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In the first decade of life, children become bilingual in different language learning environments. Many children start learning two languages from birth (Bilingual First Language Acquisition). In early childhood hitherto monolingual children start hearing a second language through daycare or preschool (Early Second Language Acquisition). Yet other hitherto monolingual children in middle childhood may acquire a second language only after entering school (Second Language Acquisition). This Element explains how these different language learning settings dynamically affect bilingual children's language learning trajectories. All children eventually learn to speak the societal language, but they often do not learn to fluently speak their non-societal language and may even stop speaking it. Children's and families' harmonious bilingualism is threatened if bilingual children do not develop high proficiency in both languages. Educational institutions and parental conversational practices play a pivotal role in supporting harmonious bilingual development.
We investigated how Central Swedish-speaking four to eleven-year-old children acquire the prosodic marking of narrow focus, compared to adult controls. Three measurements were analysed: placement of the prominence-marking high tone (prominence H), pitch range effects of the prominence H, and word duration. Subject-verb-object sentences were elicited in sentence-medial and sentence-final focus conditions via a semi-spontaneous elicitation task. The children largely performed in an adult-like manner already at four to five: they predominantly added prominence H to focal words and avoided this tone post-focally in both sentence-medial and sentence-final position. The placement or avoidance of prominence H had largely the same effects on pitch range for children and adults. Finally, the four to eight-year-olds also increased the duration of the focal word, similar to adults. Hence, Central Swedish-speaking children master the use of prosody for focus marking at an earlier age, compared to children acquiring a West Germanic language.
The General Framework requires case studies to progress its development. Case studies of HCI design knowledge can be successful or unsuccessful. Successful case-studies are considered to fall within the scope of the design knowledge being applied. Unsuccessful case studies are considered not to fall within its scope. Thus, successful and unsuccessful case studies together define the scope of the application of HCI design knowledge. Case studies are of two types: of the framework itself and of the HCI knowledge, acquired with its support by means of HCI research. In turn, these two types of case study can be divided into acquisition and validation case studies. The latter types of case study have yet to be carried out for the General Framework, comprising concepts of discipline, general as common, general problem, particular scope, general research, general knowledge and general practices. However, on the basis of case studies reported in the literature, and the validation proposal made here, suggestions are made as to the research needed to conduct such case studies.
This chapter provides a critical review of the research on L2 learners’ lexical stress production and perception conducted over the past three decades, which has sought to explain cross-linguistic variability in L2 learners’ ability to reach target-like generalizations in their stress placement and to encode stress lexically. The chapter begins with a discussion of generative approaches to the study of lexical stress in L2 learners, which focused on the influence of the native-language (L1) phonological grammar on L2 learners’ stress placement. These approaches were subsequently challenged by the seminal work of Susan Guion and colleagues, which examined the influence of statistical regularities on L2 learners’ (and native speakers’) stress placement in novel words. The chapter then discusses phonological approaches to L2 learners’ perception and processing of lexical stress, focusing on Peperkamp and Dupoux (2002)’s Stress Parameter Model and the predictions it made for the encoding of stress in lexical representations by listeners from different L1 backgrounds. These approaches were later refined in studies investigating the importance of phonetic cues to lexical contrasts in the L1 for determining whether L2 learners can perceive lexical stress. The chapter concludes with directions for future research on L2 lexical stress.
Most human beings grow up speaking more than one language; a lot of us also acquire an additional language or languages other than our mother tongue. This Element in the Second Language Acquisition series investigates the human capacity to learn additional languages later in life and introduces the seminal processes involved in this acquisition. The authors discuss how to analyze learner data and what the findings tell us about language learning; critically assessing a leading theory of how adults learn a second language: Generative SLA. This theory describes both universal innate knowledge and individual experiences as crucial for language acquisition. This Element makes the relevant connections between first and second language acquisition and explores whether they are fundamentally similar processes. Slabakova et al. provide fascinating pedagogical questions that encourage students and teachers to reflect upon the experiences of second language learners.
