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Cyperus rotundus L. is a globally distributed noxious weed that poses a significant challenge for control due to its fast and efficient propagation through the tuber, which is the primary reproductive organ. Gibberellic acid (GA3) has proved to be crucial for tuberization in tuberous plants. Therefore, understanding the relationship between GA3 and tuber development and propagation of C.roundus will provide valuable information for controlling this weed. This study shows that the content of GA3 decreases with tuber development, which corresponds to lower expression of bioactive GA3 synthesis genes (CrGA20ox, two CrGA3oxs) and two up-regulated GA3 catabolism genes (CrGA2oxs), indicating that GA3 is involved in tuber development. Simultaneously, the expressions of CrDELLAs and CrGID1 decline with tuber growth and GA3 decreasing, and Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays confirm that the GA3 signaling is DELLA-dependent. Furthermore, exogenous application of GA3 markedly reduces the number and the width of tuber, and represses the growth of tuber chain, further confirming the negative impact that GA3 has on tuber development and propagation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GA3 is involved in tuber development and regulated by the DELLA-dependent pathway in C. rotundus, and plays a negative role in tuber development and propagation.
As there exists a growing demand for chronological research and tracer applications using radiocarbon (14C) analyses of samples smaller than 100 μg C, a compact micro-specific hydrogen graphitization method has been developed at the Xi’an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Center. This article describes the performance of the system and the mass of carbon background produced during ultra-small sample preparation. Furthermore, we discuss the results of contamination corrections and perform 14C analyses on small samples with known age or reference values. The results reveal that our 14C analysis of ultra-small samples of 10–100 μg C can obtain accurate and reliable results, and the micro-scale 14C-AMS analysis technique meets our research objectives for dating and tracer applications.
Smoking contributes to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases and neurobiological abnormalities, suggesting that smoking is associated with accelerated brain aging. However, the neurobiological mechanisms affected by smoking, and whether they are genetically influenced, remain to be investigated.
Using structural magnetic resonance imaging data from the UK Biobank (n = 33 293), a brain age predictor was trained on non-smoking healthy groups and tested on smokers to obtain the BrainAge Gap (BAG). The cumulative effect of multiple common genetic variants associated with smoking was then calculated to acquire a polygenic risk score (PRS). The relationship between PRS, BAG, total gray matter volume (tGMV), and smoking parameters was explored and further genes included in the PRS were annotated to identify potential molecular mechanisms affected by smoking.
The BrainAge in smokers was predicted with very high accuracy (r = 0.725, MAE = 4.16). Smokers had a greater BAG (Cohen's d = 0.074, p < 0.0001) and higher PRS (Cohen's d = 0.63, p < 0.0001) than non-smokers. A higher PRS was associated with increased amount of smoking, mediated by BAG and tGMV. Several neurotransmitters and ion channel pathways were enriched in the group of smoking-related genes involved in addiction, brain synaptic plasticity, and some neurological disorders.
By using a simplified single indicator of the entire brain (BAG) in combination with the PRS, this study highlights the greater BAG in smokers and its linkage with genes and smoking behavior, providing insight into the neurobiological underpinnings and potential features of smoking-related aging.
The collection of facial action data is essential for the accurate evaluation of a patient’s condition in the intensive care unit, such as pain evaluation. An automatic face-tracking system is demanded to reduce the burden of data collection on the medical staff. However, many previous studies assume that the optimal trajectory of a robotic tracking system is reachable which is inapplicable for large-amplitude head motions. To tackle this problem, we propose a region-based face-tracking algorithm for large-amplitude head motion with a 7-DOF manipulator. A configuration-based optimization algorithm is proposed to trade-off between theoretical optimal pose and workspace constraints through the assignment of importance weights. To increase the probability of recapturing the face exceeding the reachable workspace of the manipulator, the camera is directed toward the center of the head, named the facial orientation center (FOC) constraint. Furthermore, a region-based tracking approach is designed to stabilize the manipulator for small amplitude head motions and smooth the tracking trajectory by adjusting the joint angle in the null space of the 7-DOF manipulator. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in tracking performance and finding an appropriate configuration for the unreachable theoretical optimal configuration. Moreover, the proposed algorithm with FOC constraint can successfully follow the head motion as losing 33.2% of the face during the tracking.
