Various factors such as embryo density and substances in the medium can influence embryo development in vitro. These factors and the embryos probably interact with each other, however the interactions are not fully understood. To investigate the interactions, we examined the effects of the number of embryos, drop size, oxygen concentration and glucose and inorganic phosphate in the medium during protein-free culture of bovine IVM/IVF embryos. In Experiment 1, different numbers of embryos were cultured in a 50 μl drop of medium. The frequencies of blastocyst development in the groups with 25, 50 and 100 embryos per drop were higher than in the other groups. One, five and 25 embryos were cultured in different drop sizes (Experiment 2), a 50 µl drop of medium at different O2 concentrations (Experiment 3) and a 50 µl drop of medium excluding glucose and/or inorganic phosphate (Experiment 4). In Experiment 2, the size of the medium drops did not improve blastocyst development. In Experiment 3, the highest frequency of blastocyst development for one, five and 25 embryos per drop was obtained at 1, 2.5 and 5% O2, respectively. In Experiment 4, blastocyst development for one and five embryos per drop were improved in the medium excluded inorganic phosphate. These results indicate that there is a cooperative interaction among embryos during culture and that this interaction may be mediated by reduction of toxic factors in the medium. At low embryo density, reduced oxygen concentration or the exclusion of inorganic phosphate enhanced blastocyst development.