The current study described the development of the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Developmental Inventory (CDI) for Israeli Sign Language (ISL) and investigated the effects of age, sign iconicity, and sign frequency on lexical acquisition of bimodal-bilingual toddlers acquiring ISL. Previous findings bring inconclusive evidence on the role of sign iconicity (the relationship between form and meaning) and sign frequency (how often a word/sign is used in the language) on the acquisition of signs. The ISL-CDI consisted of 563 video clips. Iconicity ratings from 41 sign-naïve Hebrew-speaking adults (Study 1A) and sign frequency ratings from 19 native ISL adult signers (Study 1B) were collected. ISL vocabulary was evaluated in 34 toddlers, native signers (Study 2). Results indicated significant effects of age, strong correlations between parental ISL ratings and ISL size even when age was controlled for, and strong correlations between naturalistic data and ISL-CDI scores, supporting the validity of the ISL-CDI. Moreover, the results revealed effects of iconicity, frequency, and interactions between age and the iconicity and frequency factors, suggesting that both iconicity and frequency are modulated by age. The findings contribute to the field of sign language acquisition and to our understanding of potential factors affecting human language acquisition beyond language modality.
Linguistic expressions of locative spatial relations in sign languages are mostly visually motivated representations of space involving mapping of entities and spatial relations between them onto the hands and the signing space. These are also morphologically complex forms. It is debated whether modality-specific aspects of spatial expressions modulate spatial language development differently in signing compared to speaking children. In a picture description task, we compared the use of locative expressions for containment, support, and occlusion relations by deaf children acquiring Turkish Sign Language and hearing children acquiring Turkish (age 3;5–9;11). Unlike previous reports suggesting a boosting effect of iconicity, and/or a hindering effect of morphological complexity of the locative forms in sign languages, our results show similar developmental patterns for signing and speaking children's acquisition of these forms. Our results suggest the primacy of cognitive development guiding the acquisition of locative expressions by speaking and signing children.
This article investigates prototypically attributive versus predicative adjectives in English in terms of the phonological properties that have been associated especially with nouns versus verbs in a substantial body of psycholinguistic research (e.g. Kelly 1992) – often ignored in theoretical linguistic work on word classes. Inspired by Berg's (2000, 2009) ‘cross-level harmony constraint’, the hypothesis I test is that prototypically attributive adjectives not only align more with nouns than with verbs syntactically, semantically and pragmatically, but also phonologically – and likewise for prototypically predicative adjectives and verbs. I analyse the phonological structure of frequent adjectives from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA), and show that the data do indeed support the hypothesis. Berg's ‘cross-level harmony constraint’ may thus apply not only to the entire word classes noun, verb and adjective, but also to these two adjectival subclasses. I discuss several theoretical issues that emerge. The facts are most readily accommodated in a usage-based model, such as Radical Construction Grammar (Croft 2001), where these adjectives are seen as forming two distinct but overlapping classes. Drawing also on recent research by Boyd & Goldberg (2011) and Hao (2015), I explore the possible nature and emergence of these classes in some detail.
What are the consequences of forceful acquisition? What does it allow and what does it make more difficult? These questions highlight how important it is to remember acquisition rather than assume that production and management (normative pastoralism in politics and economy) are the only ways in which political-economic processes and relationships play out in the world. Precarity – uncertainty, instability – has rightly become a recent area of attention. But the tendency to focus on post-Fordist/post-industrial and/or urban locales, where precarity is often thought of as a recent invention, reveals a troubling blind spot. In the bush, status instability and forceful acquisition have long gone together, and, while the details have changed, they have persisted for more than a century. The history this book recounts has much to offer in understanding the lived experience of precarity, and may also serve as a guide to the future.
In the wake of ramped-up forceful acquisition in CAR’s vast parklands in the 1970s and 1980s, the conservation agenda that had been a minor part of the big-game hunting system also became more forceful. By the late 1980s, a European Union-funded conservation project had been deployed, including a militia of some hundred men whose job it was to patrol the parklands and apprehend anyone they found. Although they were supposed to kill or injure only when necessary for their self-defence, they were able to exercise considerable latitude in their determination. The second half of the book focuses on the transformations wrought by entanglements around forceful conservation. Rather than using this as a case of coercive, even militarised, conservation among other cases of militarised conservation, these chapters use conservation as a way to explore the interpersonal repertoires developed in situations where neither law nor identity is much of a guide. The simultaneous over-presence and powerlessness of law is due in part to the fact that so much of daily life and practice in the region is illegalised. When life is illegal all the way down, camouflage and denunciation are two main modes of action, and each forms the heart of a subsequent chapter.
