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We interviewed 1,208 healthcare workers with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests between October 2020 and June 2021 to determine likely exposure sources. Overall, 689 (57.0%) had community exposures (479 from household members), 76 (6.3%) had hospital exposures (64 from other employees including 49 despite masking), 11 (0.9%) had community and hospital exposures, and 432 (35.8%) had no identifiable source of exposure.
In the U.S. approximately11.4 million misused prescription pain relievers; 2.1 million had an OUD in 2017. The Addictions Nursing Subspecialty was created to address this epidemic by expanding a workforce trained in OUD/SUD screening, treatment, and prevention. A curriculum was developed that included integrated/telehealth health care settings in medical and mental health provider shortage areas during their last nine months of training. Courses were developed and taught by aninterprofessional team of university faculty and informed by evidence-based guidelines/clinical competencies for effective OUD/SUD screening/prevention, assessment, treatment, and recovery. Courses were also offered as electives for nursing, clinical-counseling, social work, and other health science disciplines emphasizing an interdisciplinary approach to healthcare.
Expand the OUD/SUD trained workforce in areas with high OUD/SUD mortality rates and high mental health provider shortages emphasizing team-based integrated care and telehealth settings.
Program curriculum was informed by evidence-based guidelines/clinical competencies for effective OUD/SUD screening/prevention, assessment, treatment, and recovery using integrated care. Competencies included: Core Competencies for Integrated Behavioral Health and Primary Care that have been set forth by the Center for Integrated Health Solutions, telehealth competencies outlined in the recommended competencies by the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (NONPF), and Core Competencies for Addictions Medicine by the American Board of Addictions Medicine.
Approximately 11 students enrolled in courses received additions integrated/telehealth health care settings. Students responded positively to evaluations regarding timely feedback, unique approach (i.e. intrative content, short videos and discussions).
The Addictions Nursing subspecialty will continue to be offered allowing enrollment for nurses twice a year.
Tom Stoppard’s childhood in Czechoslovakia, his Jewish family’s flight from the Nazis to Singapore, and his eventual assumption of a new English identity after his mother’s remarriage all had an impact on his work, in which questions of name and identity are often important.
We report on COVID-19 risk among HCWs exposed to a patient diagnosed with COVID-19 on day 13 of hospitalization. There were 44 HCWs exposed to the patient before contact and droplet precautions were implemented: of these, 2 of 44 (5%) developed COVID-19 potentially attributable to the exposure.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contribute small increases in risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). LOAD SNPs cluster around genes with similar biological functions (pathways). Polygenic risk scores (PRS) aggregate the effect of SNPs genome-wide. However, this approach has not been widely used for SNPs within specific pathways.
We investigated whether pathway-specific PRS were significant predictors of LOAD case/control status.
We mapped SNPs to genes within 8 pathways implicated in LOAD. For our polygenic analysis, the discovery sample comprised 13,831 LOAD cases and 29,877 controls. LOAD risk alleles for SNPs in our 8 pathways were identified at a P-value threshold of 0.5. Pathway-specific PRS were calculated in a target sample of 3332 cases and 9832 controls. The genetic data were pruned with R2 > 0.2 while retaining the SNPs most significantly associated with AD. We tested whether pathway-specific PRS were associated with LOAD using logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, country, and principal components. We report the proportion of variance in liability explained by each pathway.
The most strongly associated pathways were the immune response (NSNPs = 9304, = 5.63 × 10−19, R2 = 0.04) and hemostasis (NSNPs = 7832, P = 5.47 × 10−7, R2 = 0.015). Regulation of endocytosis, hematopoietic cell lineage, cholesterol transport, clathrin and protein folding were also significantly associated but accounted for less than 1% of the variance. With APOE excluded, all pathways remained significant except proteasome-ubiquitin activity and protein folding.
Genetic risk for LOAD can be split into contributions from different biological pathways. These offer a means to explore disease mechanisms and to stratify patients.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
There is strong research evidence to support the pharmacological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a second line to trauma-focused psychological interventions. Fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline and venlafaxine are the best-evidenced drugs, with lower-level evidence for other medications. It is important that prescribing for PTSD is evidence-based.
Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) was used to diffuse boron into tantalum using plasma initiated from a feedgas mixture containing hydrogen and diborane. The role of substrate temperature and substrate bias in influencing surface chemical structure and hardness was investigated. X-ray diffraction shows that increased temperature results in increased TaB2 formation (relative to TaB) along with increased strain in the tantalum body-centered cubic lattice. Once the strained tantalum becomes locally supersaturated with boron, TaB and TaB2 precipitate. Additional boron remains in a solid solution within the tantalum. The combination of precipitation and solid solution hardening along with boron-induced lattice strain may help explain the 40 GPa average hardness measured by nanoindentation. Application of negative substrate bias did not further increase the hardness, possibly due to etching from increased ion bombardment. These results show that MPCVD is a viable method for synthesis of superhard borides based on plasma-assisted diffusion.
The dystopian scenario of an ‘artificial intelligence takeover’ imagines artificial intelligence (AI) becoming the dominant form of intelligence on Earth, rendering humans redundant. As a society we have become increasingly familiar with AI and robots replacing humans in many tasks, certain jobs and even some areas of medicine, but surely this is not the fate of psychiatry?
Here a computational neuroscientist (Janaina Mourão-Miranda) and psychiatrist (Justin Taylor Baker) suggest that psychiatry as a profession is relatively safe, whereas psychiatrists Christian Brown and Giles William Story predict that robots will be taking over the asylum.
In this chapter we introduce and explain the key principles of integrated learning and outline ways in which it can be put into practice to provide quality Arts experiences, as well as quality learning in other areas. We suggest ways to achieve integrated learning that you can adapt to construct your own successful program.
We also move beyond the concept of curriculum integration to look at child integration as it should be applied in the classroom. Schools do exclude, both intentionally and otherwise. We explore the justifications offered for, and ways to remove, these barriers to engagement in the Arts by all. We argue in this chapter for the need for everyone to experience the Arts equally, no matter what their background or what form of diverse learning is brought to the classroom. For some children, this is the only pathway to success. In the Arts anyone can engage; everyone gets to live them.
This chapter will provide a foundation for the provision of quality visual arts educational experiences in early childhood and primary years. Practical suggestions for planning a high-quality visual arts program are linked to recent theory in a way that helps you construct your own visual arts program. Visual arts concepts, language, elements and principles will be defined and explained, with examples of the progression in visual arts education from early childhood through the primary years. Practicalities such as classroom management, safety and materials are addressed and additional interactive material can be found through the icons.
If we approach Arts education as we might approach literacy, we would aim to develop Arts literacy in students. We would teach students the tools of language, ways of constructing meaning, vocabulary, structures, forms, genres and shaping cultural and social contexts. In literacy we allow children freedom to gain confidence and experiment with creative writing, but we also intervene when necessary to correct, guide and teach them explicit skills and knowledge. If we apply this approach to the Arts, then, rather than stand back and ‘let the child be free’, we focus on developing proficiency in knowledge and skills as well as fostering creativity and imagination right from the start. As with any other Learning Area, child engagement and achievement in the Arts are determined by exposure to ongoing, sequential learning experiences. This chapter suggests ways in which teachers can achieve this in a way that is respectful of the needs and interests of the child.
The previous chapters have explored the teaching methodologies and concepts related to different forms of the Arts, as well as methodologies for integration and organisation. However, in addition to being able to teach the Arts, we need to have in place a system for evaluating the teaching process to ensure that the outcomes and goals we wish to achieve are met for the learners. There has been a great deal of research to identify specific teaching practices that can improve children’s outcomes. This chapter does not intend to analyse the validity or otherwise of these outcomes, as these are mandated by the various examination and education boards. In part, this is because it is difficult to isolate any specific technique or learning skill that works for individuals because all children have unique and individual learning styles. For these reasons, the focus of recent research has been to isolate general characteristics.
Teaching the Arts: Early Childhood and Primary Education foregrounds the importance of arts education to children's development and learning while connecting each arts area to the Australian Curriculum. The third edition provides comprehensive coverage and an exciting introduction to arts education in Australia, with updated content and new, interactive features. The book covers the key areas of dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts, full of teacher tips, spotlights on arts education, and downloadable lesson plans. This new edition includes interactive eBook content such as interactive questions and answers throughout each chapter, example videos of arts activities accompanying lesson plans and teacher tips, and weblinks to further content to support students in their learning This book is a vital resource for all pre-service early childhood and primary teachers, emphasising the fundamental nature of the arts in schools.