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Guided parent-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (GPD-CBT) is an effective low-intensity treatment for childhood anxiety disorder in Western countries and can increase access to evidence-based psychological therapies.
This study aimed to examine its feasibility in a Japanese sample.
Twelve children with anxiety disorders and their parents participated in the study, and ten children and parents completed the program. Participants were assessed at pre-, post- and one-month follow-up using a diagnostic interview for anxiety disorders, self- and parent-report measures for anxiety, depression, parental behaviour, and parental anxiety.
Four children (40% of completers) were free from their primary diagnoses immediately following the brief treatment, and seven children (70%) at the one-month follow-up. Changes in disorder severity, child and parent reported anxiety symptoms, and child reported depression symptoms were consistent with those found in Western trials of GPD-CBT and of Japanese trials of more intensive CBT for child anxiety disorders that involves both the child and the parent. Moderate increases were also found in child reported parental autonomy behaviours; however, there were only small changes in parent self-reported anxiety.
These results support the potential of GPD-CBT to increase access to evidence-based treatments for anxiety disorders in Japanese children.
After the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), serotype replacement has occurred in Japan, and serotype 24 has become the most common serotype in paediatric invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). To understand the characteristics of serotype 24-IPD in Japanese children in the post-PCV13 era, we conducted a retrospective study in children aged ≤15 years from 2010 to 2020 using a database of paediatric IPD surveillance in Chiba prefecture, Japan. We identified a total of 357 IPD cases and collected clinical information on 225 cases (24: 32 cases, non-24: 193 cases). Compared with the non-serotype 24-IPD, serotype 24-IPD was independently related to be <2 years of age [odds ratio (OR) 3.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–10.44; P = 0.0064] and bacteremia (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.01–5.13; P = 0.0475), as a result of the multivariate regression analysis. We also conducted a bacterial analysis, and the isolates of serotype 24-IPD had tendencies of PCG-susceptible (24: 100.0%, non-24: 61.3%; P < 0.0001) and macrolide-resistance (24: 100.0%, non-24: 87.3%; P = 0.0490). Their multilocus sequence typing was mostly ST2572 and the variants, which were unique to Japan. This tendency might have been a result of the progress made in the Japanese PCV13 immunisation programme.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a widely used spice that has various biological effects, and aqueous extracts of turmeric exhibit potent antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity. Bisacurone, a component of turmeric extract, is known to have similar effects. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines play an important role in ethanol-induced liver injury. This study was performed to evaluate the influence of a hot water extract of C. longa (WEC) or bisacurone on acute ethanol-induced liver injury. C57BL/6 mice were orally administered WEC (20 mg/kg body weight; BW) or bisacurone (60 µg/kg BW) at 30 min before a single dose of ethanol was given by oral administration (3·0 g/kg BW). Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were markedly increased in ethanol-treated mice, while the increase of these enzymes was significantly suppressed by prior administration of WEC. The increase of alanine aminotransferase was also significantly suppressed by pretreatment with bisacurone. Compared with control mice, animals given WEC had higher hepatic tissue levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, as well as lower hepatic tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TNF-α protein and IL-6 mRNA. These results suggest that oral administration of WEC may have a protective effect against ethanol-induced liver injury by suppressing hepatic oxidation and inflammation, at least partly through the effects of bisacurone.
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