Childhood is a crucial neurodevelopmental period. We investigated whether childhood reading for pleasure (RfP) was related to young adolescent assessments of cognition, mental health, and brain structure.
We conducted a cross-sectional and longitudinal study in a large-scale US national cohort (10 000 + young adolescents), using the well-established linear mixed model and structural equation methods for twin study, longitudinal and mediation analyses. A 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis for potential causal inference was also performed. Important factors including socio-economic status were controlled.
Early-initiated long-standing childhood RfP (early RfP) was highly positively correlated with performance on cognitive tests and significantly negatively correlated with mental health problem scores of young adolescents. These participants with higher early RfP scores exhibited moderately larger total brain cortical areas and volumes, with increased regions including the temporal, frontal, insula, supramarginal; left angular, para-hippocampal; right middle-occipital, anterior-cingulate, orbital areas; and subcortical ventral-diencephalon and thalamus. These brain structures were significantly related to their cognitive and mental health scores, and displayed significant mediation effects. Early RfP was longitudinally associated with higher crystallized cognition and lower attention symptoms at follow-up. Approximately 12 h/week of youth regular RfP was cognitively optimal. We further observed a moderately significant heritability of early RfP, with considerable contribution from environments. MR analysis revealed beneficial causal associations of early RfP with adult cognitive performance and left superior temporal structure.
These findings, for the first time, revealed the important relationships of early RfP with subsequent brain and cognitive development and mental well-being.
A blunted hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis response to acute stress is associated with psychiatric symptoms. Although the prefrontal cortex and limbic areas are important regulators of the HPA axis, whether the neural habituation of these regions during stress signals both blunted HPA axis responses and psychiatric symptoms remains unclear. In this study, neural habituation during acute stress and its associations with the stress cortisol response, resilience, and depression were evaluated.
Seventy-seven participants (17–22 years old, 37 women) were recruited for a ScanSTRESS brain imaging study, and the activation changes between the first and last stress blocks were used as the neural habituation index. Meanwhile, participants' salivary cortisol during test was collected. Individual-level resilience and depression were measured using questionnaires. Correlation and moderation analyses were conducted to investigate the association between neural habituation and endocrine data and mental symptoms. Validated analyses were conducted using a Montreal Image Stress Test dataset in another independent sample (48 participants; 17–22 years old, 24 women).
Neural habituation of the prefrontal cortex and limbic area was negatively correlated with cortisol responses in both datasets. In the ScanSTRESS paradigm, neural habituation was both positively correlated with depression and negatively correlated with resilience. Moreover, resilience moderated the relationship between neural habituation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and cortisol response.
This study suggested that neural habituation of the prefrontal cortex and limbic area could reflect motivation dysregulation during repeated failures and negative feedback, which might further lead to maladaptive mental states.
The western Mongolian Lake Zone was a Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic volcanic arc where tuffs, lavas, fossiliferous siliciclastics, and carbonates accumulated during the early Cambrian. An uppermost Cambrian Series 2 (upper Stage 4) trilobite assemblage is described here from the Burgasutay Formation representing a continuous lower Cambrian succession at the Seer Ridge of the Great Lake Depression. The new assemblage is dominated by dorypygids and consists of 13 trilobite genera belonging to nine families including Catinouyia heyunensis new species. These fossils comprise the youngest and richest lower Cambrian trilobite assemblage in Mongolia. The composition of the Lake Zone fauna suggests its biogeographic affinity with the Siberian Platform and Altay-Sayan Foldbelt, but the presence of inouyiids also implies a connection of this region with East Gondwana.
We aimed to investigate the association of metabolic obesity phenotypes with all-cause mortality risk in a rural Chinese population. This prospective cohort study enrolled 15 704 Chinese adults (38·86 % men) with a median age of 51·00 (interquartile range: 41·00–60·00) at baseline (2007–2008) and followed up during 2013–2014. Obesity was defined by waist circumference (WC: ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women) or waist-to-height ratio (WHtR: ≥ 0·5). The hazard ratio (HR) and 95 % CI for the risk of all-cause mortality related to metabolic obesity phenotypes were calculated using the Cox hazards regression model. During a median follow-up of 6·01 years, 864 deaths were identified. When obesity was defined by WC, the prevalence of participants with metabolically healthy non-obesity (MHNO), metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), metabolically unhealthy non-obesity (MUNO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) at baseline was 12·12 %, 2·80 %, 41·93 % and 43·15 %, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity and education, the risk of all-cause mortality was higher with both MUNO (HR = 1·20, 95 % CI 1·14, 1·26) and MUO (HR = 1·20, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·27) v. MHNO, but the risk was not statistically significant with MHO (HR = 0·99, 95 % CI 0·89, 1·10). This result remained consistent when stratified by sex. Defining obesity by WHtR gave similar results. MHO does not suggest a greater risk of all-cause mortality compared to MHNO, but participants with metabolic abnormality, with or without obesity, have a higher risk of all-cause mortality. These results should be cautiously interpreted as the representation of MHO is small.
