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Meshless methods are new numerical simulation methods.
Meshless methods are based on a simple set of nodes that has to be optimized
to obtain a good convergence of the approximation.
For these reasons, in this paper, we have developed a new procedure in order
to generate the initial set of nodes. This approach does not rely on any
existing meshing technique, such as Delaunay or advancing front. It is based
on a map density of nodes and a regularization procedure.
When performing the analysis of electromechanical transient problems with movement, it is needed to
take into account the air gap deformation with time. A new remeshing procedure is proposed.
It is based on node displacements coupled to a Delaunay algorithm. The node movement is described
using bubbles in association with a physical model. The procedure generates high-quality meshes.
Lors de la conception de convertisseurs statiques
en électronique de puissance, le besoin se
fait grandissant de caractériser les connexions. Cet
article présente le modèle adopté pour le câblage
permettant de prendre en considération ses
caractéristiques électriques ainsi que les moyens mis en
œuvre pour l'obtenir. Deux approches permettant de calculer des éléments de circuit équivalent sont
comparées : la méthode des éléments finis, méthode numérique connue dans d'autres contextes pour sa
précision et sa fiabilité, et la méthode PEEC (Partial Element Equivalent Circuit), qui est une méthode
semi-analytique, particulièrement bien adaptée à ce genre de problème. Une confrontation de ces deux
méthodes avec des mesures pour un élément de circuit simple démontre la pertinence de l'approche
semi-analytique, et la possibilité d'utiliser une méthode éléments finis, qui demeure cependant coûteuse
en temps de calcul. Le calcul de schémas électriques équivalents correspondant à un exemple de
connectique plus réaliste est ensuite réalisé par la méthode semi-analytique. La comparaison avec des
résultats expérimentaux est encourageante.
Chromium-carbon coatings have been deposited on various substrates by direct sputtering of a chromium carbide, Cr3C2, target in pure argon atmosphere. The composition of coatings determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and the deposition rate were investigated as functions of the sputtering gas pressure and self-bias voltage applied to substrates. The atom number ratio C/Cr in the coatings was equal to 0.7 regardless of the deposition conditions investigated. Oxygen and argon atoms were the major impurities incorporated in the amorphous coatings. Oxygen-free Cr-C coatings were prepared at low argon pressures or on substrates biased to a voltage in the range −100 to −320 V. The Cr-C coatings deposited on biased substrates contained less than 2 at. % of argon. The morphological features of Cr-C coatings examined by scanning electron microscopy were also dependent on the sputtering gas pressure and bias voltage of substrates. Fully dense structures were observed for coatings deposited at low argon pressures or on biased substrates. The electrical resistivity of Cr-C coatings was extremely dependent on the concentration of oxygen atoms incorporated in the coatings. Oxygen-free Cr-C coatings exhibited electrical resistivity values as low as 120 μΩ cm, i.e., less than twice the bulk resistivity of Cr3C2. The residual stresses in the coatings and microhardness of the deposited material were also investigated as functions of the deposition parameters. Tensile residual stresses were lower than 0.8 GPa, and the maximum microhardness of coatings was about 13000 MPa, i.e., similar to that of the bulk material.
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