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The poor environmental stability of natural anthocyanin hinders its usefulness in various functional applications. The objectives of the present study were to enhance the environmental stability of anthocyanin extracted from Lycium ruthenicum by mixing it with montmorillonite to form an organic/inorganic hybrid pigment, and then to synthesize allochroic biodegradable composite films by incorporating the hybrid pigment into sodium alginate and test them for potential applications in food testing and packaging. The results of X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and use of the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method and zeta potential demonstrated that anthocyanin was both adsorbed on the surface and intercalated into the interlayer of montmorillonite via host–guest interaction, and the hybrid pigments obtained allowed good, reversible, acid/base behavior after exposure to HCl and NH3 atmospheres. The composite films containing hybrid pigments had good mechanical properties due to the uniform dispersion of the pigments in a sodium alginate substrate and the formation of hydrogen bonds between them. Interestingly, the composite films also exhibited reversible acidichromism. The as-prepared hybrid pigments in composite films could, therefore, serve simultaneously as a reinforced material and as a smart coloring agent for a polymer substrate.
Listeriosis is a rare but serious foodborne disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes. This matched case–control study (1:1 ratio) aimed to identify the risk factors associated with food consumption and food-handling habits for the occurrence of sporadic listeriosis in Beijing, China. Cases were defined as patients from whom Listeria was isolated, in addition to the presence of symptoms, including fever, bacteraemia, sepsis and other clinical manifestations corresponding to listeriosis, which were reported via the Beijing Foodborne Disease Surveillance System. Basic patient information and possible risk factors associated with food consumption and food-handling habits were collected through face-to-face interviews. One hundred and six cases were enrolled from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2020, including 52 perinatal cases and 54 non-perinatal cases. In the non-perinatal group, the consumption of Chinese cold dishes increased the risk of infection by 3.43-fold (95% confidence interval 1.27–9.25, χ2 = 5.92, P = 0.02). In the perinatal group, the risk of infection reduced by 95.2% when raw and cooked foods were well-separated (χ2 = 5.11, P = 0.02). These findings provide important scientific evidence for preventing infection by L. monocytogenes and improving the dissemination of advice regarding food safety for vulnerable populations.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
Novel NiMoO4-integrated electrode materials were successfully prepared by solvothermal method using Na2MoO4·2H2O and NiSO4·6H2O as main raw materials, water, and ethanol as solvents. The morphology, phase, and structure of the as-prepared materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, and FT-IR. The electrochemical properties of the materials in supercapacitors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The effects of volume ratio of water to ethanol (W/E) in solvent on the properties of the product were studied. The results show that the pure phase monoclinic crystal NiMoO4 product can be obtained when the W/E is 2:1. The diameter and length are 0.1–0.3 µm and approximately 3 µm, respectively. As an active material for supercapacitor, the NiMoO4 nanorods material delivered a discharge specific capacitance of 672, 498, and 396 F/g at a current density of 4, 7, and 10 A/g, respectively. The discharge specific capacitance slightly decreased from 815 to 588 F/g with a retention of 72% after 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A/g. With these superior capacitance properties, the novel NiMoO4 integrated electrode materials could be considered as promising material for supercapacitors.
Radar, aerial netting and ground sampling were used to study the autumn migration of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in Jiangsu Province in east central China. Emigration of macropterous adults increased from late August until late September as the main rice crop matured and was harvested. In early and mid September, the resulting windborne migrations carried the planthoppers mainly towards the west, although the migration directions ranged (within the western sector) from south to north. By late September, however, displacements were predominantly to the south-west on the then prevailing north-east monsoon winds: migration was particularly rapid when the north-easterlies were reinforced by typhoons. Although in late September such movements to more southerly latitudes are essential for the survival of the planthoppers' progeny, we found no definite evidence for preferential emigration on winds blowing towards the south. There were, however, indications that when winds towards the north occurred, the duration of migratory flight was curtailed. Irrespective of any possible preference for migration on northerlies, a large proportion of the N. lugens population would normally be carried in an adaptive southwards direction, because the advent of the north-east monsoon occurs at a time when the number of flight-ready planthoppers approaches its peak.
To analyse the influence of genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa) containing the exogenous choline oxidase (codA) gene on physiological metabolism and genetic horizontal transformation in the fed rats, the animals were divided randomly into two groups. One group was fed with the feedstuff containing 30% of transgenic rice. The remaining (control) group was fed with the feedstuff containing 30% of non-transgenic rice. After 30 days, growth, physiological metabolism parameters such as growth hormone (GH), insulin, glucagon, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and the genetic horizontal transformation were analysed. Results indicated that the weight of all rats from the two groups was similar (P>0.05). Also, there was no significant difference in the level of GH, insulin, glucagon, T4, T3 and TSH between the treated and untreated rats. The serum urea nitrogen (SUN), glucose, the glutamate–pyruvate transaminase (GTP), as well as the total cholesterol, of treated rats were almost identical to those of the control (P>0.05). Moreover, no target DNA sequence of rice endogenous sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene or exogenous choline oxidase (codA) gene was detected in organs (liver, muscle, pancreas, etc.) except the stomach, gastrointestinal and rectum contents, and no genetic horizontal transformation was observed in rats fed with transgenic rice.
A joule level of XeF(C-A) laser optically pumped by a sectioned
surface discharge was developed. The irradiative intensity of pumping
source was diagnosed by calculating XeF2 photo-dissociation
wave evolvement which was photographed by a framing camera. The photon
flux in the wavelength region of 140 to 170nm is about 5 ×
1023 photon s−1cm−2, that
corresponds to the irradiative brightness temperature of more than 25000
K. The laser experiments were carried out in different conditions. The
maximum laser output energy of 2.5 J was obtained with the total
conversion efficiency of 0.1%.
The plant expression vector pCAMBIA1300-AtNHX1-als was constructed by inserting the herbicide resistance gene als of Arabidopsis thaliana into the plasmid pCAMBIA1300-AtNHX1, which contains the AtNHX1 gene encoding the Na+/H+ antiport from the vacuolar membrane of A. thaliana. Transgenic tobacco plants were obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR and Southern blot assay indicated that genes als and AtNHX1 had been integrated into the genome of the transgenic plants. The herbicide resistance and salt tolerance of transgenic plants increased by about 1000-fold and by 1.5% NaCl concentration, respectively, compared with controls. Herbicide resistance of the T1 progeny was evaluated by spraying transgenic plants with different concentrations of Luhuanglong at the four-leaf stage. Controls gradually died under 100 mg/l Luhuanglong whereas 73% of the T1 plants still survived at 500 mg/l Luhuanglong. Thus the plant expression vector pCAMBIA1300-AtNHX1-als could be used to improve the herbicide resistance and salt tolerance of crops.
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