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The relation between neutrality and the use of force is better to be kept within the law of armed conflict rather that the law on the use of force between States. This means that the right of self-defence cannot be the indispensable legal basis for the use of force between belligerents and neutrals. On the contrary it appears that neutral due diligence has been relied on as a basis to expand the scope of the right of self-defence. The latter is admissible as the basis for resort to force only in the case of resistance of a neutral State to repel belligerent violation of its territory or by a belligerent that fully complies with its duties under the law of neutrality.
Non participation in armed conflict gives rise to the relevance, role and content of the law of neutrality in contemporary international law. Despite scholarly opinion to the contrary the challenges posed by collective security and the prohibition of the use of force have not made neutrality obsolete. The validity of the law of neutrality is reaffirmed in State practice, mainly in the form of national military manuals, and the case-law of international tribunals. The legal framework of neutrality remains unchanged with respect to most rules. At the same time, it has been adapted to the evolution of the law of the sea as a result of the 1982 UN Law of the Sea Convention, the globalization of trade and the use of cyberspace in armed conflict. This has been achieved mainly through soft law documents and national military manuals. Neutrality, however, remains inapplicable in non-international armed conflict.
Just as a debate about the fundamental nature of physical entities arose after Descartes, a similar issue arose after Newton. Like Descartes, but of course with very different epistemological and methodological considerations, Newton held that the most fundamental conserved quantity was “quantity of motion” or momentum. Leibniz opposed this, arguing instead for vis viva or “living force.” This controversy introduced two kinds of problems: 1) whether and how empirical proofs could be generated for metaphysical conceptions, and consequently 2) how to understand the relationship between metaphysics and experimental philosophy. These concerns were handled quite differently by two important philosophers: Gravesande and Du Châtelet. Their moves partly resolved older debates, but also partly reconfigured them into new questions we are still attempting to answer.
In this chapter, I analyze the connections that Hume draws between utility as a source of merit, the principle of humanity as that which elicits our approval of useful mental qualities and blame for pernicious ones, and the role of reason, both in determining usefulness and in reaching just evaluations of merit or demerit. I contrast this set of connections with another set of moral sentiments that have as their object the immediately agreeable or disagreeable qualities. I reconstruct the argument meant to establish the principle of humanity as the foundation of morality, in part with the aim of showing that the sentiment of humanity gains force through our collective participation in the common point of view from which we form a general standard of virtue.
Chapter 5 is mainly devoted to the interaction between waves and immersed bodies. In general, an immersed body may oscillate in six different modes, three translating modes (surge, sway, heave) and three rotating modes (roll, pitch, yaw). An oscillating body radiates waves, and an incident wave may induce a corresponding excitation force for each one of the six modes. When a body oscillates, it radiates waves. Such radiated waves and excitation forces are related by so-called reciprocity relationships. Such relations are derived not only for a single oscillating body but even for a group (or 'array') of immersed bodies. Axisymmeric bodies and two-dimensional bodies are discussed in separate sections of the chapter. Although most of this chapter discusses wave-body dynamics in the frequency domain, a final section treats an immersed body in the time domain.
Referring to a simple illustration, a verbal explanation is given by the essential, but perhaps paradoxical, statement that to absorb wave energy from a wave by means of an oscillating system, it is required that the system radiates a wave which interferes destructively with the incident wave. Then various mathematical relations are derived concerning the conditions for an oscillating body to remove energy from an incident wave. The mathematical conditions for wave-power absorption may be illustrated as a paraboloid-shaped 'island' on an infinite complex-plane 'ocean' surface. The top of this 'island' corresponds to maximum absorbed power. An additional matter is the optimum control of a wave-energy converter (WEC) body. Thus far, the WEC body's shape and oscillation mode have been taken into account, but not its physical size. The latter is an important parameter related to the cost of the WEC, when the Budal upper bound is explained and discussed. Another important phenomenon, related to the Keulegan–Carpenter number, is discussed, in relation to an example of a WEC body. In a final section of the chapter, a WEC body, oscillating in several modes of motion, is discussed.
This essay examines Simone Weil’s interpretation of the Iliad – found in her “The Iliad or the Poem of Force” – as a strongly critical meditation on the dehumanizing effects of force, violence, and war in human affairs.
Force itself is not as straightforward as it might at first appear. Stealth proved a communicative endeavour; Chapter 7 shows that force is too. What does force intend to communicate in the context of armed conservation and acquisitive politics? Who is the intended audience? What values underlie the actors’ moves? Pisteurs often use the idiom of vengeance to answer those questions, or that of why they pursue manhunts. But vengeance invites further exploration, too. It has often been thought of as a mode of law, a balancing mechanism. Vengeance, in the way in which pisteurs, hunters, and herders enact it, in contrast, is a means of communicating a claim to status. Who is not to be messed with? Who can be subjected to seizure or other insults? How does one respond if attacked? Recourse to vengeance is particularly valuable to people who do not have reliable access to institutional means of protection; it is a mode of denunciation, and a claim to sovereignty, oriented not towards control but towards liberty. Denunciation, like vengeance, is conversational – only in rare cases is it so definitive as to become a Parthian shot, and instead it often becomes a continuing cycle. Few are happy that denunciation is so prevalent, but many see their own denunciations as necessary. By denouncing, they claim an exception from violence that would demean but not include them, as well as from associated rules and norms, and as such it is a process of solidarity and claiming liberty.