Force itself is not as straightforward as it might at first appear. Stealth proved a communicative endeavour; Chapter 7 shows that force is too. What does force intend to communicate in the context of armed conservation and acquisitive politics? Who is the intended audience? What values underlie the actors’ moves? Pisteurs often use the idiom of vengeance to answer those questions, or that of why they pursue manhunts. But vengeance invites further exploration, too. It has often been thought of as a mode of law, a balancing mechanism. Vengeance, in the way in which pisteurs, hunters, and herders enact it, in contrast, is a means of communicating a claim to status. Who is not to be messed with? Who can be subjected to seizure or other insults? How does one respond if attacked? Recourse to vengeance is particularly valuable to people who do not have reliable access to institutional means of protection; it is a mode of denunciation, and a claim to sovereignty, oriented not towards control but towards liberty. Denunciation, like vengeance, is conversational – only in rare cases is it so definitive as to become a Parthian shot, and instead it often becomes a continuing cycle. Few are happy that denunciation is so prevalent, but many see their own denunciations as necessary. By denouncing, they claim an exception from violence that would demean but not include them, as well as from associated rules and norms, and as such it is a process of solidarity and claiming liberty.
North-eastern Central African Republic, a vast space bordering Chad, Darfur, and South Sudan, is a quintessential ‘stateless’ space: the government has little presence and a variety of armed actors operate. This book investigates raiding, the distinctive political repertoire that people have developed to work here, tracking the evolution of raiding skills and encounters over the last 150 years, from the period of the trans-Saharan slave trade to colonial forced labour regimes, to big-game hunting and coercive conservation, and to rebellion. Raiding is a mode of forceful acquisition that flourishes when people’s status in relation to each other is unclear, and those pursuing it develop improvised skills including camouflage, displaying force, and denouncing, generally to make claims to extraction and liberty. Raiding has been particularly important in encounters between people who were unfamiliar with each other and potentially dangerous to each other, and who are working in a place where infrastructure and institutions offer little in the way of a guide to action. Instead, people must situationally manage the conflicts of values they inevitably experience, and ethical relations are marked by negotiation and confrontation, rather than a quest for consistency. While the book’s heart beats in Central Africa, raiding politics offer rich comparative insights that helps us better understand the vibrant, if not always salutary, place that forceful acquisition plays in the world today – in Central Africa and far beyond.
Northeastern Central African Republic - a vast space bordering Chad, Darfur, and South Sudan - is a quintessential 'stateless' space, where the government has little presence and armed actors operate freely. In this first ethnographic and historical study of Central African raiding, Louisa Lombard investigates practices of forceful acquisition, a distinctive political repertoire in which claims to social status are linked to the ability to take (from wild spaces, or from others) and are frequently overturned. People have developed raiding skills to survive and live in a stateless borderland for over 150 years. From the trans-Saharan slave trade, to colonial forced labour regimes, big game hunting and coercive conservation, to rebellion, raiding has flourished where people's status in relation to each other is unclear and where institutional guidance is absent. Hunting Game offers rich comparative insights into the vibrant, if not always salutary, role that forceful acquisition plays in the world today.
The ‘root infinitive’ phenomenon in child speech is known from major languages such as Dutch. In this case study, a child acquiring the Papuan language Nungon in a remote village setting in Papua New Guinea uses two different non-finite verb forms as predicates of main clauses (‘root’ contexts) between ages 2;3 and 3;3. The first root non-finite form is an apparent innovation of the child, unacceptable in adult-to-adult speech, which must be learned from a special auxiliary construction in child-directed speech. The second root non-finite form functions like attested adult main clause use of the same form. During the study period, the first root non-finite form increases sharply to function as a default verb form, then decreases to nil by 3;2. The second increases gradually to near-adult levels. Both forms are non-finite and have similar proportions in the input. Thus, factors other than finiteness and frequency must explain their distributions.
