To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Mainland Southeast Asia is one of the most fascinating and complex cultural and linguistic areas in the world. This book provides a rich and comprehensive survey of the history and core systems and subsystems of the languages of this fascinating region. Drawing on his depth of expertise in mainland Southeast Asia, Enfield includes more than a thousand data examples from over a hundred languages from Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam, bringing together a wealth of data and analysis that has not previously been available in one place. Chapters cover the many ways in which these languages both resemble each other, and differ from each other, and the diversity of the area's languages is highlighted, with a special emphasis on minority languages, which outnumber the national languages by nearly a hundred to one. The result is an authoritative treatment of a fascinating and important linguistic area.
Older parents in China rely heavily on their adult children for instrumental assistance. In different multi-child families, multiple offspring may co-operate in providing instrumental support to older parents in distinct ways in terms of how much support they provide on average and how much differentiation exists between them when they provide such support within a family. We aimed to identify different within-family patterns in relation to multiple offspring's instrumental support to an older parent in Chinese multi-child families, and to investigate potential predictors for different within-family patterns. Using data from the China Family Panel Studies (2016), we had a working sample of 5,790 older adults aged 60+ (mean = 68.54, standard deviation = 6.60). We employed latent profile analysis (LPA) to classify within-family patterns and multinomial logistic regression to investigate predictors. Our findings identified three within-family patterns: dissociated (59.10%), highly differentiated (29.60%) and united-filial (11.30%). Older parents in the highly differentiated families tended to be older, mothers, divorced/widowed and to have poorer physical health compared to their counterparts in the dissociated families. In contrast, the composition characteristics of multiple adult children played more important roles in determining the united-filial within-family pattern. The united-filial families were more likely to have fewer adult children, at least one adult daughter and at least one co-residing adult child.
Based on a cohort from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), we aimed to evaluate the relationship between sleep duration and the incidence of cognitive impairment among older Chinese adults.
We conducted a prospective analysis based on 3692 participants from the CLHLS at baseline (in 2011), and as a 3-year follow-up (till 2014), 531 participants (14.4%) had cognitive impairment, which was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score <24. Sleep duration was classified into three groups: short (≤5 hours/day), normal (>5 but <10 hours), and long (≥10 hours/day). A logistic regression model was used to examine the association between baseline sleep duration and cognitive impairment after adjusting for sociodemographic data, living habits, and health conditions.
Five hundred sixty-two participants (15.2%) were in the short-duration group, and 608 participants (16.5%) were in the long-duration group. After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, compared with normal sleep duration, long sleep duration was associated with the incidence of cognitive impairment (OR = 1.309, 95% CI: 1.019–1.683), especially among men (OR = 1.527, 95% CI: 1.041–2.240) and those having a primary and above education level (OR = 1.559, 95% CI: 1.029–2.361). No significant association was observed between short sleep duration and cognitive impairment (OR = 0.860, 95% CI: 0.646–1.145).
Excessive sleep may increase the risk of cognitive impairment in older individuals. It may be a suggestive sign of early neurodegeneration and may be a useful clinical tool to identify those at a higher risk of progressing to cognitive impairment.
Previous studies have reported inverse associations between certain healthy lifestyle factors and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but limited evidence showed the synergistic effect of those lifestyles. This study examined the relationship of a combination of lifestyles, expressed as Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS), with NAFLD.
A community-based cross-sectional study. Questionnaires and body assessments were used to collect data on the six-item HLS (ranging from 0 to 6, where higher scores indicate better health). The HLS consists of non-smoking (no active or passive smoking), normal BMI (18·5–23·9 kg/m2), physical activity (moderate or vigorous physical activity ≥ 150 min/week), healthy diet pattern, good sleep (no insomnia or <6 months) and no anxiety (Self-rating Anxiety Scale < 50), one point each. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography.
Two thousand nine hundred and eighty-one participants aged 40–75 years.
The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 50·8 %. After adjusting for potential covariates, HLS was associated with lower presence of NAFLD. The OR of NAFLD for subjects with higher HLS (3, 4, 5–6 v. 0–1 points) were 0·68 (95 % CI 0·51, 0·91), 0·58 (95 % CI 0·43, 0·78) and 0·35 (95 % CI 0·25, 0·51), respectively (P-values < 0·05). Among the six items, BMI and physical activity were the strongest contributors. Sensitivity analyses showed that the association was more significant after weighting the HLS. The beneficial association remained after excluding any one of the six components or replacing BMI with waist circumference.
