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Sleep is vital for health and wellbeing across the lifecourse. Ethnic differences have been observed with regards to the prevalence and predictors of self-reported sleep problems. An understanding of sleep experiences with ageing and across ethnicities is required to better support older people. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 23 people living in Aotearoa/New Zealand aged 61–92 years (12 Māori and 11 non-Māori) concerning current sleep status, changes over their lifecourse and personal strategies for supporting good sleep. Participants typically expressed satisfaction with current sleep (usually pertaining to duration) or feelings that sleep was compromised (usually pertaining to waking function). Comparisons to a socially perceived ‘ideal’ sleep were common, with sleep transitions presented as a gradual and accepted part of ageing. Participants resisted medicalising sleep disruptions in older age. While participants were aware of ways to enhance their sleep, many acknowledged engaging in practices that undermined it. Unique insights from some Māori participants indicated that sleep disruptions were not so readily pathologised compared to Western views and that sleeplessness could provide opportunity for cultural or spiritual connection. Common narratives underpinning the themes were: ‘You don't need as much sleep when you're older’, ‘Sleep just fits in’ and ‘Having the time of my life’. Findings provide personal experiences and cultural interpretations relating to sleep and ageing. This provides the foundation for future participatory research to co-design sleep health messages which are meaningful for ageing well across ethnicities.
Algorithmic bias arises in machine learning when models that may have reasonable overall accuracy are biased in favor of ‘good’ outcomes for one side of a sensitive category, for example gender or race. The bias will manifest as an underestimation of good outcomes for the under-represented minority. In a sense, we should not be surprised that a model might be biased when it has not been ‘asked’ not to be; reasonable accuracy can be achieved by ignoring the under-represented minority. A common strategy to address this issue is to include fairness as a component in the learning objective. In this paper, we consider including fairness as an additional criterion in model training and propose a multi-objective optimization strategy using Pareto Simulated Annealing that optimizes for both accuracy and underestimation bias. Our experiments show that this strategy can identify families of models with members representing different accuracy/fairness tradeoffs. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this strategy on two synthetic and two real-world datasets.
Although rationalization about one's own beliefs and actions can improve an individual's future decisions, beliefs can provide other benefits unrelated to their epistemic truth value, such as group cohesion and identity. A model of resource-rational cognition that accounts for these benefits may explain unexpected and seemingly irrational thought patterns, such as belief polarization.
Structured, empirically supported psychological interventions are lacking for patients who require organ transplantation. This stage IA psychotherapy development project developed and tested the feasibility, acceptability, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of an 8-week group cognitive behavioral stress management intervention adapted for patients with end-stage liver disease awaiting liver transplantation.
Twenty-nine English-speaking United Network for Organ Sharing–registered patients with end-stage liver disease from a single transplantation center enrolled in 8-week, group cognitive-behavioral liver stress management and relaxation training intervention adapted for patients with end-stage liver disease. Patients completed pre- and postintervention surveys that included the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Feasibility, acceptability, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy were assessed.
Attendance rate was 69.40%. The intervention was rated as “good” to “excellent” by 100% of participants who completed the postintervention survey in teaching them new skills to relax and to cope with stress, and by 94.12% of participants in helping them feel supported while waiting for a liver transplant. No adverse events were recorded over the course of treatment. Attrition was 13.79%. Anxious and depressive symptoms were not statistically different after the intervention.
Significance of results
The liver stress management and relaxation training intervention is feasible, acceptable, and tolerable to end-stage liver disease patients within a transplant clinic setting. Anxious and depressive symptoms remained stable postintervention. Randomized controlled trials are needed to study the intervention's effectiveness in this population.
People want to form impressions of others based on their moral behaviours, but the most diagnostic behaviours are rarely seen. Therefore, societies develop symbolic forms of moral behaviour such as conventional rituals and games, which are used to predict how others are likely to act in more serious moral situations. This framework helps explain why everyday behaviours are often moralized.