We report a compact, tunable, self-starting, all-fiber laser-based asynchronous optical sampling (ASOPS) system. Two Er-doped fiber oscillators were used as the pulsed-laser source, whose repetition rate could be set at 100 MHz with a tuning range of 1.25 MHz through a fiber delay line. By employing phase-locked and temperature control loops, the repetition rate offset of the two lasers was stabilized with 7.13 × 10−11 fractional instability at an average time of 1 s. Its capabilities in the terahertz regime were demonstrated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, achieving a spectral bandwidth of 3 THz with a dynamic range of 30 dB. The large range of repetition rate adjustment in our ASOPS system has the potential to be a powerful tool in the terahertz regime.
Coastal eutrophication and hypoxia remain a persistent environmental crisis despite the great efforts to reduce nutrient loading and mitigate associated environmental damages. Symptoms of this crisis have appeared to spread rapidly, reaching developing countries in Asia with emergences in Southern America and Africa. The pace of changes and the underlying drivers remain not so clear. To address the gap, we review the up-to-date status and mechanisms of eutrophication and hypoxia in global coastal oceans, upon which we examine the trajectories of changes over the 40 years or longer in six model coastal systems with varying socio-economic development statuses and different levels and histories of eutrophication. Although these coastal systems share common features of eutrophication, site-specific characteristics are also substantial, depending on the regional environmental setting and level of social-economic development along with policy implementation and management. Nevertheless, ecosystem recovery generally needs greater reduction in pressures compared to that initiated degradation and becomes less feasible to achieve past norms with a longer time anthropogenic pressures on the ecosystems. While the qualitative causality between drivers and consequences is well established, quantitative attribution of these drivers to eutrophication and hypoxia remains difficult especially when we consider the social economic drivers because the changes in coastal ecosystems are subject to multiple influences and the cause–effect relationship is often non-linear. Such relationships are further complicated by climate changes that have been accelerating over the past few decades. The knowledge gaps that limit our quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the human-coastal ocean nexus are identified, which is essential for science-based policy making. Recognizing lessons from past management practices, we advocate for a better, more efficient indexing system of coastal eutrophication and an advanced regional earth system modeling framework with optimal modules of human dimensions to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective policy and restoration actions.
In recent years, the incidence of teratospermia has been increasing, and it has become a very important factor leading to male infertility. The research on the molecular mechanism of teratospermia is also progressing rapidly. This article briefly summarizes the clinical incidence of teratozoospermia, and makes a retrospective summary of related studies reported in recent years. Specifically discussing the relationship between gene status and spermatozoa, the review aims to provide the basis for the genetic diagnosis and gene therapy of teratozoospermia.
We propose a 2.1 μm high-energy dissipative soliton resonant (DSR) fiber laser system based on a mode-locked seed laser and dual-stage amplifiers. In the seed laser, the nonlinear amplifying loop mirror technique is employed to realize mode-locking. The utilization of an in-band pump scheme and long gain fiber enables effectively exciting 2.1 μm pulses. A section of ultra-high numerical aperture fiber (UHNAF) with normal dispersion and high nonlinearity and an output coupler with a large coupling ratio are used to achieve a high-energy DSR system. By optimizing the UHNAF length to 55 m, a 2103.7 nm, 88.1 nJ DSR laser with a 3-dB spectral bandwidth of 0.48 nm and a pulse width of 17.1 ns is obtained under a proper intracavity polarization state and pump power. The output power and conversion efficiency are 0.233 W and 4.57%, respectively, both an order of magnitude higher than those of previously reported holmium-doped DSR seed lasers. Thanks to the high output power and nanosecond pulse width of the seed laser, the average power of the DSR laser is linearly scaled up to 50.4 W via a dual-stage master oscillator power amplifier system. The 3-dB spectral bandwidth broadens slightly to 0.52 nm, and no distortion occurs in the amplified pulse waveform. The corresponding pulse energy reaches 19.1 μJ, which is the highest pulse energy in a holmium-doped mode-locked fiber laser system to the best of our knowledge. Such a 2.1 μm, high-energy DSR laser with relatively wide pulse width has prospective applications in mid-infrared nonlinear frequency conversion.