Higher HLS was associated with lower presence of NAFLD, suggesting that a healthy lifestyle pattern might be beneficial to liver health.
This study examined Na intake and identified the major food sources of Na in healthy Chinese adults aged ≥50 years in Hong Kong.
Participants who completed a baseline assessment of a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of exercise and nutrition supplementation on improving physical and cognitive functions were included. A single 24-h urine sample and a 3-d diet record were used to measure urinary Na excretion and dietary intake, respectively. The compliances to the WHO (<5 g/d) and China Nutrition Society (<6 g/d) recommendations for salt intake were assessed based on the urinary Na excretion. The relative contribution of sixteen food groups to the dietary Na intake was expressed as percentages. Associations between food groups and urinary Na excretion were analysed using multiple linear regression.
Totally, 114 healthy Chinese adults (mean age 60·6 years, 55 % women).
The mean urinary Na excretion over 24-h was 2876·6 ± 1249·4 mg/d (7·3 ± 3·2 g salt/d). Overall, 22·8 % of participants met the WHO recommendation and 34·2 % met the Chinese Nutrition Society recommendation for salt intake. The major food sources of dietary Na intake were condiments (42·4 %), cereals and their products (16·8 %) and soups (13·5 %). Higher intakes of seafood and nuts were associated with lower urinary Na excretion.
Public health strategies should target healthy Chinese adults in Hong Kong to modify the current patterns of Na intake. Targeting condiments, cereals and their products and soups will be an important strategy to reduce their Na intake.
To cope with the rising demand for psychological treatment, evidence-based low-intensity cognitive behavioural therapy (LiCBT) delivered by trained para-professionals was introduced internationally.
This pilot study aimed at examining the effectiveness of LiCBT in Hong Kong.
This study was of an uncontrolled pre- and post-treatment design, testing LiCBT at a local community mental health centre in Hong Kong. Two hundred and eighty-five Chinese adult help-seekers to the centre attended two or more sessions of LiCBT delivered by trained para-professionals. These participants also rated their depression and anxiety on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7), respectively, at pre- and post-treatment.
Comparison of the pre- and post-treatment PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores of 285 participants indicated significant improvements in depression and anxiety with large effect sizes (depression: d = 0.87; anxiety: d = 0.95). For those participants reaching the clinical level of either depression and/or anxiety at pre-treatment (n = 229, 80.4%), they reported even larger effect sizes (depression: d = 1.00; anxiety: d = 1.15). The recovery rate was 55.9% with a reliable improvement rate of 63.9%. An average of 5.6 sessions was offered to the participants with each session spanning a mean of 42 minutes. The baseline clinical conditions and participants’ educational level were predictive of post-treatment recovery.
The results supported the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of LiCBT for depression and anxiety at a Hong Kong community mental health centre. The effect sizes and the recovery and reliable improvement rates achieved were comparable to those reported from countries such as the UK and Australia.
This chapter argues that since the October 1973 student-led demonstrations which overthrew the military regime, the consensus surrounding the ideal of the gentleperson (phu di) has broken down. The political instability of the period since 1973, with repeated coups, bloody crackdowns, wild swings from relatively liberal, open government to reactionary conservative military regimes, and the frequent ripping up of constitutions and drafting of new ones, reflected the entry of the middle class and the rural and urban lower classes onto the political scene and the challenge they posed to the political domination of the military, bureaucracy, and the monarchy. Just as there was no consensus over how the country was to be governed, in the period following October 1973 there was great contention over appropriate conduct. Changes in government were typically followed by official moral and behavioural campaigns. The long-reigning King Bhumibol came to represent the ideal of the gentleperson. His death in 2016 symbolized the passing of a particular kind of civility.
To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Chinese adults living in Ningbo and to examine the association between alcohol consumption, and MetS and its medical components.
