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The study of spherically symmetric motion is important for the theory of explosion waves. In this paper, we consider a ‘spherical piston’ problem for the relativistic Euler equations, which describes the wave motion produced by a sphere expanding into an infinite surrounding medium. We use the reflected characteristics method to construct a global piecewise smooth solution with a single shock of this spherical piston problem, provided that the speed of the sphere is a small perturbation of a constant speed.
We present a model for a class of non-local conservation laws arising in traffic flow modelling at road junctions. Instead of a single velocity function for the whole road, we consider two different road segments, which may differ for their speed law and number of lanes (hence their maximal vehicle density). We use an upwind type numerical scheme to construct a sequence of approximate solutions, and we provide uniform L∞ and total variation estimates. In particular, the solutions of the proposed model stay positive and below the maximum density of each road segment. Using a Lax–Wendroff type argument and the doubling of variables technique, we prove the well-posedness of the proposed model. Finally, some numerical simulations are provided and compared with the corresponding (discontinuous) local model.
The study of radially symmetric motion is important for the theory of explosion waves. We construct rigorously self-similar entropy solutions to Riemann initial-boundary value problems for the radially symmetric relativistic Euler equations. We use the assumption of self-similarity to reduce the relativistic Euler equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, from which we obtain detailed structures of solutions besides their existence. For the ultra-relativistic Euler equations, we also obtain the uniqueness of the self-similar entropy solution to the Riemann initial-boundary value problems.
The numerical entropy production (NEP) for shallow water equations (SWE) is discussed and implemented as a smoothness indicator. We consider SWE in three different dimensions, namely, one-dimensional, one-and-a-half-dimensional, and two-dimensional SWE. An existing numerical entropy scheme is reviewed and an alternative scheme is provided. We prove the properties of these two numerical entropy schemes relating to the entropy steady state and consistency with the entropy equality on smooth regions. Simulation results show that both schemes produce NEP with the same behaviour for detecting discontinuities of solutions and perform similarly as smoothness indicators. An implementation of the NEP for an adaptive numerical method is also demonstrated.
We investigate the Cauchy problem of the viscous liquid-gas two-phase flow model in ℝ3. Under the assumption that the initial data is close to the constant equilibrium state in the framework of Sobolev space H2(ℝ3), the Cauchy problem is shown to be globally well-posed by an energy method. If additionally, for 1 ⩽ p < 6/5, Lp-norm of the initial perturbation is bounded, the optimal convergence rates of the solutions in Lq-norm with 2 ⩽ q ⩽ 6 and optimal convergence rates of their spatial derivatives in L2-norm are also obtained by combining spectral analysis with energy methods.
In this study, we propose a high order well-balanced weighted compact nonlinear (WCN) scheme for the gas dynamic equations under gravitational fields. The proposed scheme is an extension of the high order WCN schemes developed in (S. Zhang, S. Jiang, C.-W Shu, J. Comput. Phys. 227 (2008) 7294-7321). For the purpose of maintaining the exact steady state solution, the well-balanced technique in (Y. Xing, C.-W Shu, J. Sci. Comput. 54 (2013) 645-662) is employed to split the source term into two terms. The proposed scheme can maintain the isothermal equilibrium solution exactly, genuine high order accuracy and resolve small perturbations of the hydrostatic balance state on the coarse meshes. Furthermore, in order to capture the strong discontinuities and large gradients, the fifth-order upwind weighted nonlinear interpolations together with the fourth/sixth order cell-centered compact schemes with local characteristic projections are used to construct different WCN schemes. Several representative one- and two-dimensional examples are simulated to demonstrate the good performance of the proposed schemes.
A two-layer non-hydrostatic numerical model is proposed to simulate the formation of undular bores by tsunami wave fission. These phenomena could not be produced by a hydrostatic model. Here, we derived a modified Shallow Water Equations with involving hydrodynamic pressure using two layer approach. Staggered finite volume method with predictor corrector step is applied to solve the equation numerically. Numerical dispersion relation is derived from our model to confirm the exact linear dispersion relation for dispersive waves. To illustrate the performance of our non-hydrostatic scheme in case of linear wave dispersion and non-linearity, four test cases of free surface flows are provided. The first test case is standing wave in a closed basin, which test the ability of the numerical scheme in simulating dispersive wave motion with the correct frequency. The second test case is the solitary wave propagation as the examination of owing balance between dispersion and nonlinearity. Regular wave propagation over a submerged bar test by Beji is simulated to show that our non-hydrostatic scheme described well the shoaling process as well as the linear dispersion compared with the experimental data. The last test case is the undular bore propagation.