Although forceful, militia-led conservation continues in north-eastern CAR, it has been joined and at times supplanted by rebellions, some led by former pisteurs who have turned their martial skills to this new end. Rebellious ways and intervention by outsiders have long histories in Central Africa, but the particular forms these practices have taken in the last 15 years are new. Among other changes, men consciously self-style as rebels, and there has been an enormous influx of the people I have elsewhere called the ‘good intentions crowd’ (international organisation officials, aid organisation employees, diplomats, and others who understand themselves as ‘external’ and altruistic and yet become central and interested participants in rebellion in post-Cold War Africa). This chapter shows how the new rebels relate to and transform the serious games around forceful acquisition and status that are the book’s main focus. This project provides an opportunity to sit with four adventurous men involved in these shifts around force, acquisition, and status over the last few decades. All had been previously involved in different kinds of shows of force, such as the denunciations for the sake of liberty that made up such a big part of conservation work. Now, by using the symbolic register of rebellion, they want their shows of force to communicate something else: namely their status as meriting regard, a status they imagined would take the form of a salaried or otherwise entitled relationship to the state. They hoped that the good intentions crowd’s involvement would help them leverage their demands for distribution. In this respect, the rebels have largely failed, or at least been disappointed. But while they have not achieved the kind of entitled status they hoped for, they have also enjoyed certain adventurous aspects of their careers and the new lifestyles and ideas they have encountered.
North-eastern Central African Republic, a vast space bordering Chad, Darfur, and South Sudan, is a quintessential ‘stateless’ space: the government has little presence and a variety of armed actors operate. This book investigates raiding, the distinctive political repertoire that people have developed to work here, tracking the evolution of raiding skills and encounters over the last 150 years, from the period of the trans-Saharan slave trade to colonial forced labour regimes, to big-game hunting and coercive conservation, and to rebellion. Raiding is a mode of forceful acquisition that flourishes when people’s status in relation to each other is unclear, and those pursuing it develop improvised skills including camouflage, displaying force, and denouncing, generally to make claims to extraction and liberty. Raiding has been particularly important in encounters between people who were unfamiliar with each other and potentially dangerous to each other, and who are working in a place where infrastructure and institutions offer little in the way of a guide to action. Instead, people must situationally manage the conflicts of values they inevitably experience, and ethical relations are marked by negotiation and confrontation, rather than a quest for consistency. While the book’s heart beats in Central Africa, raiding politics offer rich comparative insights that helps us better understand the vibrant, if not always salutary, place that forceful acquisition plays in the world today – in Central Africa and far beyond.
Northeastern Central African Republic - a vast space bordering Chad, Darfur, and South Sudan - is a quintessential 'stateless' space, where the government has little presence and armed actors operate freely. In this first ethnographic and historical study of Central African raiding, Louisa Lombard investigates practices of forceful acquisition, a distinctive political repertoire in which claims to social status are linked to the ability to take (from wild spaces, or from others) and are frequently overturned. People have developed raiding skills to survive and live in a stateless borderland for over 150 years. From the trans-Saharan slave trade, to colonial forced labour regimes, big game hunting and coercive conservation, to rebellion, raiding has flourished where people's status in relation to each other is unclear and where institutional guidance is absent. Hunting Game offers rich comparative insights into the vibrant, if not always salutary, role that forceful acquisition plays in the world today.
Chapter One explores ancestors of the idea that the physical sciences were relevant and significant to the study of obscure powers associated with the human body and mind. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, practitioners of animal magnetism and mesmerism linked the study of a supposed new imponderable ‘magnetic’ fluid affecting health to better-known physical imponderables. In the mid-nineteenth century the German chemist Karl von Reichenbach and his followers stimulated much debate for their alleged discovery of new imponderable ‘od’ that they believed extended the domain of physics into the realm of physiology. From the 1840s onwards ’Modern Spiritualism’ prompted many natural philosophers to intervene on controversies over its startling physical effects. The final section of the chapter contextualises these attempts to link physical and psychical realms in terms of the fluid state of the physical sciences in the early and mid-nineteenth century.