A representative survey in Ningbo was conducted in 2015 covering socio-demography. A food frequent questionnaire together with additional questionnaires was used to collect information on alcohol consumption, diet, demography, lifestyle, and medical information. Multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear models were used to examine the association between alcohol consumption, and both MetS and its medical components, respectively.
Total 2853 adults ≥20 years (44% men) in this final analysis.
The prevalence of frequent alcohol drinkers and MetS were 29.9% and 28.0%, respectively. Significantly higher prevalence of MetS and mean values of medical components were found in the group of frequent alcohol drinkers with an exception for HDL-C, compared to less or non-alcohol drinkers. Frequent alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of developing MetS and positively associated with medical components excepting waist circumference.
Frequent alcohol consumption contributed to higher prevalence of MetS, and unfavorable influence on MetS and its medical components among Chinese adults. A public health intervention on alcohol restriction is necessary for the prevention and control the ongoing epidemic MetS.
We explored the genetic architecture of metabolic risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and their clustering in Chinese boys and girls. Seven metabolic traits (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], total cholesterol [TC], triglyceride [TG], and uric acid [UA]) were measured in a sample of 1016 twins between 8 and 17 years of age, recruited from the Qingdao Twin Registry. Cholesky, independent pathway, and common pathway models were used to identify the latent genetic structure behind the clustering of these metabolic traits. Genetic architecture of these metabolic traits was largely similar in boys and girls. The highest heritability was found for BMI (a2 = 0.63) in boys and TC (a2 = .69) in girls. Three heritable factors, adiposity (BMI and WC), blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and metabolite factors (TC, TG, and UA), which formed one higher-order latent phenotype, were identified. Latent genetic, common environmental, and unique environmental factors indirectly impacted the three factors through one single latent factor. Our results suggest that there is one latent factor influencing several metabolic traits, which are known risk factors of CVDs in young Chinese twins. Latent genetic, common environmental, and unique environmental factors indirectly imposed on them. These results inform strategies for gene pleiotropic discovery and intervening of CVD risk factors during childhood and adolescence.
To explore the relationship between dietary patterns and physical fitness among older Chinese (≥60 years) individuals.
Cross-sectional survey. Dietary data were collected by a simplified semi-quantitative FFQ. The 30-s Chair Stand test (30sCST), 30-s Arm Curl test (30sACT), 8-foot Time Up-and-Go test (8fTUAGT) and 6-min Walking test (6mWT) were used to assess physical fitness. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis. The association between dietary patterns and physical fitness was explored by multiple logistic regression.
Six communities (villages) of three districts in Liaocheng City (Shandong Province, China).
A total of 596 residents were recruited from April to May 2017.
Among 556 residents who were finally enrolled, 196 were men (35 %) and 360 were women (65 %). Three dietary patterns were identified: ‘Western’, ‘Vegetarian’ and ‘Modern’. The 30sACT revealed that men in the fourth quartile of the Western pattern were less likely to be classified in the ‘high-level’ group, but men in the fourth quartile of the Vegetarian pattern were classified in the high-level group. The 6mWT revealed that men in the fourth quartile of the Modern pattern were classified in the high-level group. These associations were independent of confounding factors.
Adherence to the Vegetarian pattern and Modern pattern may be protective factors for maintaining good physical fitness in older Chinese individuals. The Western pattern may lead to poor physical fitness in this population.
Lexical tones are widely believed to be a formidable learning challenge for adult speakers of nontonal languages. While difficulties—as well as rapid improvements—are well documented for beginning second language (L2) learners, research with more advanced learners is needed to understand how tone perception difficulties impact word recognition once learners have a substantial vocabulary. The present study narrows in on difficulties suggested in previous work, which found a dissociation in advanced L2 learners between highly accurate tone identification and largely inaccurate lexical decision for tone words. We investigate a “best-case scenario” for advanced L2 tone word processing by testing performance in nearly ideal listening conditions—with words spoken clearly and in isolation. Under such conditions, do learners still have difficulty in lexical decision for tone words? If so, is it driven by the quality of lexical representations or by L2 processing routines? Advanced L2 and native Chinese listeners made lexical decisions while an electroencephalogram was recorded. Nonwords had a first syllable with either a vowel or tone that differed from that of a common disyllabic word. As a group, L2 learners performed less accurately when tones were manipulated than when vowels were manipulated. Subsequent analyses showed that this was the case even in the subset of items for which learners showed correct and confident tone identification in an offline written vocabulary test. Event-related potential results indicated N400 effects for both nonword conditions in L1, but only vowel N400 effects in L2, with tone responses intermediate between those of real words and vowel nonwords. These results are evidence of the persistent difficulty most L2 learners have in using tones for online word recognition, and indicate it is driven by a confluence of factors related to both L2 lexical representations and processing routines. We suggest that this tone nonword difficulty has real-world implications for learners: It may result in many toneless word representations in their mental lexicons, and is likely to affect the efficiency with which they can learn new tone words.