We describe a numerical model to simulate the non-linear elasto-plastic dynamics of compressible materials. The model is fully Eulerian and it is discretized on a fixed Cartesian mesh. The hyperelastic constitutive law considered is neohookean and the plasticity model is based on a multiplicative decomposition of the inverse deformation tensor. The model is thermodynamically consistent and it is shown to be stable in the sense that the norm of the deviatoric stress tensor beyond yield is non increasing. The multimaterial integration scheme is based on a simple numerical flux function that keeps the interfaces sharp. Numerical illustrations in one to three space dimensions of high-speed multimaterial impacts in air are presented.
We propose a multi-layer approach to simulate hyperpycnal and hypopycnal plumes in flows with free surface. The model allows to compute the vertical profile of the horizontal and the vertical components of the velocity of the fluid flow. The model can describe as well the vertical profile of the sediment concentration and the velocity components of each one of the sediment species that form the turbidity current. To do so, it takes into account the settling velocity of the particles and their interaction with the fluid. This allows to better describe the phenomena than a single layer approach. It is in better agreement with the physics of the problem and gives promising results. The numerical simulation is carried out by rewriting the multilayer approach in a compact formulation, which corresponds to a system with nonconservative products, and using path-conservative numerical scheme. Numerical results are presented in order to show the potential of the model.
In this study, a numerical framework of the high order well-balanced weighted compact nonlinear (WCN) schemes is proposed for the shallow water equations based on the work in [S. Zhang, S. Jiang, C.-W Shu, J. Comput. Phys. 227 (2008) 7294-7321]. We employ a special splitting technique for the source term proposed in [Y. Xing, C.-W Shu, J. Comput. Phys. 208 (2005) 206-227] to maintain the exact C-property, which can be proved theoretically. In the meantime, the genuine high order accuracy of the numerical scheme can be observed successfully, and small perturbation of the stationary state can be resolved and evolved well. In order to capture the strong discontinuities and large gradients, the fifth-order upwind weighted nonlinear interpolations together with the fourth/sixth order cell-centered compact scheme are used to construct different WCN schemes. In addition, the local characteristic projections are considered to further restrain the potential numerical oscillations. A variety of representative one- and two-dimensional examples are tested to demonstrate the good performance of the proposed schemes.
We introduce a third order adaptive mesh method to arbitrary high order Godunov approach. Our adaptive mesh method consists of two parts, i.e., mesh-redistribution algorithm and solution algorithm. The mesh-redistribution algorithm is derived based on variational approach, while a new solution algorithm is developed to preserve high order numerical accuracy well. The feature of proposed Adaptive ADER scheme includes that 1). all simulations in this paper are stable for large CFL number, 2). third order convergence of the numerical solutions is successfully observed with adaptive mesh method, and 3). high resolution and non-oscillatory numerical solutions are obtained successfully when there are shocks in the solution. A variety of numerical examples show the feature well.
We propose a fully conservative and less oscillatory multi-moment scheme for the approximation of hyperbolic conservation laws. The proposed scheme (CIP-CSL3ENO) is based on two CIP-CSL3 schemes and the essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) scheme. In this paper, we also propose an ENO indicator for the multimoment framework, which intentionally selects non-smooth stencil but can efficiently minimize numerical oscillations. The proposed scheme is validated through various benchmark problems and a comparison with an experiment of two droplets collision/separation. The CIP-CSL3ENO scheme shows approximately fourth-order accuracy for smooth solution, and captures discontinuities and smooth solutions simultaneously without numerical oscillations for solutions which include discontinuities. The numerical results of two droplets collision/separation (3D free surface flow simulation) show that the CIP-CSL3ENO scheme can be applied to various types of fluid problems not only compressible flow problems but also incompressible and 3D free surface flow problems.
The Buckley–Leverett partial differential equation has long been used to model two-phase flow in porous media. In recent years, the PDE has been modified to include a rate-dependent capillary pressure constitutive equation, known as dynamic capillary pressure. Previous traveling wave analysis of the modified Buckley–Leverett equation uncovered non-classical solutions involving undercompressive shocks. More recently, thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) has generalized the capillary pressure equation by including additional dependence on fluid properties. In this paper, the model and traveling wave analysis are updated to incorporate TCAT capillary pressure as a generalization of dynamic capillary pressure. Solutions of the corresponding Riemann problem are similar to previous results except in the physically relevant situation in which both phases are pure fluids. The results presented here shed new light on the nature of the interface between one pure fluid displacing another pure fluid, in accordance with TCAT.
