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This research communication investigated the role and the underlying mechanism of sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 6 (AGPAT6) in acetate-induced mTORC1 signaling activation and milk fat synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells. The data showed AGPAT6 knockdown significantly decreased acetate-induced phosphorylation of mTORC1 signaling molecules and intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) content, whereas this inhibition effect was reversed after the addition of 16:0,18:1 phosphatidic acid (PA), suggesting that AGPAT6 could generate PA in response to acetate simulation, that in turn activates mTORC1 signaling. PPARγ is the upstream regulator of AGPAT6 upon acetate stimulation. Luciferase assay with clones containing various deletions and mutation in AGPAT6 promoter showed that there is a RXRα binding sequence located at −96 bp of AGPAT6 promoter. Acetate stimulation significantly increased the interaction between PPARγ and AGPAT6 via this RXRα binding site. Taken together, our data indicated that AGPAT6 could activate mTORC1 signaling by producing PA during acetate-induced milk fat synthesis, and PPARγ acts as a transcription factor to mediate the effect of acetate on AGPAT6 via RXRα.
Hepatitis E is an increasingly serious worldwide public health problem that has attracted extensive attention. It is necessary to accurately predict the incidence of hepatitis E to better plan ahead for future medical care. In this study, we developed a Bi-LSTM model that incorporated meteorological factors to predict the prevalence of hepatitis E. The hepatitis E data used in this study are collected from January 2005 to March 2017 by Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. ARIMA, GBDT, SVM, LSTM and Bi-LSTM models are adopted in this study. The data from January 2009 to September 2014 are used as the training set to fit models, and data from October 2014 to March 2017 are used as the testing set to evaluate the predicting accuracy of different models. Selecting models and evaluating the effectiveness of the models are based on mean absolute per cent error (MAPE), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE). A total of 44 923 cases of hepatitis E are detected in Jiangsu Province from January 2005 to March 2017. The average monthly incidence rate is 0.35 per 100 000 persons in Jiangsu Province. Incorporating meteorological factors of temperature, water vapour pressure, and rainfall as a combination into the Bi-LSTM Model achieved the state-of-the-art performance in predicting the monthly incidence of hepatitis E, in which RMSE is 0.044, MAPE is 11.88%, and MAE is 0.0377. The Bi-LSTM model with the meteorological factors of temperature, water vapour pressure, and rainfall can fully extract the linear and non-linear information in the hepatitis E incidence data, and has significantly improved the interpretability, learning ability, generalisability and prediction accuracy.
Disabilities in physical activity and functional independence affect the early rehabilitation of stroke survivors. Moreover, a good instrument for assessing activity disability allows accurate assessment of physical disability and assists in prognosis determination.
To compare three assessment tools for physical activity in acute-phase stroke survivors.
We conducted this prospective observational study at an affiliated hospital of a Medical University in Shanghai, China, from June 2018 to November 2019. We administered three instruments to all patients during post-stroke days 5–7, including the Modified Barthel Index (MBI), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), and modified Rankin scale (mRs). We analyzed correlations among the aforementioned scales and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) using Spearman’s rank-order correlations test. Univariate analyses were performed using the Mann–Whitney U test. We used a binary logistic regression model to assess the association between the NIHSS (30 days) and patient-related variables. Finally, we used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to assess the predictive value of the multivariate regression models.
There was a high correlation among the three instruments; furthermore, the MBI had a higher correlation with the NIHSS (days 5–7). The NIHSS (day 30) was correlated with thrombolysis. ROC analysis revealed that the mRs-measured disability level had the highest predictive value of short-term stroke severity (30 days).
The MBI was the best scale for measuring disability in physical activity, whereas the mRs showed better accuracy in short-term prediction of stroke severity.
In this paper, in situ Al4C3 and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hybrid-reinforced aluminum matrix composites were prepared by a two-step ball milling (TSBM), consisting of a 24-h long-time ball milling (LTBM) and a 6-h short-time ball milling (STBM). During LTBM, most of the CNTs were seriously damaged, and many amorphous carbon atoms derived from these damaged defects would react with Al powder to form in situ Al4C3 nanorods. Subsequently, 1 wt% CNTs were added into the composite powders for STBM to uniformly disperse CNTs into the composite powders. Compared with that of the composite prepared by one-step ball milling, the comprehensive mechanical properties of the composite prepared by the TSBM are improved obviously due to the synergistic effects of in situ Al4C3 and CNTs, and the tensile strength and elongation reached 258 MPa and 19.5%, respectively. The strengthening mechanisms of TSBM composite include fine-grained strengthening, dispersion strengthening by in situ Al4C3, and load transfer from matrix to CNTs.
The aim of this study was to explore perinatal and early postnatal outcomes in fetuses with prenatally diagnosed d-transposition of the great arteries and impacts of standardised prenatal consultation.
