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A multicenter study of sharps injuries (SIs) and other blood or body fluid (OBBF) exposures was conducted among 33,156 healthcare workers (HCWs) from 175 hospitals in Anhui, China. In total, 12,178 HCWs (36.7%) had experienced at least 1 SI in the previous 12 months and 8,116 HCWs (24.5%) had experienced at least 1 OBBF exposure during the previous 12 months.
Early life stress has been associated with emotional dysregulations and altered architecture of limbic-prefrontal brain systems engaged in emotional processing. Serotonin regulates both, developmental and experience-dependent neuroplasticity in these circuits. Central serotonergic biosynthesis rates are regulated by Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) and transgenic animal models suggest that TPH2-gene associated differences in serotonergic signaling mediate the impact of aversive early life experiences on a phenotype characterized by anxious avoidance.
The present study employed an imaging genetics approach that capitalized on individual differences in a TPH2 polymorphism (703G/T; rs4570625) to determine whether differences in serotonergic signaling modulate the effects of early life stress on brain structure and function and punishment sensitivity in humans (n = 252).
Higher maltreatment exposure before the age of 16 was associated with increased gray matter volumes in a circuitry spanning thalamic-limbic-prefrontal regions and decreased intrinsic communication in limbic-prefrontal circuits selectively in TT carriers. In an independent replication sample, associations between higher early life stress and increased frontal volumes in TT carriers were confirmed. On the phenotype level, the genotype moderated the association between higher early life stress exposure and higher punishment sensitivity. In TT carriers, the association between higher early life stress exposure and punishment sensitivity was critically mediated by increased thalamic-limbic-prefrontal volumes.
The present findings suggest that early life stress shapes the neural organization of the limbic-prefrontal circuits in interaction with individual variations in the TPH2 gene to promote a phenotype characterized by facilitated threat avoidance, thus promoting early adaptation to an adverse environment.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major worldwide public-health problem, but less data are available on the long-term trends of HAIs and antimicrobial use in Eastern China. This study describes the prevalence and long-term trends of HAIs and antimicrobial use in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Hefei, Anhui, China from 2010 to 2017 based on annual point-prevalence surveys. A total of 12 505 inpatients were included; 600 HAIs were recorded in 533 patients, with an overall prevalence of 4.26% and a frequency of 4.80%. No evidence was found for an increasing or decreasing trend in prevalence of HAI over 8 years (trend χ2 = 2.15, P = 0.143). However, significant differences in prevalence of HAI were evident between the surveys (χ2 = 21.14, P < 0.001). The intensive care unit had the highest frequency of HAIs (24.36%) and respiratory tract infections accounted for 62.50% of all cases; Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen (16.67%). A 44.13% prevalence of antimicrobial use with a gradually decreasing trend over time was recorded. More attention should be paid to potential high-risk clinical departments and HAI types with further enhancement of rational antimicrobial use.
This paper reports that the homogeneous nanocrystalline LCMO(core)/SFMO(shell) and SFMO(core)/LCMO(shell) series composites are successively synthesized using polymer-network sol-gel method. With the increase of SFMO content in the composites, the remanence magnetization Mr increases while the coercivity Hc decreases. This fact indicates that the ferromagnetic phase boosts up. Moreover, the LFMR (1 T) of the composites succeeds the preponderances of both SFMO and LCMO; i.e., the magnetoresistance (MR) value increases from 300 to 5 K and keeps a high level. In particular, the MR value of the LS-8 composite reaches 55% at 5 K and 7 T.
This paper provides a brief outline of the current, detailed inter-disciplinary work on the Xiaoyangquiao section, trying to expose all the aspects for reference tied to the Global Single Stratigraphic Point (GSSP) Concept for defining the Cambrian–Ordovician Boundary. The 45 m critical interval of this section outcrops very well along the steep bank of a stream and is free from folding, faulting, intrusions, and has not been affected by weathering. Colour alternation of conodonts and acritarchs, and crystallinity indices of illite all indicate a maximum thermal grade of 100 °C. The lithofacies, being of great lateral persistence for a hundred kilometres, consists mainly of a rhythmical sequence of lime mudstone and shales deposited in a moderately deep outer shelf environment of quiet water, well below the normal storm wave base. Chemical investigation of the rocks demonstrates strong positive correlation between A12O3 content and those of K2O, MgO, Fe2O3, TiO2, Be, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn and Ba, indicating these components are tied to the clay fractions. A stable depositional environment is demonstrated by the uniform chemistries through the boundary interval. Close to the boundary itself P2O5 contents are low, indicating continuous sedimentation at fairly substantial rates.
The major biological events, the biostratigraphic framework, and the stratigraphic range of conodont, graptolite, trilobite, and acritarch taxa are illustrated briefly with diagrams. Following the majority views of the Calgary Plenary Session, the boundary level is to be chosen at a point marked by the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of the selected conodont taxon or taxa in the vicinity of the level close to, but below, the first influx of nematophorous graptolites. The following four points marked by the incoming of conodont taxon or taxa are recommended for consideration of the ‘Golden Spike'‘: (1) FAD of Cordylodus intermedius at 5.28 m below the first influx of nematophorous graptolites; (2) FAD of Hirsutodontus simpler–Cordylodus drucei–Albiconus postcostatus at 5.23 m; (3) FAD of Semiacontiodus lavadamensis–Utahconus utahensis–Monocostodus sevierensis at 3.85 m; (4) FAD of Cordylodus lindstromi at 2.23 m. For the following reasons the FAD of H. simplex–C. drucei–A. postcostatus is favoured: (1) the taxa are all distinct and widely dispersed; (2) intensive evolutionary change took place in conodonts, graptolites, trilobites and acritarchs prior to or after this point; all the fossil groups occur together, providing correlation with many regions throughout the world; (3) the point is in a position between the previously widely accepted boundary levels based on graptolites and trilobites; (4) the proposed point lies within a thin, laterally persistent, rhythmical sequence. The FAD of Cordylodus lindstromi is also a favourable point, sharing many advantages mentioned above. But this point is less satisfactory in being defined by the FAD of a single taxon C. lindstromi which also has an extremely small population size.
An isochron age of 500.7 ± 7.4 Ma is determined from clay fractions of mudstones 8.5 m below the proposed point by means of the Rubidium–Strontium method.
The ɛND signature determined from conodonts, trilobites hyolithids and acrotretid brachiopods has a mean value of −6.7, comparable with that of the coeval oceanic water mass occupying southeastern North America and Europe, and indicating that northeastern China bordered the same ocean. The mean Tdm model age determined was 1.26 Ga at the time of sedimentation, compatible with the mean Tdm model age of approximately 1.1 Ga for the Pacific Ocean today. The relatively low value of the Tdm model age indicates a substantial input from young orogenic volcanic island arcs and terranes.
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