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a detrimental arrhythmia syndrome mainly caused by dysregulated expression or aberrant function of ion channels. The major clinical symptoms of ventricular arrhythmia, palpitations and syncope vary among LQTS subtypes. Susceptibility to malignant arrhythmia is a result of delayed repolarisation of the cardiomyocyte action potential (AP). There are 17 distinct subtypes of LQTS linked to 15 autosomal dominant genes with monogenic mutations. However, due to the presence of modifier genes, the identical mutation may result in completely different clinical manifestations in different carriers. In this review, we describe the roles of various ion channels in orchestrating APs and discuss molecular aetiologies of various types of LQTS. We highlight the usage of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models in characterising fundamental mechanisms associated with LQTS. To mitigate the outcomes of LQTS, treatment strategies are initially focused on small molecules targeting ion channel activities. Next-generation treatments will reap the benefits from development of LQTS patient-specific iPSC platform, which is bolstered by the state-of-the-art technologies including whole-genome sequencing, CRISPR genome editing and machine learning. Deep phenotyping and high-throughput drug testing using LQTS patient-specific cardiomyocytes herald the upcoming precision medicine in LQTS.
We firstly report a 2-μm all-fiber nonlinear pulse compressor based on two pieces of normal dispersion fiber (NDF), which enables a high-power scaling ability of watt-level and a high pulse compression ratio of 13.7. With the NDF-based all-fiber nonlinear pulse compressor, the 450-fs laser pulses with a repetition rate of 101.4 MHz are compressed to 35.1 fs, corresponding to a 5.2 optical oscillation cycle at the 2-μm wavelength region. The output average power reaches 1.28 W, which is believed to be the highest value never achieved from the previous 2-μm all-fiber nonlinear pulse compressors with a high pulse repetition rate above 100 MHz. The dynamic evolution of the ultrafast pulse inside the all-fiber nonlinear pulse compressor is numerically analyzed, matching well with the experimental results.
We report dispersion management based on a mismatched-grating compressor for a 100 PW level laser, which utilizes optical parametric chirped pulse amplification and also features large chirped pulse duration and an ultra-broadband spectrum. The numerical calculation indicates that amplified pulses with 4 ns chirped pulse duration and 210 nm spectral bandwidth can be directly compressed to sub-13 fs, which is close to the Fourier-transform limit (FTL). More importantly, the tolerances of the mismatched-grating compressor to the misalignment of the stretcher, the error of the desired grating groove density and the variation of material dispersion are comprehensively analyzed, which is crucially important for its practical application. The results demonstrate that good tolerances and near-FTL compressed pulses can be achieved simultaneously, just by keeping a balance between the residual second-, third- and fourth-order dispersions in the laser system. This work can offer a meaningful guideline for the design and construction of 100 PW level lasers.
Inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). This study aimed to examine whether the dysregulation of complement components contributes to brain structural defects in patients with mood disorders.
A total of 52 BD patients, 35 MDD patients, and 53 controls were recruited. The human complement immunology assay was used to measure the levels of complement factors. Whole brain-based analysis was performed to investigate differences in gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness (CT) among the BD, MDD, and control groups, and relationships were explored between neuroanatomical differences and levels of complement components.
GMV in the medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC) and middle cingulum was lower in both patient groups than in controls, while the CT of the left precentral gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus were affected differently in the two disorders. Concentrations of C1q, C4, factor B, factor H, and properdin were higher in both patient groups than in controls, while concentrations of C3, C4 and factor H were significantly higher in BD than in MDD. Concentrations of C1q, factor H, and properdin showed a significant negative correlation with GMV in the mOFC at the voxel-wise level.
BD and MDD are associated with shared and different alterations in levels of complement factors and structural impairment in the brain. Structural defects in mOFC may be associated with elevated levels of certain complement factors, providing insight into the shared neuro-inflammatory pathogenesis of mood disorders.