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In the absence of the necessary valley topography, karst depressions are sometimes used to construct conventional impoundments in order to contain tailings. Leakage is a primary concern for such impoundments. The purpose of the current study was to determine the characteristics and barrier performance of laterite mantling karst depressions, using, as an example, the Wujiwatang (WJWT) tailings impoundment, located in the Gejiu mining area, southwestern China. The geotechnical-hydrogeological properties, geochemistry, mineral compositions, and particle shapes of the laterite were investigated by geotechnical techniques, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the laterite contained poorly sorted particles that covered a wide spectrum of grain sizes (<5 mm to <50 nm), and was unexpectedly categorized as silty clay or silt with a high liquid limit. The continuous gradation and small D90 value helped the laterite achieve saturated hydraulic conductivities in the range of <10–6 cm/s required for impoundment liners. The laterite beneath the tailings impoundment was finer-grained and had a lower permeability than that of the laterite on the depression walls within the same depression. Geochemically and mineralogically, the laterite was classified as true laterite and its major mineralogical constituents were gibbsite and goethite with chlorite occurring in trace amounts. The laterite was dominated by subspherolitic–spherolitic cohesionless grains (concretions) made up of Al, Fe, Ti, and Mn oxides and hydroxides. The laterite did not have plasticity indices in the clay range. Fortunately, slopewash prior to tailings containment selectively transported the finer oxide concretions to the depression floor, creating a natural low-permeability barrier for the WJWT tailings impoundment. This is undoubtedly important for the planning and design of future karst depression-type tailings impoundments around the world.
Coastal eutrophication and hypoxia remain a persistent environmental crisis despite the great efforts to reduce nutrient loading and mitigate associated environmental damages. Symptoms of this crisis have appeared to spread rapidly, reaching developing countries in Asia with emergences in Southern America and Africa. The pace of changes and the underlying drivers remain not so clear. To address the gap, we review the up-to-date status and mechanisms of eutrophication and hypoxia in global coastal oceans, upon which we examine the trajectories of changes over the 40 years or longer in six model coastal systems with varying socio-economic development statuses and different levels and histories of eutrophication. Although these coastal systems share common features of eutrophication, site-specific characteristics are also substantial, depending on the regional environmental setting and level of social-economic development along with policy implementation and management. Nevertheless, ecosystem recovery generally needs greater reduction in pressures compared to that initiated degradation and becomes less feasible to achieve past norms with a longer time anthropogenic pressures on the ecosystems. While the qualitative causality between drivers and consequences is well established, quantitative attribution of these drivers to eutrophication and hypoxia remains difficult especially when we consider the social economic drivers because the changes in coastal ecosystems are subject to multiple influences and the cause–effect relationship is often non-linear. Such relationships are further complicated by climate changes that have been accelerating over the past few decades. The knowledge gaps that limit our quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the human-coastal ocean nexus are identified, which is essential for science-based policy making. Recognizing lessons from past management practices, we advocate for a better, more efficient indexing system of coastal eutrophication and an advanced regional earth system modeling framework with optimal modules of human dimensions to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective policy and restoration actions.
This study aimed to investigate the organization, workload, and psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers from the domestic Medical Aid Teams (MATs) sent to Wuhan in China.
Leaders and members of MATs involved in the care for COVID-19 patients were invited to participate in a study by completing 2 separate self-report questionnaires from April 1 to 24, 2020.
A total of 9 MAT leaders were involved and 464 valid questionnaires were collected from 140 doctors and 324 nurses. Mean age of the doctors and nurses were 39.34 ± 6.70 (26∼58 years old) and 31.88 ± 5.29 (21∼52 years old), with 72 (15.5%) being males. Nurses were identified as an independent risk factor (HR 1.898; P = 0.001) for a day working time in the multivariate analysis. The proportions of psychological consulting received among nurses were higher than those among doctors (49.7 vs 30.0%, P < 0.001). More than 50% of the anesthetists and emergency doctors who have received psychological consulting thought that it was effective according to self-evaluation.
This study focused on healthcare workers’ situation during the early period of the pandemic. Nurses worked longer than doctors. The effectiveness of psychological consulting depends on the physicians’ specialties and the working conditions of the nurses and psychological consulting targeting different specialties need to be improved.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is typically used for analysis of relatively flat surfaces with topographic features smaller than the height of the AFM tip. On flat surfaces, it is relatively easy to find the object of interest and deconvolute imaging artifacts resulting from the finite size of the AFM tip. In contrast, AFM imaging of three-dimensional objects much larger than the AFM tip height is rarely attempted although it could provide topographic information that is not readily available from two-dimensional imaging, such as scanning electron microscopy. In this paper, we report AFM measurements of a vertically-mounted razor blade, which is taller and sharper than the AFM tip. In this case, the AFM height data, except for the data collected around the cutting edge of the blade, reflect the shape of the AFM tip. The height data around the apex area are effectively the convolution of the AFM tip and the blade cutting edge. Based on computer simulations mimicking an AFM tip scanning across a round sample, a simple algorithm is proposed to deconvolute the AFM height data of an object taller and sharper than the AFM tip and estimate its effective curvature.
The study of interactions between a high-power laser and atoms has been one of the fundamental and interesting topics in strong field physics for decades. Based on a nonperturbative model, ten years ago, we developed a set of programs to facilitate the study of interactions between a circularly polarized laser and atomic hydrogen. These programs included only contribution from the bound states of the hydrogen atom. However, as the laser intensity increases, contribution from continuum states to the excitation and ionization processes becomes larger and can no longer be neglected. Furthermore, because the original code is not able to add this contribution directly due to its many disadvantages, a major upgrade of the code is required before including the contribution from continuum states in future. In this paper, first we deduce some important formulas for contribution of continuum states and present modifications and tests for the upgraded code in detail. Second we show some comparisons among new results, old results from the original codes and the available experimental data. Overall the new result agrees with experimental data well. Last we present our calculation of above-threshold ionization (ATI) rate and compare it with a pertuba-tive calculation. The comparison shows that our nonperturbative calculation can also produce ATI peak suppression.
Previous studies have found that proficiency in a second language affects how the meanings of words are accessed. Support for this hypothesis is based on data from explicit memory tasks with bilingual participants who know two languages that are relatively similar phonologically and orthographically (e.g., Dutch–English, French–English). The present study tested this hypothesis with Chinese–English bilinguals using an implicit memory task – the cross-language repetition priming paradigm. Consistent with the result of Zeelenberg, R. and Pecher, D. (2003), we obtained reliable effects of long-term cross-language repetition priming using a conceptual implicit memory task. Overall, the four experiments support the Revised Hierarchical Model as they demonstrate that low fluency bilinguals can only access the conceptual representation of the second language via the lexical representation of the first language.
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