Chapter 4 takes a developmental perspective. It begins by looking at how embodied metaphors develop in infants and at how the ways in which they are experienced by infants and children differ from the ways in which they are experienced by adults. It then explores the ways in which they are experienced by older adults. It discusses work that has looked at how young children (aged 5–8) make use of embodied metaphor to reason about mathematics and music, and how their embodied metaphorical reasoning behaviour differs from that of adults.
Chapter 6 investigates the earliest steps of how infants acquire the phonetic capacity to speak. It is relevant to voice quality that infants begin life with laryngeally constricted qualities, based on which they develop elaborated oral articulations with laryngeal quality as background. Ontogenetically, speech begins with the laryngeal articulator. New drawings illustrate the infant vocal tract (vs. the adult vocal tract). The companion website contains over 100 audio files of phonetic stages during the first year of life, comparing articulatory development in English with Tibeto-Burman Bái. The LAM provides the basis for understanding the distribution of non-syllabic and syllabic utterances, focusing on intermediate ‘mixed’ utterances. During the first several months of life, infants parse phonetic possibilities, refining the identity of potential individual sounds against the emerging backgrounds of long-term laryngeal qualities. Laryngeal voice quality reflects a complex interaction between the developing physiology of the infant vocal tract and the innate disposition to engage in vocal exploration, playing a crucial role in speech development.
BeiDou signals are modulated with a Neumann-Hofman (NH) code of 1 kbps. The frequent bit transitions lead to a sensitivity attenuation of classic acquisition algorithms. In order to increase acquisition sensitivity for weak BeiDou signals, a novel algorithm based on modified zero-padding and differential correlation is proposed. First, a zero-padding method is used to weaken the effect of NH code. Second, the differential coherent delay time is modified to 20 ms to remove the influence of data bit transitions. The integration time is extended to 10 ms to increase acquisition sensitivity. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations and real data tests are conducted to analyse the performance of the proposed algorithm. Simulated results show that the proposed acquisition algorithm outperforms traditional algorithms under a Carrier-to-Noise ratio (C/N0s) of 20~38 dB-Hz. The sensitivity of the proposed algorithm is about 10dB higher than traditional 6 ms repeated search algorithms. Real data test results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional method with weak signals. This algorithm can remove the effect of NH code and effectively increase the acquisition sensitivity. The proposed algorithm is suitable for acquisition of weak BeiDou signals.
The acquisition of modern Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals may be difficult due to the presence of a secondary code. Indeed, short coherent integration times should be used without non-coherent integration, which implies a low sensitivity; or long coherent integration times should be used, requiring synchronisation with the secondary code and thus a full correlation, which implies a significant computational burden, especially for signals with long secondary codes such as the Galileo E5 signal. A third option that lies between the previous two is to perform a partial correlation using less than one secondary code period as input, however this is less efficient in terms of complexity than using an entire secondary code period, and the code's autocorrelation properties are completely changed. The authors recently proposed a method based on combining secondary code correlations, allowing the use of intermediate coherent integration times with the possibility to do non-coherent integrations, and the method was successfully applied to the Global Positioning System (GPS) L5 signal. This paper studies the application of the method to the Galileo E5 signal, compares it with the partial correlation method, and discusses the case where less than one secondary code period is used as an input
The U.S. and global beer industries include a great many smaller-scale craft breweries supplying numerous differentiated products as well as a few macro-breweries with less diverse beer portfolios. The craft and macro segments of this industry have become quite distinct, with little substitutability between the two types of beer. Furthermore, since the early 2000s the craft segment has realized consistent growth whereas large breweries have seen a steady decline in sales. Macro-breweries have responded by acquiring smaller breweries to capture a share of the craft market. This study implements an experimental approach to measure consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for locally produced and independently owned beer. Regression analysis clearly indicates that consumers prefer locally owned and independently produced beer, and how much they are willing to pay for those attributes. (JEL Classifications: D12, L66)