All fetuses with prenatally diagnosed d-transposition of the great arteries prospectively enrolled at South China cardiac centre from 2011 to 2015. Standardised prenatal consultation was introduced in 2013 and comprehensive measures were implemented, such as establishing fetal CHD Outpatient Consultation Service, performing standard prenatal consultation according to specifications, and establishing a multidisciplinary team with senior specialists performing in-person consultations. Continuous follow-up investigation was conducted. Perinatal and postnatal outcomes were compared before and after consultation including live birth, elective termination of pregnancy, spontaneous fetal death, stillbirths, referral for surgery, and survival.
In all, 146 fetuses were enrolled with 41 (28%) lost to follow-up. Among 105 remaining fetuses, 29 (28%) were live births and 76 (72%) were terminated. After consultation, live birth rate was higher (50 versus 33%) and termination rate was lower (50 versus 76%), although there was no statistical significance. Excluding three live births without postnatal d-transposition of the great arteries, 65% (17/26) underwent arterial switch operation within 30 days. A total of three in-hospital deaths occurred and during the 10-month follow-up period, one death was observed. In one case, the switch procedure was performed at 13 months and the infant survived. Out of eight infants without arterial switch operation, two died.
Live birth rate increased after consultation; however, termination remained high. Combining termination, patients without arterial switch operation, and operative mortality, outcomes of d-transposition of the great arteries infants can be improved. Standard consultation, multidisciplinary collaboration, and improved perinatal care are important to improve outcomes.
By using high purity aluminum powders and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as raw materials, MWCNTs/Al composites were fabricated with ball milling, followed by cold pressing, vacuum sintering, and hot extrusion. It was found that when the sintering temperature was 863 K, MWCNTs/Al composite sintered for 4 h showed good comprehensive properties, and its tensile strength and elongation reached to 156 MPa and 21%, respectively. The comprehensive mechanical properties of the composites became better with raising sintering temperature when the sintering time was 4 h. When the sintering temperature raised to 923 K, the tensile strength of the composite reached to 167 MPa which is three times more than that of annealed high purity aluminum, mainly due to the higher density and better interface bonding resulted from higher sintering temperature. CNTs' pulling out were observed obviously in the fractured surfaces, and load transfer may be the main strengthening mechanism.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed an approach to ventilator-associated events (VAE) surveillance. Using these methods, this study was performed to investigate VAE incidences and to test whether VAEs are associated with poorer outcomes in China.
A 4-month, prospective multicenter surveillance study between April and July 2013.
Our study included 15 adult intensive care units (ICUs) of 15 hospitals in China.
Patients admitted to ICUs during the study period
Patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) were monitored for VAEs: ventilator-associated conditions (VACs), infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVACs), and possible or probable ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Patients with and without VACs were compared with regard to duration of MV, ICU length of stay (LOS), overall hospital LOS, and mortality rate.
During the study period, 2,356 of the 5,256 patients admitted to ICUs received MV for 8,438 ventilator days. Of these patients, 636 were on MV >2 days. VACs were identified in 94 cases (4.0%; 11.1 cases per 1,000 ventilator days), including 31 patients with IVACs and 16 with possible VAP but none with probable VAP. Compared with patients without VACs, patients with VACs had longer ICU LOS (by 6.2 days), longer duration on MV (by 7.7 days), and higher hospital mortality rate (50.0% vs 27.3%). The mortality rate attributable to VACs was 11.7%. Compared with those with VACs alone, patients with IVACs had longer duration on MV and increased ICU LOS but no higher mortality rates.
In China, surveillance of VACs and IVACs is able to identify MV patients with poorer outcomes. However, surveillance of possible and probable VAP can be problematic.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(12):1388–1395
Decoupled growth often occurs in the nonfacetted–facetted eutectic systems. And it is generally considered that the nonfacetted solid solution acts as the leading phase in the decoupled growth. In this work, Fe40Ni40P14B6 eutectic alloys were systematically studied via solidification of undercooled melts and crystallization of amorphous alloys. Upon solidification of melts subjected to different undercoolings, as the undercooling increases, the growth mechanism develops from cooperative growth to decoupled growth. Upon crystallization of amorphous alloys, the partially crystallized sample consists only of strongly faulted intermetallic (Fe,Ni)3(P,B) with chemical composition deviating from stoichiometry. Formation of supersaturated solid solution γ(Fe, Ni) in the solidification and supersaturated intermetallic (Fe,Ni)3(P,B) in the amorphous crystallization indicates that decoupled growth results from solute trapping and disorder trapping in rapid growth of solid solution and intermetallic, respectively. Further application of rapidly quenched experiments and theoretical analysis declare that the decoupled growth results from a competition between the growth of γ(Fe, Ni) and (Fe,Ni)3(P,B), which are controlled by solute trapping and disorder trapping, respectively.
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