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A new ultrahigh strength hot rolled Ti–Mo-bearing ferritic steel was developed through chemical composition design and rolling processing optimization. To maximize the potential of nanometer-sized (Ti, Mo)C carbide in terms of strengthening ferrite matrix, the optimal chemical composition of 0.1C–0.2Ti–0.4Mo (wt%) was determined through considering the atomic ratio of elements, the solubility temperature of (Ti, Mo)C in austenite, and the excessive growth critical temperature of austenite grain during reheating. The rolling condition in the region through austenite recrystallization region to austenite nonrecrystallization region was adopted to realize a homogenous and fine ferrite grain structure. Results showed that the simulated coiling at 600 °C was found to provide an attractive combination of ferrite grain refinement hardening (360 MPa) and precipitation hardening (324 MPa). An optimal combination of strength and ductility was achieved after coiling at 600 °C (yield strength: 912 MPa; ultimate tensile strength: 971 MPa; total elongation: 16.0%). In addition, the nanometer-sized (Ti, Mo)C carbide was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and physical–chemical phase analysis, and its role was discussed in details.
Virtual population analysis (VPA) is often used for assessing freshwater and
marine fisheries resources. One important component in VPA is to calibrate
abundance estimates with a time series of abundance indices. One of the
commonly used calibration processes usually includes simultaneous estimation
of cohort sizes across all ages and years. This reduces the flexibility of
the model in accounting for age- and year-effects, in particular in the
presence of an age-specific curvilinear relationship between abundance index
and stock abundance. In this study, we compared this simultaneous method
tuning approach with a stepwise approach which calibrates abundance age by
age in tuning VPA. The simulation study suggests that the stepwise procedure
tends to perform better with no obvious retrospective errors in the
estimated stock biomass compared with the simultaneous method which tends to
have large positive retrospective errors. In applying the stepwise procedure
and simultaneous method to a cod fishery data set, we found large
differences in the stock sizes estimated for the most recent year using
these two methods, with the current stock size estimated using the stepwise
method being substantially smaller than that estimated with the simultaneous
method. Considering the likelihood of the presence of curvilinear
relationship between abundance index and stock abundance, we conclude that
the stepwise method yields more reliable results, and is less risk-prone in
using VPA for fisheries stock assessment.
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