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Multiple lines of stratigraphic, geochemical, and fossil data suggest that fresh-mesohaline paleolakes were widespread in the Tengger Desert of northwestern China and underwent major fluctuations during the late Pleistocene. The paleolakes started to develop at ca. 42,000 14C yr B.P. The lake levels were the highest between 35,000 and 22,000 14C yr B.P., during which Megalake Tengger dominated the landscape. The climatic conditions at this time were unique for this area and have no modern analogue. After an episode of decline between 22,000 and 20,000 14C yr B.P. and an episode of rebound between 20,000 and 18,600 14C yr B.P., the paleolakes started to desiccate and completely disappeared around 18,000 14C yr B.P. The environmental proxy data indicate that the Megalake Tengger formed under warm–humid climates. The reconstructed climatic variations appear to be correlative with the abrupt climatic events reconstructed for the North Atlantic.
A new ultrahigh strength hot rolled Ti–Mo-bearing ferritic steel was developed through chemical composition design and rolling processing optimization. To maximize the potential of nanometer-sized (Ti, Mo)C carbide in terms of strengthening ferrite matrix, the optimal chemical composition of 0.1C–0.2Ti–0.4Mo (wt%) was determined through considering the atomic ratio of elements, the solubility temperature of (Ti, Mo)C in austenite, and the excessive growth critical temperature of austenite grain during reheating. The rolling condition in the region through austenite recrystallization region to austenite nonrecrystallization region was adopted to realize a homogenous and fine ferrite grain structure. Results showed that the simulated coiling at 600 °C was found to provide an attractive combination of ferrite grain refinement hardening (360 MPa) and precipitation hardening (324 MPa). An optimal combination of strength and ductility was achieved after coiling at 600 °C (yield strength: 912 MPa; ultimate tensile strength: 971 MPa; total elongation: 16.0%). In addition, the nanometer-sized (Ti, Mo)C carbide was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and physical–chemical phase analysis, and its role was discussed in details.
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