To establish a structural equation model for exploring the direct and indirect relationships of depressive symptoms and their associated factors among the Chinese elderly population.
A cross-sectional research. The 2015 data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) were adopted.
CHARLS is an ongoing longitudinal study assessing the social, economic, and health status of nationally representative samples of middle-aged and elderly Chinese residents.
A total of 5791 participants aged 60 years and above were included.
Depressive symptoms were used as the study outcome. Sociodemographic characteristics, poor health status, unhealthy habits, and sleep duration were used as predictors. Confirmatory factor analysis was first conducted to test the latent variables. Structural equation model was then utilized to examine the associations among latent variables and depressive symptoms.
The mean age of the participants was 68.82 ± 6.86 years, with 55.53% being males. The total prevalence of depressive symptoms was 37.52%. The model paths indicated that sociodemographic characteristics, poor health status, unhealthy habits, and sleep duration were directly associated with depressive symptoms, and the effects were 0.281, 0.509, −0.067, and −0.162, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics, unhealthy habits, and sleep duration were indirectly associated with depressive symptoms, mediating by poor health status. Their effects on poor health status were −0.093, 0.180, and −0.279, respectively. All paths of the model were significant (P < 0.001). The model could explain 40.9% of the variance in the depressive symptoms of the Chinese elderly population.
Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with sociodemographic characteristics, poor health status, unhealthy habits, and sleep duration among Chinese elderly population. The dominant predictor of depressive symptoms was poor health status. Targeting these results might be helpful in rationally allocating health resources during screening or other mental health promotion activities for the elderly.
Much of the literature discusses filial piety in general and ambiguous terms. This study, in contrast, investigates specific perceptions of filial piety and parental expectations of filial duty among older Chinese immigrants in Canada. The study is based on thematic analysis of 46 Chinese immigrants in seven focus groups conducted in the Greater Toronto Area. Findings show the perceptions of filial piety varied, but almost all participants had reduced expectations of their children. Nevertheless, they still valued and expected emotional care from their children. The study argues that changes in institutional settings, social policies and welfare systems define parents’ support needs and affect their expectations in the host society, while norms and institutional settings in the place of origin influence their perceptions of filial piety.
The processing advantage for multiword expressions over novel language has long been attested in the literature. However, the evidence pertains almost exclusively to multiword expression processing in adults. Whether or not other populations are sensitive to phrase frequency effects is largely unknown. Here, we sought to address this gap by recording the eye movements of third and fourth graders, as well as adults (first-language Mandarin) as they read phrases varying in frequency embedded in sentence context. We were interested in how phrase frequency, operationalized as phrase type (collocation vs. control) or (continuous) phrase frequency, and age might influence participants’ reading. Adults read collocations and higher frequency phrases consistently faster than control and lower frequency phrases, respectively. Critically, fourth, but not third, graders read collocations and higher frequency phrases faster than control and lower frequency sequences, respectively, although this effect was largely confined to a late measure. Our results reaffirm phrase frequency effects in adults and point to emerging phrase frequency effects in primary school children. The use of eye tracking has further allowed us to tap into early versus late stages of phrasal processing, to explore different areas of interest, and to probe possible differences between phrase frequency conceptualized as a dichotomy versus a continuum.
