. It affects both the role of trust and how we should conceptualize trust and trustworthiness. In this chapter, insights on phenomena related to trust in a digital world are reviewed. This review integrates findings from various levels of analysis, including behavioral and neurophysiological. The structure of this chapter is based on four different scenarios of trust in a digital world that were developed by the author. Scenario A describes a technology-free situation of human-human interaction. Scenario B outlines a situation of computer-mediated human-human interaction. Scenario C denotes a situation of direct human-technology interaction. Scenario D refers to a situation of computer-mediated human-technology interaction. The common denominator of all situations is that a human acts in the role of trustor, while the role of trustee can be either another human or a technological artifact.
Democracy is in retreat around the globe. Many commentators have blamed the Internet for this development, whereas others have celebrated the Internet as a tool for liberation, with each opinion being buttressed by supporting evidence. We try to resolve this paradox by reviewing some of the pressure points that arise between human cognition and the online information architecture, and their fallout for the well-being of democracy. We focus on the role of the attention economy, which has monetised dwell time on platforms, and the role of algorithms that satisfy users’ presumed preferences. We further note the inherent asymmetry in power between platforms and users that arises from these pressure points, and we conclude by sketching out the principles of a new Internet with democratic credentials.
For most people across the world the availability of the Internet and, in particular, hand-held devices, has had a positive impact on the way that people interact with the world and each other. However, this has also been associated with a number of cybercrimes and the focus of this chapter is online child sexual exploitation and abuse (OCSEA). These crimes include the production, preparation, consumption, sharing, dissemination or possession of CSEM and the solicitation of children for sexual purposes (sometimes called ‘grooming’), whether or not it results, or is intended to result, in a contact offence. It is difficult to make meaningful estimates of the scale of these crimes as conviction data is dependent on an individual being identified and the capacity of law enforcement to analyse the digital data associated with the crime. However, converging data would suggest that these crimes are increasing. OCSEA crimes may take place within a specific country but national and international cross-disciplinary collaboration is needed to both identify, locate and safeguard victims and prevent, investigate and prosecute these crimes. Europe is one region that has given greatest consideration to the issue of child exploitation and in particular child sexual abuse materials. In the last twenty years there has been considerable progress in understanding the demographic profiles of people who commit OCSEA crimes, what motivates them to offend and how they may be assessed in relation to future risks, particularly the commission of contact offences. However, it is unclear why our existing data would suggest that both identified OCSEA offenders and victims are more likely to be White rather than representing country-specific population demographics.
Throughout this book, I have maintained that populism and constitutionalism, and in particular post–WWII constitutionalism (of which Italy is a prime example, as seen in Chapter 2) cannot be reconciled, due to the exclusionary, holistic and majoritarian nature of populism. As we saw in Chapter 1, this does not mean that populism and constitutionalism cannot have something in common, namely the importance of emotional reactions and the distrust of political power.
The paper enriches New Materialism with a macro-historical theorization of changes of international order. It finds inspiration in Emanuel Adler’s cognitive evolution, and complements this theoretical framework with a New Materialist dimension. Following cognitive evolution international orders change when the configuration of international practices, their background knowledge and the practitioners change. The two steps that are crucial for these changes are creative variation and selective retention. Technologies and artefacts play a key role in the variation and retention of international practices. New Materialist mechanisms of creative variation focus on forbidden fruit blending (the combination of material objects from realms that do not typically belong together to create a new device), on the intertwinements between new ideas and new technologies and artefacts, and on the entanglements between new practices and new artefacts and technologies. In terms of selective, retention I argue that functionality and aesthetics can operate as material criteria for selective retention, and I highlight the relevance of network memory for the kinds of information that are stored and how they can be stored, thus retained. The paper illustrates the usefulness of a New Materialist version of cognitive evolution on the evolution of the internet as a specific international order.
In this chapter, I shall undertake an in-depth analysis of how in-office Italian populists understand parliaments. Before going into the technicalities of constitutional law however, it is necessary to frame the issue in a broader perspective and mention the kind of politics that the Five Star Movement has in mind.
Web-based interventions are increasingly used for the prevention, treatment and aftercare of mental disorders. A crucial factor to the efficacy of such online programmes is adherence to the intervention content and procedure. It has been frequently suggested that adherence in web-based interventions is low and little is known about which factors influence adherence. To increase intervention uptake and completion, studies increasingly include interventions with some form of guidance. Guided interventions have been shown to have higher efficacy, however, evidence for the impact on adherence is limited and mixed. This meta-analysis explored the impact of human guidance on intervention completion in web-based mental health interventions. A total of 22 studies were included with interventions primarily targeting symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. Results showed that guidance significantly increases the average amount of intervention completion [g = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18–0.40] and the proportion of intervention completers [log odds ratio (OR) = 0.50, 95% CI 0.34–0.66] with small effects. On average, full completion rates were 12% higher in guided intervention groups. This meta-analysis demonstrated that guidance in web-based mental health interventions does increase adherence, but more research is required to better understand the specific mechanisms between guidance, adherence and outcomes.
Advances in technology enabled the development of a web-based, pictorial FFQ to collect parent-report dietary intakes of 7-year-old children in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes study. This study aimed to compare intakes estimated from a paper-FFQ and a web-FFQ and examine the relative validity of both FFQ against 3-d diet records (3DDR). Ninety-two mothers reported food intakes of their 7-year-old child on a paper-FFQ, a web-FFQ and a 3DDR. A usability questionnaire collected participants’ feedback on the web-FFQ. Correlations and agreement in energy, nutrients and food groups intakes between the dietary assessments were evaluated using Pearson’s correlation, Lin’s concordance, Bland–Altman plots, Cohen’s κ and tertile classification. The paper- and web-FFQ had good correlations (≥ 0·50) and acceptable-good agreement (Lin’s concordance ≥ 0·30; Cohen’s κ ≥ 0·41; ≥ 50 % correct and ≤ 10 % misclassification into same or extreme tertiles). Compared with 3DDR, both FFQ showed poor agreement (< 0·30) in assessing absolute intakes except micronutrients (web-FFQ had acceptable-good agreement), but showed acceptable-good ability to classify children into tertiles (κ ≥ 0·21; ≥ 40 % and ≤ 15 % correct or misclassification). Bland–Altman plots suggest good agreement between web-FFQ and 3DDR in assessing micronutrients and several food groups. The web-FFQ was well-received, and majority (81 %) preferred the web-FFQ over the paper-FFQ. The newly developed web-FFQ produced intake estimates comparable to the paper-FFQ, has acceptable-good agreement with 3DDR in assessing absolute micronutrients intakes and has acceptable-good ability to classify children according to categories of intakes. The positive acceptance of the web-FFQ makes it a feasible tool for future dietary data collection.