A parallel, high-order direct Discontinuous Galerkin (DDG) method has been developed for solving the three dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations on 3D hybrid grids. The most distinguishing and attractive feature of DDG method lies in its simplicity in formulation and efficiency in computational cost. The formulation of the DDG discretization for 3D Navier-Stokes equations is detailed studied and the definition of characteristic length is also carefully examined and evaluated based on 3D hybrid grids. Accuracy studies are performed to numerically verify the order of accuracy using flow problems with analytical solutions. The capability in handling curved boundary geometry is also demonstrated. Furthermore, an SPMD (single program, multiple data) programming paradigm based on MPI is proposed to achieve parallelism. The numerical results obtained indicate that the DDG method can achieve the designed order of accuracy and is able to deliver comparable results as the widely used BR2 scheme, clearly demonstrating that the DDG method provides an attractive alternative for solving the 3D compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
We propose here a class of numerical schemes for the approximation of weak solutions to nonlinear hyperbolic systems in nonconservative form—the notion of solution being understood in the sense of Dal Maso, LeFloch, and Murat (DLM). The proposed numerical method falls within LeFloch-Mishra's framework of schemes with well-controlled dissipation (WCD), recently introduced for dealing with small-scale dependent shocks. We design WCD schemes which are consistent with a given nonconservative system at arbitrarily high-order and then analyze their linear stability. We then investigate several nonconservative hyperbolic models arising in complex fluid dynamics, and we numerically demonstrate the convergence of our schemes toward physically meaningful weak solutions.
We study the existence of the invariant region for the equations of nonisentropic gas dynamics. We obtain the mean-integral of the conserved quantity after making an intensive study of the Riemann problem. Using the extremum principle and the Lagrangian multiplier method, we prove that the one-dimensional equations of nonisentropic gas dynamics for an ideal gas possess a unique invariant region. However, the invariant region is not bounded.
In this paper we generalize a new type of compact Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) limiter for the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method, which was recently developed in  for structured meshes, to two dimensional unstructured meshes. The main idea of this HWENO limiter is to reconstruct the new polynomial by the usage of the entire polynomials of the DG solution from the target cell and its neighboring cells in a least squares fashion  while maintaining the conservative property, then use the classical WENO methodology to form a convex combination of these reconstructed polynomials based on the smoothness indicators and associated nonlinear weights. The main advantage of this new HWENO limiter is the robustness for very strong shocks and simplicity in implementation especially for the unstructured meshes considered in this paper, since only information from the target cell and its immediate neighbors is needed. Numerical results for both scalar and system equations are provided to test and verify the good performance of this new limiter.
In this paper we consider a discontinuous Galerkin discretization of the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations on unstructured meshes, and the divergence free constraint (∇·B=0) of its magnetic field B. We first present two approaches for maintaining the divergence free constraint, namely the approach of a locally divergence free projection inspired by locally divergence free elements , and another approach of the divergence cleaning technique given by Dedner et al. . By combining these two approaches we obtain a efficient method at the almost same numerical cost. Finally, numerical experiments are performed to show the capacity and efficiency of the scheme.
We consider a scalar conservation law with zero-flux boundary conditions imposed on the boundary of a rectangular multidimensional domain. We study monotone schemes applied to this problem. For the Godunov version of the scheme, we simply set the boundary flux equal to zero. For other monotone schemes, we additionally apply a simple modification to the numerical flux. We show that the approximate solutions produced by these schemes converge to the unique entropy solution, in the sense of , of the conservation law. Our convergence result relies on a BV bound on the approximate numerical solution. In addition, we show that a certain functional that is closely related to the total variation is nonincreasing from one time level to the next. We extend our scheme to handle degenerate convection-diffusion equations and for the one-dimensional case we prove convergence to the unique entropy solution.
Scale similarity is found in many natural phenomena in the universe, from fluid dynamics to astrophysics. In large eddy simulations of turbulent flows, some sub-grid scale (SGS) models are based on scale similarity. The earliest scale similarity SGS model was developed by Bardina et al., which produced SGS stresses with good correlation to the true stresses. In the present study, we perform a mathematical analysis of scale similarity. The analysis has revealed that the ratio of the resolved stress to the SGS stress is γ2, where γ is the ratio of the second filter width to the first filter width, under the assumption of small filter width. The implications of this analysis are discussed in the context of large eddy simulation.