The introductory chapter mainly provides two kinds of information. One is the explanation of some basic terminologies used in the traditional study of Chinese phonology. The other is various source materials that are used in the study of Chinese historical phonology. These two kinds of information are very much interrelated. Due to the logographic nature of the Chinese writing system, the study of a historical sound system is a rather difficult task. Despite such difficulty, Chinese scholars have been diligently analyzing the phonological system of Chinese for more than fifteen hundred years. In the long history of Chinese scholarship, the achievements of phonological studies are represented by a large number of terminologies. Since all these achievements were made at the absence of an alphabetical spelling system, what has been achieved by and large is the collection of categorical information, such as how many tones, how many initials, and how many different categories of finals a given dialect or standard has. The terminologies are the keys to understanding traditional phonology. They are frequently used in the phonological studies for all periods: Old Chinese, Middle Chinese, Old Mandarin, and even Modern Mandarin.
Translations are generally assumed to share universal features that distinguish them from texts that are originally written in the same language. Thus, we can argue that these translations constitute their own variety of a language, often called translationese. However, translations are also influenced by their source languages and thus show different characteristics depending on the source language. Consequently, we argue that these variants constitute different “dialects” of translations into the same target language. Studies using machine learning techniques on Indo-European languages have investigated the universal characteristics of translationese and how translations from various source languages differ. However, for typologically very different languages such as Chinese, there are only few corpus studies that tap into the intricate relation between translations and the originals, as well as into the relations among translations themselves. In this contribution, we investigate the following questions: (1) What are the characteristics of Chinese translationese, both in general and with respect to different source languages? (2) Can we find differences not only at the lexical but also on the syntactic level? and (3) Based on the characteristics found in the previous questions, which of the proposed laws and universals can we corroborate based on our evidence from Chinese? We use machine learning to operationalize determining the importance of different characteristics and comparing their importance for our Chinese dataset with characteristics previously reported in studies on English. In addition, our methodology allows us to add syntactic features, which have rarely been used to study translations into Chinese. Our results show that Chinese translations as a whole can be reliably distinguished from non-translations, even based on only five features. More interestingly, typological traces from the source languages can often be found in their translations, therefore creating what we call dialects of translationese. For instance, translations from two Altaic languages exhibit more noun repetition and less frequent use of pronouns. Additionally, some characteristics that are not discriminative for English work well for Chinese, possibly because the distance between Chinese and the source languages is greater than that in English studies.
This article attempts to outline the ways in which Chinese and Chinese American writers envision metropolitan New York by examining selected prose works which primarily engage with immigrant experiences. While recognizing the creative agency and imaginative power of this body of work, within these texts there are nevertheless embedded responses to and interactions with immigration laws and landmark events such as the Sino-Japanese War, the Second World War, the Chinese Civil War, the AIDS epidemics, the 9/11 attacks, the 1997 handover or return of Hong Kong to China, and China’s implementation of the reform and opening-up policy which started in 1978. Hence, the representations of New York in these works from different generations of writers of Chinese descent are heavily influenced by, and connected to, variegated sociohistorical forces, creating distinct and intricate transnational linkages across the Pacific.
Mark Twain had a positive and supportive stance toward the Chinese from his time in the West and throughout his lifetime. He recognized the ill treatment of Chinese immigrants in Nevada and California, and he spoke out against brutal police tactics against Chinese in San Francisco. He collaborated with Bret Harte on a play, Ah Sin, which employs Chinese stereotypes, but also makes a pro-Chinese statement. As efforts toward Chinese exclusion intensified in the 1870s and 1880s, he was a strong supporter of Chinese rights. Although he never traveled to China during his lifetime, he is considered by the Chinese as a friend of their people and their country.
This longitudinal study examines change in maternal interaction strategies in Taiwanese mothers across time, and the synchronic and diachronic relationships between maternal interaction strategies and children's language and early literacy skills. Forty-two mother–child dyads participated in this study. Their interactions during joint book-reading were tape-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed when the children were fourteen, twenty-six, and thirty-six months of age. The children received a battery of language and early literacy tests when they were thirty-six months old. Findings showed that Taiwanese mothers adjusted their use of interaction strategies as their children grew. Maternal use of description, performance, prediction inference, and print-related talk were positively correlated with their children's language and literacy skills. Significant negative correlations were found between use of task-behavioral regulation strategy and text reading in mothers and their children's language performance. This study suggests that age-appropriate interaction strategies are important for children's language and early literacy development.