Johannes Kepler was working as a mathematics teacher in Austria when he had a vision of how the universe must be constructed. Using the Copernican system as his model, Kepler thought that between each planetary orbital sphere was nested a regular polyhedron. There are only five regular polyhedra, so there could be only six planets. The relative sizes of the planetary orbits were set by the shapes that lay between them. Kepler’s idea caught the attention of Tycho Brahe and eventually he became Tycho’s assistant. When Tycho died, Kepler inherited Tycho’s accurate planetary data and he used these data to propose a new theory of planetary motion. Kepler found that the planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse. Furthermore, Kepler believed the motion of the planets was powered by a force from the Sun that caused the planets to speed up when closer to the Sun and slow down when farther away. Kepler also discovered a curious mathematical relationship between the orbital periods of the planets and the size of the planetary orbits.
Matter’s real essence is a ground for certain features of phenomena. Things in themselves are likewise a ground for certain features of phenomena. How do these claims relate? The former is a causal essentialism about physics, Stang argues; and the features so grounded are phenomenally nomically necessary. The latter involves a distinctive ontology of things in themselves, I argue; but the features so grounded are not noumenally nomically necessary. Stang’s version of Kant’s modal metaphysics is admirable, but does not go far enough. Kant’s causal essentialism involves the essences of fundamental properties, as well as of matter. And things in themselves are grounds, because they are substances, the ‘substrate’ of phenomena.
This article focuses on Randy Martin's concept of mobilization and its relationship to Christoph Menke's philosophical category of force—being the grid rather than the movement, being the potential to move rather than movement in space and time, force and mobilization align. They are rallying calls for change and transformation, for different articulations of bodies and social kinesthetic energies. They both are impersonal nonsubjectified vehicles for an open process of doing and undoing, which is a political process.
This article contributes to the debate among just war theorists about the ethics of using armed drones in the war on terror. If violence of this kind is to be effectively restrained, it is necessary first to establish an understanding of its nature. Because it is difficult to conceptualize drone-based violence as war, there is concern that such violence is thus not captured by the traditional jus ad bellum (just resort to war) framework. Drone strikes probably do not constitute a law enforcement practice, so the peacetime ethics of criminal justice do not apply either. One possible solution is to develop and apply a legitimization framework of jus ad vim (just resort to force) in which vim is “force short of war,” although this depends upon a vim–bellum distinction being a sustainable one. Moving beyond discussion of these three alternative concepts of drone-based violence, the article suggests a fourth—vis perpetua (perpetual force)—and explores the ethical implications thereof. As a form of violence that presents no physical risk to individual users of force, a program of drone strikes poses a moral problem if it is intended to continue indefinitely, leading to the systematic endangerment of innocents without the eventual promise of peace.
We construct a new first-order central-upwind numerical method for solving systems of hyperbolic equations in conservative form. It applies in multidimensional structured and unstructured meshes. The proposed method is an extension of the UFORCE method developed by Stecca, Siviglia and Toro, in which the upwind bias for the modification of the staggered mesh is evaluated taking into account the smallest and largest wave of the entire Riemann fan. The proposed first-order method is shown to be identical to the Godunov upwind method in applications to a 2 x 2 linear hyperbolic system. The method is then extended to non-linear systems and its performance is assessed by solving the two-dimensional inviscid shallow water equations. Extension to second-order accuracy is carried out using an ADER-WENO approach in the finite volume framework on unstructured meshes. Finally, numerical comparison with current competing numerical methods enables us to identify the salient features of the proposed method.
Security is generally considered a core public good provided by the state. Since outsourcing military and security tasks erodes the state's monopoly of force, we would expect regulation in this area to be stronger than in areas that do not have potentially lethal consequences. But neither caution nor careful regulation is evident in state responses to the emergence of private military and security companies; instead, the industry's rapid growth has outpaced government efforts to control their activities. This article assesses whether two industry associations, the US-based International Peace Operations Association (IPOA) and the British Association of Private Security Companies (BAPSC), have adopted mechanisms necessary for effective self-regulation, and it evaluates different national approaches to self-regulation. Neither the IPOA nor the BAPSC has established self-regulatory mechanisms able to monitor or sanction member companies' behavior. The IPOA's activities correspond to American patterns of self-regulation, while the BAPSC's efforts suggest weaker linkages with the British government than seen in other self-regulatory mechanisms.
The nonlinear features of the squeeze-film problem between two parallel long strips driven by the relative harmonic oscillation of the strips is studied via the regular perturbation and numerical calculation for ∈ < 1 and σ = O(1)- O(103), where ∈ is the dimensionless amplitude of the oscillation, and σ is the squeeze number. The fluid film behaves as a (nonlinear) spring for large σ and as a (nonlinear) damper for small σ, which are qualitatively similar to the linear analysis. However, a steady state force is generated even though the driving mechanism is purely oscillatory due to the nonlinear effect. Furthermore, the dimensionless quasi-steady rate of energy dissipation within one cycle of the plate oscillation, E, is not zero (zero for linear analysis), and is maximized at σ ≈ 10. Also the rate of increase of E with ∈ is greater than ∈2. The present study may be helpful for the design of some accelerometers and vibration absorbers.