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The project aimed to validate a short questionnaire (CoCu pregnancy – Composition and Culture of Eating during pregnancy) and to investigate associations with age and socio-economic status (SES).
The questionnaire was developed according to the validated CoCu for children and adolescents containing a diet composition (fourteen items) and a culture of eating part (six items). A Nutritional Health Score (NHS) was calculated based on diet composition (–120 and +120, with higher scores indicating healthier diets). The validity was assessed by comparing answers in CoCu pregnancy with a FFQ. In a subsample (n 97), we assessed the percentage of having chosen the same (or adjacent) response categories in the 24th and 36th week of pregnancy (wp).
Data were collected within the LIFE Child study in Leipzig, Germany.
We evaluated 430 questionnaires of pregnant women (24th wp).
The results indicated a healthy diet in the present sample (NHS at 24th wp = 49·74 (95 % CI 47·27, 52·22)). The analyses revealed significant positive correlations between CoCu and FFQ (rho ranging from 0·32 to 0·61). For each food item, >90 % of women had chosen the same (50–60 %) or adjacent response categories in the 24th and 36th wp. The analysis revealed associations of the NHS with age (β = 0·11, P = 0·027), SES (β = 0·21, P < 0·001), snacking (β = –0·24, P < 0·001) and media use (β = –0·18, P < 0·001).
The questionnaire represents a useful tool for surveying the diets during pregnancy for research and clinical practice.
Recently several industrialized countries reported a stabilization or even a decrease in childhood overweight and obesity prevalence rates. In Germany, this trend started in 2004. The present study therefore aimed to evaluate whether this trend has continued or even leads in a clear direction.
BMI (>90th percentile (overweight), >97th percentile (obesity)) from the CrescNet database was analysed in 326 834 children and adolescents according to three age groups (4–7·99, 8–11·99 and 12–16 years), gender and between time points (2005–2015).
Trend analysis from 2005 to 2010 demonstrated that the prevalence of overweight and obesity decreased significantly in boys and girls in the entire group (4–16 years) and in 4–7·99-year-olds. From 2010 to 2015 there was a significant decrease in boys for overweight and obesity in the entire group and for overweight among 8–11·99-year-olds. Within the cross-sectional analysis, prevalence rates for overweight decreased significantly for both genders in the age groups of 4–7·99 and 8–11·99 years (2005 v. 2015). For obesity, prevalence rates showed a significant decrease for boys (2005 v. 2015) and girls (2005 v. 2010) in 4–7·99-year-olds.
We observed a further stabilization of overweight and obesity prevalence rates for all age groups and even a decrease in the rates for the younger ages (4–7·99 years, 8–11·99 years). As other industrialized countries have also reported similar trends, it seems that the epidemic of childhood overweight and obesity is reaching a turning point in the industrial part of the world.