The eastern bettong Bettongia gaimardi, a potoroid marsupial, has been extinct on the Australian mainland since the 1920s. Sixty adult bettongs were reintroduced from the island of Tasmania to two predator-free fenced reserves on mainland Australia. We examined baseline health parameters (body weight, haematology and biochemistry, parasites and infectious disease exposure) in a subset of 30 (13 male, 17 female) individuals at translocation and again at 12–24 months post-reintroduction. The mean body weight increased significantly post-reintroduction but there were no significant differences in body weight between the two reintroduction sites or between the sexes in response to reintroduction. Differences were evident in multiple haematological and biochemical variables post-reintroduction but there were few differences between the two reintroduced populations or between the sexes in response to reintroduction. Ectoparasite assemblages differed, with five of 13 species failing to persist, and an additional four species were identified post-reintroduction. None of the bettongs had detectable antibodies to the alphaherpesviruses Macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2 post-reintroduction, including one individual that was seropositive at translocation. Similarly, the novel gammaherpesvirus potoroid herpesvirus 1 was not detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in any of the bettongs post-reintroduction, including one individual that was PCR-positive at translocation. None of the bettongs had detectable antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii either at translocation or post-reintroduction. Our data demonstrate changing baseline health parameters in eastern bettongs following reintroduction to the Australian mainland are suggestive of improved health in the reintroduced populations, and provide additional metrics for assessing the response of macropodoids to reintroduction.
While the field of emotions research has benefited from new developments in neuroscience, many theoretical questions remain unsolved. We propose that integrating our iterative reprocessing (IR) framework with the passive frame theory (PFT) may help unify competing theoretical perspectives of emotion. Specifically, we propose that PFT and the IR framework offer a point of origin for emotional experience.
The goals of empirical research in social psychology can be differentiated into three broad categories: demonstration, causation, and explanation. Research performed for the purpose of demonstration is conducted to establish empirically the existence of a phenomenon or relationship. The tripartite distinction between internal, external, and construct validity, provides the basis for organizing the discussion of validity issues. Construct validity refers to inferences made at both stages of research linking concepts to operations. The chapter uses the concept of demand characteristics to illustrate the difference between methodological confounds (which affect construct validity) and methodological artifacts. Construct validity represents one form of generalizing from the observed results of an empirical study to conclusions that go beyond the results themselves. The debate includes discussions of whether there are necessary trade-offs among the various aspects of validity or whether it is possible to demand that research maximize internal, external, and construct validity simultaneously.
White matter matures with age and is important for the efficient transmission of neuronal signals. Consequently, white matter growth may underlie the development of cognitive processes important for learning, including the speed of information processing. To dissect the relationship between white matter structure and information processing speed, we administered a reaction time task (finger abduction in response to visual cue) to 27 typically developing, right-handed children aged 4 to 13. Magnetoencephalography and Diffusion Tensor Imaging were used to delineate white matter connections implicated in visual-motor information processing. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) of the optic radiation in the left hemisphere, and FA and mean diffusivity (MD) of the optic radiation in the right hemisphere changed significantly with age. MD and RD decreased with age in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and bilaterally in the cortico-spinal tracts. No age-related changes were evident in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. FA of the cortico-spinal tract in the left hemisphere and MD of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus of the right hemisphere contributed uniquely beyond the effect of age in accounting for reaction time performance of the right hand. Our findings support the role of white matter maturation in the development of information processing speed. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–14)
As part of the Genes, Environment and Development Initiative, the Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research (MCTFR) undertook a genome-wide association study, which we describe here. A total of 8,405 research participants, clustered in four-member families, have been successfully genotyped on 527,829 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using Illumina's Human660W-Quad array. Quality control screening of samples and markers as well as SNP imputation procedures are described. We also describe methods for ancestry control and how the familial clustering of the MCTFR sample can be accounted for in the analysis using a Rapid Feasible Generalized Least Squares algorithm. The rich longitudinal MCTFR assessments provide numerous opportunities for collaboration.
Renowned economic historian and clergyman William Cunningham (1849–1919) published this work in 1896, which is considered a companion volume to his seminal Essay on Western Civilisation. Educated at Edinburgh, Cambridge and Tübingen, Cunningham wrote widely on theology and economics. He was a Cambridge lecturer and fellow at Trinity, Professor of Economics at King's College London, a teacher at Harvard, a founding fellow of the British Academy, and President of the Royal Historical Society. Favouring historical empiricism over deductive theory, his work, labelled neo-mercantilist, was against laissez-faire and favoured economic regulation, social religion, and conservative incremental change. This book outlines these views as part of an analysis of the basic units of economic life - exchange, possessions, money, credit, selling, price, labour, trade, profit, interest, rent, wages - and how these interact within capitalism. The work strongly influenced contemporary thought and remains relevant in the historiography of economics.